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1. The nurse is assessing a clients psychosocial development in light of Freuds theory. The nurse would interpret the clients status as the outcome of conflict between what variables?
A) Cultural norms and personality traits
B) Biological desires and social expectations
C) Sexual desires and relational desires
D) Sociocultural norms and health needs
2. A client admits to the nurse that she feels guilty for not providing more direct care for her ill mother. According to Freud, the moral component of this clients feelings results from which of the following?
A) Defense mechanisms
B) The superego
C) The id
D) The ego
3. A school nurse who provides care in a middle school works exclusively with adolescents. According to Eriksons theory of psychosocial development, what task will underlie much of the students behavior?
A) Exerting influence over others
B) Evaluating the merits of their parents beliefs
C) Appraising religious dogma
D) Establishing a personal identity
4. An infant was removed from her home by social services because of the dangerous and neglectful conditions that existed. According to Erikson, failure of the infant to resolve the central crisis of infancy may lead to what personality characteristics later in life?
A) Suspicion and fear
B) Aggression and antagonism
C) Dependency and relational entanglement
D) Depression and introversion
5. The nurse is applying Piagets theory of development to a clients health history. This approach to analysis will prioritize what activity on the part of the client?
C) Indulging D) Desiring
6. The nurse is analyzing the data obtained from a client interview. When applying the principles of Kohlbergs theory of development, the nurse should prioritize data related to what domain?
A) The clients moral behavior
B) The clients relationships
C) The clients health
D) The clients sexual identity
7. The nurse is working with an older adult client and is attempting to determine whether the client deems her life to have been meaningful and valuable. As well, the nurse has addressed the clients acceptance of the inevitability of death. This nurses actions are best understood within the ideas of which theorist?
B) Erikson C) Piaget D) Kohlberg
8. The nurse is assessing a clients cultural identity and affiliation during the health interview. How best can the nurse elicit this information?
A) iWhat are your race and culture?i
B) iWould you describe yourself as American?i
C) iHow would you describe your cultural values?i
D) iWith which cultural group do you most closely identify?i
9. The nurse is conducting a health interview and is addressing the clients current stressors. What is the primary rationale for including stress as a focus of psychosocial assessment?
A) Stress provides the main impetus for psychosocial development and adaptation.
B) Psychosocial development cannot progress normally in the presence of stress.
C) Psychosocial stress has a major influence on health in many domains.
D) The results of the health interview are distorted when the client is experiencing stress.
10. The nurse is conducting a health interview and has asked the client, iHow would you describe yourself to others?i The clients response informs the nurses assessment of which of the following?
A) The clients morality and honesty
B) The clients aspirations
C) The clients self-concept
D) The clients superego
11. During the health interview of a new client, the nurse has explored the clients decision- making strategies. These data are most essential to the developmental theory of which theorist?
B) Kohlberg C) Piaget D) Erikson
12. The nurse is assessing an older adults psychosocial development with reference to Freuds theory of development. What observation by the nurse would most clearly suggest healthy development within this theoretical framework?
A) The client is able to describe challenges that he has overcome.
B) The client has eliminated conflictual relationships from his life.
C) The client is able to delegate care to others when necessary.
D) The client appears to have dealt effectively with recent losses.
13. The nurse is applying the principles of Freuds theory of psychosocial development during the health assessment of a young adult client. What assessment question is most likely to elicit data that are meaningful within this theoretical framework?
A) iDo you have a sufficient number of friends?i
B) iDo you have a satisfying sexual relationship?i
C) iHow do you feel about your cultural background?i
D) iDo you consider yourself to be a good person?i
14. The nurse is assessing a young adult client in light of Eriksons theory of psychosocial development. During this life stage, what assessment finding would most clearly suggest a lack of successful development?
A) The client is dissatisfied with her current job.
B) The client describes herself as lonely and isolated.
C) The client has been diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
D) The client had a child when she was in her late teens.
15. What action on the part of a middle-aged client would best exemplify Eriksons concept of generativity?
A) Being able to accurately evaluate the merits of others ideas
B) Emphasizing the importance of ones knowledge and skill set
C) Consistently increasing ones income
D) Guiding and mentoring individuals who are younger
16. The nurses interview with an older adult client reveals that he bitterly regrets some of the financial decisions that he made when he was younger. The nurse recognizes that unless the client is able to accept these undesirable aspects of life, what outcome is likely?
A) The client will adopt antisocial behaviors late in life.
B) The client will die prematurely.
C) The client will gradually abandon significant relationships.
D) The client will live with despair during his final years of life.
17. When appraising a young adults psychosocial development within the framework of Eriksons theory, what question should guide the nurses data collection and analysis?
A) Can the client successfully solve problems?
B) Has the client successfully achieved intimacy?
C) Has the client learned to trust others?
D) Can the client teach life skills to others?
18. What assessment finding would most clearly suggest to the nurse that a young adult client has failed to attain normal development within Piagets framework?
A) The client has difficulty understanding abstract reasoning in written form.
B) The client has a recent history of tumultuous interpersonal relationships.
C) The client is often defiant toward authority figures.
D) The client is unwilling to accept responsibilities in the workplace.
19. Assessment of an older adult client suggests that the client does not possess formal operational thinking. Within Piagets framework of development, what nursing diagnosis is the most likely consequence of this developmental deficit?
A) Spiritual distress
B) Ineffective health maintenance
C) Ineffective sexuality pattern
D) Risk for suicide
20. The nurse has identified abnormal findings when reviewing a young adult clients health history. Within Kohlbergs theory of psychosocial development, what behavioral characteristic is the nurse most likely to observe?
A) The client has difficulty trusting others.
B) The client is easily manipulated by others.
C) The client is unable to weigh options when presented with a dilemma.
D) The client makes decisions without considering the impact on others.
21. When applying Kohlbergs theory of moral development to the status of an older adult client, on what assessment finding would the nurse focus?
A) The relationship between the clients stated beliefs and his actions
B) The clients ability to discern the motivations of others
C) The clients adherence to rules, laws, and norms
D) The clients ability to tolerate differing views
22. During the health interview, a client demonstrates the ability to describe healthy and unhealthy aspects of her thinking patterns. The nurse would conclude that this client has attained which level of development within Piagets framework?
A) Circular operational
C) Concrete operational
D) Formal operational
23. Assessment reveals that a young adult has failed to achieve Eriksons central task of his current stage of development. What nursing diagnosis would the nurse associate most closely with this finding?
A) Risk for compromised human dignity
C) Ineffective sexuality pattern
D) Social isolation
24. The nurses assessment suggests that a 10-year-old has failed to achieve Eriksons central task of this stage of development. What nursing diagnosis should most likely be included in the childs plan of care?
A) Risk for injury
B) Chronic low self-esteem
D) Disturbed thought processes
25. What statement by a middle-aged adult would most clearly suggest successful achievement of Eriksons central task during this stage of development?
A) iIm doing a lot of volunteering in order to give back to the community.i
B) iIve started to exercise more regularly so that I dont put on extra weight.i
C) iI socialize with my coworkers a lot more than I did when I was younger.i
D) iOverall, my marriage is likely stronger than it was when we first got married.i
26. The nurse is assessing an adult clients self-image during the health history interview. What assessment question is most likely to elicit meaningful data?
A) iWhat are the activities that give you the most joy?i
B) iWhat would you describe as your main strengths and weaknesses?i
C) iDo you consider yourself to be a particularly religious person?i
D) iWhat actions are you taking to improve your life?i
27. The nurse is assessing an adult client for the presence of Piagets formal operations stage of development. What assessment question should the nurse ask the client?
A) iHow do you usually go about making difficult decisions?i
B) iDo you consider yourself to be an intelligent person?i
C) iHow would you describe your relationship with authority figures?i
D) iIn relationships, do you consider yourself to be a giver or a taker?i
28. The nurse has observed that a client adheres rigidly to the norms of her family and her culture. In the context of Freuds theory of development, this pattern of behavior is attributable to the action of what component of personality?
A) The id
B) The ego
C) The superego
D) The identity
29. A school nurse is working with kindergarten students. Within Kohlbergs framework of moral development, the nurse should recognize that these students moral reasoning is primarily motivated by which of the following?
A) An innate conscience
B) Fear of the negative consequences of individual actions
C) Motivation to exhibit behaviors that are culturally normalized
D) Adherence to basic moral beliefs
30. The school nurse has learned that a 14-year-old student is having social difficulties. According to Erikson, what is the most likely source of this childs stress?
A) The student is experiencing moral dilemmas.
B) The student is having difficulty creating an identity.
C) The student is experiencing a sexual crisis.
D) The student having difficulty understanding the viewpoints of others.
1. B 2. B 3. D 4. A 5. A 6. A 7. B 8. D 9. C
10. C 11. C 12. D 13. B 14. B 15. D 16. D 17. B 18. A 19. B 20. D 21. C 22. D 23. D 24. B 25. A 26. B 27. A 28. C 29. B 30. B
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