Health Care USA Understanding Its Organization and Delivery 8th Edition by Harry A. Sultz Test Bank

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Health Care USA Understanding Its Organization and Delivery 8th Edition by Harry A. Sultz Test Bank


Health Care USA Understanding Its Organization and Delivery 8th Edition by Harry A. Sultz Test Bank



Multiple Choice




  1. In its early origins in colonial America, the patient/physician relationship can be best characterized as:


  1. Interactive and supportive of patient involvement in treatment decisions
  2. Complicated in terms of the ways that patients paid for treatment
  3. Personal, confidential and simple with payments based on patients financial capacity
  4. Strict contracted arrangements between physicians and patients


Ans.: C

Page: 33




  1. As early as the 19th century some Americans carried health insurance through employers, fraternal orders, guilds, trade associations, unions or commercial insurance companies. However unlike health insurance of today, these insurance policies only provided for:


  1. Maternity care
  2. Fixed payments to compensate for lost wages due to injury, sickness or disability
  3. Job-related injuries
  4. Infectious diseases acquired in the workplace


Ans. B

Page: 34




  1. Blue Cross Hospital Insurance, the predominant form of health insurance for decades, was modeled after:


  1. Baylor University Hospitals school teachers plan
  2. trade union sickness insurance
  3. the industrial policies of Metropolitan and Prudential
  4. the American Hospital Association policies


Ans:  A

Page:  35




  1. The American Medical Associations initial reaction to Blue Cross hospital insurance plans suggested that the plans:


  1. Would strengthen the quality of hospital care
  2. Were unsound and unethical
  3. Should be available only to professional workers
  4. Would help boost physician income


Ans:  B

Page:  35




  1. The most significant social legislation passed by any Congress in the history of the United States was the:


  1. Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973
  2. Hill-Burton Act of 1946
  3. Social Security Act amendments creating Medicaid and Medicare
  4. Social Security Act of 1935


Ans: D

Page:  37




  1. The major health care advances of the second half of the 20th century were in the area of:


  1. imaging technology
  2. vaccines and antibiotics to prevent and control infectious diseases, tranquilizers, the birth control pill
  3. infertility management
  4. joint replacement technology


Ans:  B

Page:  42




  1. The explosion of science and technology in the 1970s resulted in which of the following?


  1. Encouragement for physicians specialization
  2. Higher costs of health care
  3. Medical school efforts to attract more students to primary care
  4. All of the above


Ans.: D

Page: 45




  1. The Oregon Death with Dignity Act was a response to which of the following?


  1. legal challenges to hospice care
  2. inadequate Medicaid resources to pay for terminal care
  3. public and professional concerns about painful and demeaning terminal medical care
  4. overcrowded hospital intensive care units


Ans:  C

Page:  53




  1. A central provision of the ACA to assure health care coverage for most Americans is:


  1. the individual mandate
  2. national prevention strategy
  3. the independent payment advisory board
  4. the small employers health insurance option


Ans.: A

Page: 56




  1. The Medicaid program has a history of very low reimbursement as compared with Medicare reimbursement; critics site low Medicaid reimbursement as a major reason that primary care doctors have rejected serving the Medicaid population. An ACA provision addresses this issue by:


  1. Rewarding primary care physicians with bonuses based on increased of numbers of Medicaid patients they serve in specific time periods
  2. Reimbursing states for primary care physician fees for Medicaid patients at no less than100% of Medicare payment rates
  3. Requiring Medicaid patients to pay higher co-pays and deductibles for each physician visit
  4. Requiring physicians to document their losses from Medicaid payment in relation to their costs in order to receive increased reimbursement for services to Medicaid patients


Ans: B

Page: 62






Multiple Choice




  1. Clinical research focuses primarily on:


  1. results of patients medical care in a specified time period
  2. steps in the process of medical care such as early detection, diagnosis, and treatment of disease or injury
  3. care for the chronically ill
  4. cost-effectiveness of experimental interventions



Ans.:  B

Page:  469




  1. The careers of all nurse practitioners who graduated in 2007 are being tracked to determine the appropriateness of their education to their subsequent work role. This is an example of:


  1. a case-control study
  2. an experimental study
  3. prevalence study
  4. a cohort study


Ans.:  D

Page:  470




  1. Research studies may be observational or experimental. The essential difference between experimental and observational studies is that in experimental investigations:


  1. The study and control groups are equal in size
  2. The investigator actively intervenes by manipulating one variable to determine what happens with the other variable
  3. Controls are used
  4. A retrospective approach is used to collect data


Ans.:  B

Pages: 470-471




  1. In conducting experimental studies, ethical issues may arise about:


  1. Exposing research subjects to unknown risks or withholding beneficial treatments from control groups
  2. Randomization in the selection of the research population
  3. Requirements for long-term participation
  4. Personal inconveniences of study participants


Ans.:  A

Page:  471




  1. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is a federal agency charged with:


  1. establishing Medicare payment policies
  2. updating diagnostic group definitions for Medicaid payment of clinical treatment
  3. improving outcomes and quality of health care services, reducing costs, improving patient safety and fostering effective services
  4. challenging interest groups definitions quality care


Ans.:  C

Page: 474




  1. In evaluating the quality of health care, explicit standards differ from implicit standards in that:


  1. explicit standards are developed and agreed upon in advance of the assessment to minimize variation and bias
  2. explicit standards represent physician reviewers perceptions of current state-of-the-art medical practice
  3. explicit standards rely upon personal and professional judgments of the reviewers
  4. explicit standards are prescribed by regulatory agencies


Ans.:  A

Page: 477




  1. Empirical standards for assessing the quality of health care practices rely upon:


  1. prior experimental studies of the population of interest
  2. observational results of studies of the population of interest
  3. distributions, averages, ranges and other data of variability measures and information collected from similar health services providers to compare practices to a norm
  4. comparing regulatory agency findings and reports


Ans.:  C

Page:  477-478




  1. In contrast to traditional, randomized controlled studies, outcomes research evaluates results of health care processes by:


  1. focusing studies on the real world of physician offices, hospitals, clinics and homes and includes patients functional status
  2. relying principally on analyses of patients lab results and diagnostic measures to determine functional status
  3. compiling anecdotal reports from the patients primary providers
  4. using insurance companies claims data


Ans.:  A

Page 481




  1. A goal of comparative effectiveness research is to:


  1. Enhance health care treatment by developing and disseminating evidence on the effectiveness, benefits, and harms of different treatment options
  2. Accurately rank treatment options by their costs
  3. Determine whether a particular treatment will be more beneficial than no treatment at all
  4. Reduce the number of medical errors


Ans.: A

Page: 482




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