Health & Physical Assessment In Nursing 3rd Edition by Donita T D mico , Colleen Barbarito Test Bank

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Health & Physical Assessment In Nursing 3rd Edition by Donita T D mico , Colleen Barbarito Test Bank

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DAmico/Barbarito Health & Physical Assessment in Nursing, 3/e
Chapter 15

Question 1
Type: MCMA
The nurse is assessing a client who is 34 weeks pregnant. Which visual changes are usually normal in this stage in pregnancy and should disappear at some point after delivery?
Standard Text: Select all that apply.
1. The client is complaining that her eyes feel very dry.
2. She states that she is experiencing blurry vision.
3. Periorbital edema is noted.
4. Cataracts are noted.
5. She has been unable to wear her contact lenses.
Correct Answer: 1, 2, 5
Rationale 1: The pregnant client may complain of dry eyes. This symptom is usually not significant and disappears after childbirth.
Rationale 2: The pregnant client may describe visual changes such as blurry vision due to shifting fluid within the eye. Blurriness or distorted vision can occur because of temporary changes in the shape of the eye during the last trimester of pregnancy.
Rationale 3: Eyelid edema is not a common problem associated with pregnancy. Periorbital edema may signal an underlying problem.
Rationale 4: Cataracts are not commonly associated with pregnancy.
Rationale 5: Pregnant women often discontinue wearing their contact lenses during their pregnancy as a result of fit and comfort.
Global Rationale: The pregnant client may complain of dry eyes. This symptom is usually not significant and disappears after childbirth. The pregnant client may describe visual changes such as blurry vision due to shifting fluid within the eye. Blurriness or distorted vision can occur because of temporary changes in the shape of the eye during the last trimester of pregnancy. Pregnant women often discontinue wearing their contact lenses during their pregnancy as a result of fit and comfort. Eyelid edema is not a common problem associated with pregnancy. Periorbital edema may signal an underlying problem. Cataracts are not commonly associated with pregnancy.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
Learning Outcome: 15.1: Describe the anatomy and physiology of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.1. Correlate the anatomy and physiology to the landmarks that direct physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 295

Question 2
Type: MCSA
The nurse notes that a client is unable to control the amount of light that enters the eye. The dysfunction of which structure is the most likely cause of this problem?
1. Cornea.
2. Sclera.
3. Conjunctiva.
4. Iris.
Correct Answer: 4
Rationale 1: The cornea is the window of the eye. It is the clear, transparent part of the sclera and forms the anterior one sixth of the eye.
Rationale 2: The sclera supports and protects the structures of the eye.
Rationale 3: The conjunctiva protects the eye and produces a lubricating fluid that prevents the eye from becoming too dry.
Rationale 4: The iris responds to the light coming through the cornea by making the pupil larger or smaller, thereby controlling the amount of light that enters the eye.
Global Rationale: The iris responds to the light coming through the cornea by making the pupil larger or smaller, thereby controlling the amount of light that enters the eye. The cornea is the window of the eye. It is the clear, transparent part of the sclera and forms the anterior one sixth of the eye. The sclera supports and protects the structures of the eye. The conjunctiva protects the eye and produces a lubricating fluid that prevents the eye from becoming too dry.
Cognitive Level: Remembering
Client Need: Physiological Integrity
Client Need Sub: Physiological Adaptation
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.1: Describe the anatomy and physiology of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.1. Correlate the anatomy and physiology to the landmarks that direct physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 290

Question 3
Type: MCMA
The nurse is examining the eye. The client asks about the specific structures within the eye that are responsible for refraction of light rays. Which structures are involved in this process?
Standard Text: Select all that apply.
1. Lens.
2. Macula.
3. Cornea.
4. Iris.
5. Optic disc.
Correct Answer: 1, 3
Rationale 1: The lens is located directly behind the pupil and is used to refract light through the eye.
Rationale 2: The macula is located within the retina and does not assist with light refraction.
Rationale 3: The cornea is a transparent part of the eye and located anteriorly. It allows light to enter the eye and assists with refraction.
Rationale 4: The iris controls the amount of light that enters the eye, but is not associated with refraction.
Rationale 5: The optic disc is where the optic nerve and retina meet. It is where the vascular network enters the eye. This structure is not associated with refraction.
Global Rationale: The lens is located directly behind the pupil and is used to refract light through the eye. The cornea is a transparent part of the eye and located anteriorly. It allows light to enter the eye and assists with refraction. The macula is located within the retina and does not assist with light refraction. The iris controls the amount of light that enters the eye, but is not associated with refraction. The optic disc is where the optic nerve and retina meet. It is where the vascular network enters the eye. This structure is not associated with refraction.
Cognitive Level: Understanding
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.1: Describe the anatomy and physiology of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.1. Correlate the anatomy and physiology to the landmarks that direct physical assessment.
Page Number: pp. 290291

Question 4
Type: MCSA
The nurse taught the client how to self-administer eye drops and the client was performing a return demonstration. During this time, the client inadvertently touched the applicator to their cornea, which caused the client to blink and produce tears. How will the nurse document this occurrence?
1. Abnormal and should be reported to the healthcare provider.
2. Hyperactive.
3. A medication side effect.
4. A normal response.
Correct Answer: 4
Rationale 1: When the cornea is touched, the eyelids blink and tears are produced. The cornea contains many nerve endings and this action would produce a painful sensation for the client. This is not an abnormal response.
Rationale 2: This would not be noted as a hyperactive response.
Rationale 3: This is not due to a medication side effect.
Rationale 4: This is a normal response because the cornea is very sensitive.
Global Rationale: This is a normal response because the cornea is very sensitive. When the cornea is touched, the eyelids blink and tears are produced. The cornea contains many nerve endings and this action would produce a painful sensation for the client. This is not an abnormal response. This would not be noted as a hyperactive response. This is not due to a medication side effect.
Cognitive Level: Understanding
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.1: Describe the anatomy and physiology of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.1. Correlate the anatomy and physiology to the landmarks that direct physical assessment.
Page Number: pp. 290292

Question 5
Type: MCHS
The client requests information about where visual information is processed within the brain. When teaching the client about this process, which portion of the brain will the nurse point out?

1. A.
2. B.
3. C.
4. D.
Correct Answer: 4
Rationale: Optic tracts encircle the brain and the impulses are transmitted to the occipital lobe of the brain for interpretation.
Global Rationale: Optic tracts encircle the brain and the impulses are transmitted to the occipital lobe of the brain for interpretation.
Cognitive Level: Remembering
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.1: Describe the anatomy and physiology of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.1. Correlate the anatomy and physiology to the landmarks that direct physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 292

Question 6
Type: MCMA
The nurse is assessing the adult clients eyes during a comprehensive health assessment. Which pieces of information should the nurse also gather during the assessment process?
Standard Text: Select all that apply.
1. The clients birth weight.
2. The clients parents were born in Spain.
3. The clients annual income is below the poverty level.
4. The client is a welder.
5. The client recently attempted to commit suicide after his wife died in an automobile accident.
Correct Answer: 2, 3, 4, 5
Rationale 1: During a comprehensive health assessment, it is not necessary to obtain the clients birth weight for an adult client. This information would only be appropriate for a pediatric client.
Rationale 2: During a comprehensive health assessment, it is important to gather information about the clients ethnicity and race. Ethnicity may influence how a client performs self-care activities. Hispanics have higher rates of visual impairments than other races.
Rationale 3: During a comprehensive health assessment, it is important to gather information about the clients socioeconomic status. This may affect how often the client will visit a health care provider for his health care needs and routine screening activities.
Rationale 4: During a comprehensive health assessment, it is important to gather information about the clients occupation. People who work in some settings are more likely to experience eye injuries.
Rationale 5: During a comprehensive health assessment, it is important to gather information about the clients emotional well-being.
Global Rationale: During a comprehensive health assessment, it is important to gather information about the clients ethnicity and race. Ethnicity may influence how a client performs self-care activities. Hispanics have higher rates of visual impairments than other races. It is important to gather information about the clients socioeconomic status. This may affect how often the client will visit a health care provider for his health care needs and routine screening activities. It is important to gather information about the clients occupation. People who work in some settings are more likely to experience eye injuries. It is important to gather information about the clients emotional well-being. The clients birth weight is not applicable unless the nurse is caring for a pediatric client.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: I.B.1. Elicit patient values, preferences, and expressed needs as part of clinical interview, implementation of care plan, and evaluation of care.
AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.7: Describe developmental, psychosocial, cultural, and environmental variations in assessment techniques and findings of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: pp. 296302

Question 7
Type: MCSA
The nurse is interviewing the mother of a three-week-old Caucasian infant. Which statement by the mother indicates she requires further education about her newborns eyes?
1. Its normal for my baby not to produce tears when she cries.
2. At this stage, my baby should be able to fixate on a bright light or something that moves.
3. My babys eyes are blue and definitely will stay blue.
4. It was normal for my babys eyes to be swollen after birth.
Correct Answer: 3
Rationale 1: At this stage, the baby may not be able to produce tears. By the fourth week, the baby will begin to produce tears.
Rationale 2: At six weeks, the baby will begin to develop binocular vision. At this stage, the baby will fixate on a bright light or a moving object.
Rationale 3: Light-skinned infants are born with blue eyes. By about the third month of age, the color of the eyes begins to change to a more permanent shade.
Rationale 4: At birth, many infants have edematous eyelids.
Global Rationale: At this stage, the baby may not be able to produce tears. By the fourth week, the baby will begin to produce tears. At six weeks, the baby will begin to develop binocular vision. At this stage, the baby will fixate on a bright light or a moving object. Light-skinned infants are born with blue eyes. By about the third month of age, the color of the eyes begins to change to a more permanent shade. Before six weeks of age, infants will fixate on a bright or moving object. At birth, many infants have edematous eyelids.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: I.B.1. Elicit patient values, preferences, and expressed needs as part of clinical interview, implementation of care plan, and evaluation of care.
AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.7: Describe developmental, psychosocial, cultural, and environmental variations in assessment techniques and findings of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: pp. 294295

Question 8
Type: MCSA
The nurse is assessing the eyes of an older adult client. Which finding is expected by the nurse based on the clients age?
1. The client is easily able to read from a paper held at close range without corrective glasses.
2. There is a noticeable increase in fat within the orbit of the eye.
3. The client states that she feels her tear production has increased over the years.
4. The pupillary light reflex is slower bilaterally.
Correct Answer: 4
Rationale 1: The lens of the older clients eye is less elastic and the clients ciliary muscles will become weaker. This results in a decreased ability to focus on objects that are held at close range.
Rationale 2: There is a decrease in the amount of fat in the orbit of the eye, which produces a drooping appearance of the eye.
Rationale 3: Older adults experience a decrease in lacrimal secretions.
Rationale 4: The pupillary light reflex slows with age.
Global Rationale: The pupillary light reflex slows with age. The lens of the older clients eye is less elastic and the clients ciliary muscles will become weaker. This results in a decreased ability to focus on objects that are held at close range. There is a decrease in the amount of fat in the orbit of the eye, which produces a drooping appearance of the eye. Older adults experience a decrease in lacrimal secretions.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: I.B.1. Elicit patient values, preferences, and expressed needs as part of clinical interview, implementation of care plan, and evaluation of care.
AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.7: Describe developmental, psychosocial, cultural, and environmental variations in assessment techniques and findings of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 295

Question 9
Type: MCSA
The nurse is performing a visual examination on a client due to the clients complaints of black dots appearing in the visual field. Which statement by the nurse is most appropriate in this situation?
1. The black dots are known as floaters and are usually normal.
2. We need to refer you to an eye surgeon immediately.
3. You may have glaucoma.
4. You may have a cataract.
Correct Answer: 1
Rationale 1: Black dots or spots are known as floaters. Floaters are considered normal unless they obstruct vision, so they should not be immediately referred to a healthcare provider.
Rationale 2: Floaters are considered normal unless they obstruct vision, so they should not be immediately referred to a healthcare provider.
Rationale 3: Halos around lights are associated with glaucoma.
Rationale 4: Floaters are not seen with cataracts.
Global Rationale: Black dots or spots are known as floaters. Floaters are considered normal unless they obstruct vision, so they should not be immediately referred to a healthcare provider. Halos around lights are associated with glaucoma. Floaters are not seen with cataracts.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.5. Explain the role of evidence in determining best clinical practice.
AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.2: Develop questions to be used when completing the focused interview.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.2. Plan questions to consider when the nurse performs a focused interview during physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 299

Question 10
Type: MCSA
The nurse is conducting a focused interview with an eye assessment. Which information obtained during the focused interview is the most helpful to the nurse regarding the assessment of the clients eyes?
1. The client graduated from college.
2. The client interacts easily with the nurse.
3. The client is an African American male.
4. The client is 23 years old.
Correct Answer: 2
Rationale 1: It is important to determine the clients educational level.
Rationale 2: The clients ability to communicate is most essential to the interview. The nurse must determine how well the client will be able to participate in the focused interview and follow directions during the physical assessment.
Rationale 3: It is important to assess the clients race because this may influence what types of eye conditions the client is at risk for developing.
Rationale 4: The clients age is important to assess because anatomical and physiologic changes can occur in the eye across the lifespan.
Global Rationale: The clients ability to communicate is most essential to the interview. The nurse must determine how well the client will be able to participate in the focused interview and follow directions during the physical assessment. It is important to determine the clients educational level. It is important to assess the clients race because this may influence what types of eye conditions the client is at risk for developing. The clients age is important to assess because anatomical and physiologic changes can occur in the eye across the lifespan.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.5. Explain the role of evidence in determining best clinical practice.
AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.2: Develop questions to be used when completing the focused interview.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.2. Plan questions to consider when the nurse performs a focused interview during physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 296

Question 11
Type: MCSA
A client is referred to the clinic with complaints of blurred vision. Which initial question to the client is the priority?
1. Would you please tell me about your vision today?
2. Do you experience double vision?
3. Have you had any eye pain?
4. What kinds of activities do you perform at work?
Correct Answer: 1
Rationale 1: The best way to start the focused interview is to begin with open-ended questions that provide the client with an opportunity to describe his own perceptions about his vision.
Rationale 2: Information about double vision is important, but not the best way to start the interview.
Rationale 3: Information about eye pain is important, but not the best way to start the interview.
Rationale 4: Information about work activities is important, but not the best way to start the interview.
Global Rationale: The best way to start the focused interview is to begin with open-ended questions that provide the client with an opportunity to describe his own perceptions about his vision. All of the other questions are appropriate to ask at some point during the focused interview but are not the best way to start the interview. It is important to determine if the client has experienced double vision. Double vision can be caused by muscle or nerve problems and some types of medications. It is important to determine if the client is experiencing eye pain because it can be associated with glaucoma or other eye problems. It is important to determine the clients occupation because some types of occupations put the client at risk for eye injury or eyestrain.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.5. Explain the role of evidence in determining best clinical practice.
AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.2: Develop questions to be used when completing the focused interview.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.2. Plan questions to consider when the nurse performs a focused interview during physical assessment.
Page Number: pp. 296302

Question 12
Type: MCSA
During an eye assessment, a young adult client reports difficulty seeing items within close range. This assessment data is consistent with which item?
1. Aging.
2. Presbyopia.
3. Hyperopia.
4. Astigmatism.
Correct Answer: 3
Rationale 1: Aging can produce changes in the eye but this client is 24 years old.
Rationale 2: Presbyopia is an age-related condition. The lens loses its ability to accommodate viewing items at close range.
Rationale 3: Younger clients who are unable to see items well at close range have a condition called hyperopia. This condition is also referred to as farsightedness.
Rationale 4: Astigmatism occurs when light is refracted over a wide area rather than on a distinct area of the retina.
Global Rationale: Younger clients who are unable to see items well at close range have a condition called hyperopia. This condition is also referred to as farsightedness. Aging can produce changes in the eye but this client is 24 years old. Presbyopia is an age-related condition. The lens loses its ability to accommodate viewing items at close range. Astigmatism occurs when light is refracted over a wide area rather than on a distinct area of the retina.
Cognitive Level: Understanding
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.5. Explain the role of evidence in determining best clinical practice.
AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
Learning Outcome: 15.3: Outline the techniques used for assessment of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 306

Question 13
Type: MCSA
The nurse notices that a clients pupils constrict when reading the consent form for medical treatment. Based on this data, which should the nurse consider as the cause?
1. The room is too dark.
2. The client is able to read.
3. This is a normal response.
4. The client requires glasses for reading.
Correct Answer: 3
Rationale 1: When a room is dark, the clients pupils should dilate in response.
Rationale 2: Pupil constriction occurs as the client focuses on the paper. It does not indicate the client can read.
Rationale 3: This is a normal finding. The clients pupils should constrict in response to trying to read what is on the paper.
Rationale 4: Pupil constriction would not lead the nurse to believe the client needs reading glasses.
Global Rationale: The clients pupils should constrict in response to trying to read what is on the paper. This is a normal finding. When a room is dark, the clients pupils should dilate in response. Pupil constriction occurs as the client focuses on the paper. It does not indicate the client can read. Pupil constriction would not lead the nurse to believe the client needs reading glasses.
Cognitive Level: Understanding
Client Need: Physiological Integrity
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.5. Explain the role of evidence in determining best clinical practice.
AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.3: Outline the techniques used for assessment of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 290

Question 14
Type: MCMA
During an eye examination, the nurse requests that the client read letters located on the Snellen E chart. The clients vision is determined to be 20/200. Which statements regarding this clients vision are accurate?
Standard Text: Select all that apply.
1. The client is legally blind.
2. The client is unable to read from a paper at close range.
3. The client is found to be farsighted.
4. The client is myopic.
5. This is common in clients who are over 45 years old.
Correct Answer: 1, 4
Rationale 1: When a clients vision is found to be 20/200, the client is legally blind.
Rationale 2: The Snellen E chart assists with determining if the client is able to see items in the distance.
Rationale 3: Clients who are farsighted are able to see things in the distance. This client is unable to see distant objects.
Rationale 4: Clients who are myopic are unable to see objects in the distance.
Rationale 5: Presbyopia is the inability to see items at close range. This condition is more common in people who are over 45 years old.
Global Rationale: When a clients vision is found to be 20/200, the client is legally blind. Clients who are myopic are unable to see objects in the distance. Presbyopia is the inability to see items at close range. The Snellen E chart assists with determining if the client is able to see items in the distance. Clients who are farsighted are able to see things in the distance. This client is unable to see distant objects. This condition is more common in people who are over 45 years old.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.5. Explain the role of evidence in determining best clinical practice.
AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
Learning Outcome: 15.3: Outline the techniques used for assessment of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 306

Question 15
Type: MCMA
The nurse is assessing a clients visual fields by confrontation. Which actions by the nurse indicate appropriate practice?
Standard Text: Select all that apply.
1. The nurse asks the client to cover one of her eyes with a card.
2. The nurse uses a penlight to assist with performing the test.
3. The nurse asks the client to sit 20 feet away.
4. The client tells the nurse when she first sees the object.
5. The nurse asks the client to stand 4 feet away.
Correct Answer: 1, 2, 4
Rationale 1: Confrontation to test visual fields is done by asking the client to cover one eye with a card while the nurse covers the eye opposite to the client.
Rationale 2: The nurse and client sit 23 feet away from each other, at eye level. An object such as a pen or penlight is advanced from the periphery to the midline. Both the client and the nurse should be able to see the object at the same time.
Rationale 3: The nurse and client should sit only 23 feet away from each other.
Rationale 4: The client should tell the nurse when she first sees the object in her peripheral vision.
Rationale 5: The nurse and client should sit only 23 feet away from each other.
Global Rationale: Confrontation to test visual fields is done by asking the client to cover one eye with a card while the nurse covers the eye opposite to the client. The nurse and client sit 23 feet away from each other, at eye level. An object such as a pen or penlight is advanced from the periphery to the midline. Both the client and the nurse should be able to see the object at the same time. The client should tell the nurse when she first sees the object in her peripheral vision.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.5. Explain the role of evidence in determining best clinical practice.
AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation
Learning Outcome: 15.3: Outline the techniques used for assessment of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 307

Question 16
Type: HOTSPOT
The nurse is assessing the clients corneal reflex. Which is the correct location for assessing the presence of this reflex?

1. A.
2. B.
3. C.
4. D.
Correct Answer: 4
Rationale: The nurse should use a lateral approach and gently touch the clients cornea on the outer aspect.
Global Rationale: The nurse should use a lateral approach and gently touch the clients cornea on the outer aspect.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.5. Explain the role of evidence in determining best clinical practice.
AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.3: Outline the techniques used for assessment of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 309

Question 17
Type: MCSA
The nurse is assessing the clients eye with an ophthalmoscope. The nurse is preparing to focus on the fundus and rotates the lens diopter wheel into the negative numbers. Based on this information, which condition does the client most likely have?
1. Hyperopia.
2. Presbyopia.
3. Myopia.
4. Astigmatism.
Correct Answer: 3
Rationale 1: The diopter is rotated toward the positive numbers when the client is hyperopic.
Rationale 2: For presbyopia the diopter wheel is rotated until the fundus can be visualized adequately.
Rationale 3: The diopter wheel is rotated into the negative numbers when the client is myopic.
Rationale 4: For astigmatism the diopter wheel is rotated until the fundus can be visualized adequately.
Global Rationale: The diopter is rotated to help the nurse focus on the clients fundus. The diopter is rotated toward the positive numbers when the client is hyperopic, and rotated into the negative numbers when the client is myopic. For any other condition, such as presbyopia or astigmatism, the diopter wheel is rotated until the fundus can be visualized adequately.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.5: Explain the use of the ophthalmoscope.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 323

Question 18
Type: HOTSPOT
The nurse is assessing the clients retina. Where is the optic disc located?

1. A.
2. B.
3. C.
4. D.
Correct Answer: 3
Rationale 1: The optic disc can be identified by following the path of the blood vessels. As they grow larger, they lead to the optic disc which is located on the nasal side of the retina. The optic disc normally looks like a round or oval yellow-orange depression with a distinct margin. This is the site where the optic nerve and blood vessels exit from the eye.
Rationale 2: The optic disc can be identified by following the path of the blood vessels. As they grow larger, they lead to the optic disc which is located on the nasal side of the retina. The optic disc normally looks like a round or oval yellow-orange depression with a distinct margin. This is the site where the optic nerve and blood vessels exit from the eye.
Rationale 3: The optic disc can be identified by following the path of the blood vessels. As they grow larger, they lead to the optic disc which is located on the nasal side of the retina. The optic disc normally looks like a round or oval yellow-orange depression with a distinct margin. This is the site where the optic nerve and blood vessels exit from the eye.
Rationale 4: The optic disc can be identified by following the path of the blood vessels. As they grow larger, they lead to the optic disc which is located on the nasal side of the retina. The optic disc normally looks like a round or oval yellow-orange depression with a distinct margin. This is the site where the optic nerve and blood vessels exit from the eye.
Global Rationale: The optic disc can be identified by following the path of the blood vessels. As they grow larger, they lead to the optic disc which is located on the nasal side of the retina. The optic disc normally looks like a round or oval yellow-orange depression with a distinct margin. This is the site where the optic nerve and blood vessels exit from the eye.
Cognitive Level: Remembering
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.5: Explain the use of the ophthalmoscope.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: 314

Question 19
Type: MCSA
The nurse is assessing the fundus of the older adult clients eye with an ophthalmoscope. The nurse determines that there is a cyst within the macula. Which client symptom does the nurse anticipate?
1. Impaired central vision.
2. Impaired peripheral vision.
3. Consistently elevated serum glucose levels.
4. Uncontrolled hypertension.
Correct Answer: 1
Rationale 1: Degeneration of the macula can be related to cysts located in this area. It is more common in older adults and results in impaired central vision.
Rationale 2: Impaired peripheral vision can be related to problems with the rods that are located in the retina.
Rationale 3: Elevated serum glucose levels may be associated with diabetic retinopathy.
Rationale 4: Uncontrolled hypertension can be associated with hypertensive retinopathy.
Global Rationale: Degeneration of the macula can be related to cysts located in this area. It is more common in older adults and results in impaired central vision. Impaired peripheral vision can be related to problems with the rods that are located in the retina. Elevated serum glucose levels may be associated with diabetic retinopathy. Uncontrolled hypertension can be associated with hypertensive retinopathy.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Physiological Integrity
Client Need Sub: Physiological Adaptation
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
Learning Outcome: 15.5: Explain the use of the ophthalmoscope.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 314

Question 20
Type: MCSA
The nurse is educating a student on the proper use of an ophthalmoscope for an eye examination. Which statement by the nurse to the student is accurate?
1. Im going to examine the clients right eye with my left eye.
2. Im going to advance the ophthalmoscope until the instrument touches the clients cornea.
3. Im going to begin with the lens set to the 0 diopter.
4. I can see the red reflex as the light reflects off of the clients lens.
Correct Answer: 3
Rationale 1: The nurse should prepare to assess the clients eye with an ophthalmoscope by examining the clients right eye with the nurses right eye.
Rationale 2: The nurse should advance the ophthalmoscope only until it almost touches the clients eyelashes. The cornea contains many nerve endings and this would be painful for the client.
Rationale 3: The nurse should always begin with the lens set to the 0 diopter.
Rationale 4: The red reflex is seen as light reflects off of the clients retina, not his lens.
Global Rationale: The nurse should always begin with the lens set to the 0 diopter. The nurse should prepare to assess the clients eye with an ophthalmoscope by examining the clients right eye with the nurses right eye. The nurse should advance the ophthalmoscope only until it almost touches the clients eyelashes. The cornea contains many nerve endings and this would be painful for the client. The red reflex is seen as light reflects off of the clients retina, not his lens.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.5: Explain the use of the ophthalmoscope.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 312

Question 21
Type: MCSA
The nurse is assessing a clients eyes during a comprehensive health assessment. Which assessment finding would require immediate intervention?
1. Acute glaucoma.
2. Blepharitis.
3. Periorbital edema.
4. Anisocoria.
Correct Answer: 1
Rationale 1: Acute glaucoma results from a sudden increase in intraocular pressure caused by a blockage in fluid flow around the anterior chamber. Acute glaucoma requires immediate interventions to prevent further eye damage.
Rationale 2: Blepharitis is when the eyelid becomes inflamed. The eye burns, itches, and tears but does not require an immediate intervention.
Rationale 3: Periorbital edema is when the eyelid becomes puffy and swollen. It can be related to crying, infection, or systemic problems. It does not require an immediate intervention.
Rationale 4: Anisocoria refers to unequal pupil size, which may be a normal finding or it may indicate that the client has a central nervous system disease.
Global Rationale: Acute glaucoma results from a sudden increase in intraocular pressure caused by a blockage in fluid flow around the anterior chamber. Acute glaucoma requires immediate interventions to prevent further eye damage. Blepharitis is when the eyelid becomes inflamed. The eye burns, itches, and tears but does not require an immediate intervention. Periorbital edema is when the eyelid becomes puffy and swollen. It can be related to crying, infection, or systemic problems. It does not require an immediate intervention. Anisocoria refers to unequal pupil size, which may be a normal finding or it may indicate that the client has a central nervous system disease.
Cognitive Level: Understanding
Client Need: Physiological Integrity
Client Need Sub: Physiological Adaptation
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.6: Differentiate normal from abnormal findings in physical assessment of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.2.1. Differentiate normal and abnormal variations in the body system observed during physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 319

Question 22
Type: MCSA
The nurse is performing the cover test and notes inward turning of the clients eye. Which term will the nurse use to document this finding?
1. Exophoria.
2. Strabismus.
3. Esophoria.
4. Mydriasis.
Correct Answer: 3
Rationale 1: Exophoria is when the eye turns outward during the cover test.
Rationale 2: Strabismus is when the axes of the eye cannot be directed at the same object.
Rationale 3: Esophoria is when the eye turns inward during the cover test.
Rationale 4: Mydriasis refers to fixed and dilated pupils.
Global Rationale: Esophoria is when the eye turns inward during the cover test. Exophoria is when the eye turns outward during the cover test. Strabismus is when the axes of the eye cannot be directed at the same object. Mydriasis refers to fixed and dilated pupils.
Cognitive Level: Understanding
Client Need: Physiological Integrity
Client Need Sub: Physiological Adaptation
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
Learning Outcome: 15.6: Differentiate normal from abnormal findings in physical assessment of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.2.1. Differentiate normal and abnormal variations in the body system observed during physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 325

Question 23
Type: MCSA
After a comprehensive eye examination, it is determined that the client requires corrective lenses for myopia. Which explanation by the nurse to the client is the most appropriate?
1. Your glasses will help you to see objects in the distance.
2. Your glasses will help you to see objects that are very close to you.
3. Your glasses will help you to improve your eyes ability to focus and reduce your blurred vision.
4. Your age has made it more difficult to read items that are at close range. Your new glasses will help.
Correct Answer: 1
Rationale 1: Myopia is the inability to see objects in the distance.
Rationale 2: Hyperopia is the inability to see objects at close range.
Rationale 3: Astigmatism causes blurred or double vision when the eyes attempt to focus.
Rationale 4: Presbyopia causes the client to experience difficulty focusing on items that are at close range. Presbyopia affects people who are over 45 years old.
Global Rationale: Myopia is the inability to see objects in the distance. Hyperopia is the inability to see objects at close range. Astigmatism causes blurred or double vision when the eyes attempt to focus. Presbyopia causes the client to experience difficulty focusing on items that are at close range. Presbyopia affects people who are over 45 years old.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Implementation
Learning Outcome: 15.6: Differentiate normal from abnormal findings in physical assessment of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.2.1. Differentiate normal and abnormal variations in the body system observed during physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 291

Question 24
Type: MCSA
The nurse is assessing the clients pupillary responses. The client is found to have no consensual response. Which conclusion by the nurse is the most appropriate?
1. Cranial nerve III may not be functioning appropriately.
2. This is a normal finding.
3. This is evidence of increased intracranial pressure.
4. This is evidence of optic nerve damage.
Correct Answer: 1
Rationale 1: When evaluating pupillary response, the unilluminated, or consensual, pupil should also constrict. When this does not occur, it may be indicative of problems associated with cranial nerve III.
Rationale 2: This is not a normal finding.
Rationale 3: Increased intracranial pressure is associated with pupils that are unequal and irregularly shaped.
Rationale 4: This is not evidence that optic nerve damage has occurred. Optic nerve damage can produce changes in the clients visual fields.
Global Rationale: When evaluating pupillary response, the unilluminated, or consensual, pupil should also constrict. When this does not occur, it may be indicative of problems associated with cranial nerve III. This is not a normal finding. Increased intracranial pressure is associated with pupils that are unequal and irregularly shaped. This is not evidence that optic nerve damage has occurred. Optic nerve damage can produce changes in the clients visual fields.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Physiological Integrity
Client Need Sub: Physiological Adaptation
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Evaluation
Learning Outcome: 15.6: Differentiate normal from abnormal findings in physical assessment of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.2.1. Differentiate normal and abnormal variations in the body system observed during physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 311

Question 25
Type: MCSA
During the assessment of a clients eyes, the nurse suspects the client has entropion. Which assessment data caused the nurse to come to this conclusion?
1. Eversion of the lower eyelid.
2. Inversion of the lid and eyelashes.
3. Swollen, red hair follicles.
4. Firm, non-tender nodule on the eyelid.
Correct Answer: 2
Rationale 1: Ectropion is eversion of the lower eyelid caused by muscle weakness.
Rationale 2: Entropion is inversion of the lid and lashes caused by a muscle spasm of the eyelid.
Rationale 3: A stye causes swelling and redness in the affected eye. A stye is a result of a staphylococcal infection of hair follicles on the margin of the lids.
Rationale 4: A chalazion is a firm, non-tender nodule on the eyelid.
Global Rationale: Entropion is inversion of the lid and lashes caused by a muscle spasm of the eyelid. Ectropion is eversion of the lower eyelid caused by muscle weakness. A stye causes swelling and redness in the affected eye. A stye is a result of a staphylococcal infection of hair follicles on the margin of the lids. A chalazion is a firm, non-tender nodule on the eyelid.
Cognitive Level: Understanding
Client Need: Physiological Integrity
Client Need Sub: Physiological Adaptation
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
Learning Outcome: 15.6: Differentiate normal from abnormal findings in physical assessment of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.2.1. Differentiate normal and abnormal variations in the body system observed during physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 317

Question 26
Type: MCSA
During the assessment of a clients eyes, the nurse suspects that the client has ptosis. Which assessment data caused the nurse to come to this conclusion?
1. The palpebral conjunctiva is exposed.
2. The iris and cornea are reddened.
3. The eyelid is drooping.
4. The eyelids are swollen and puffy.
Correct Answer: 3
Rationale 1: Ectropion is eversion of the lower eyelid caused by muscle weakness that produces exposure of the palpebral conjunctiva.
Rationale 2: Iritis is characterized by redness of the iris and cornea.
Rationale 3: Ptosis is drooping of the eyelid.
Rationale 4: Periorbital edema refers to swollen, puffy eyelids.
Global Rationale: Ptosis is drooping of the eyelid. Ectropion is eversion of the lower eyelid caused by muscle weakness that produces exposure of the palpebral conjunctiva. Iritis is characterized by redness of the iris and cornea. Periorbital edema refers to swollen, puffy eyelids.
Cognitive Level: Understanding
Client Need: Physiological Integrity
Client Need Sub: Physiological Adaptation
QSEN Competencies: III.A.1. Demonstrate knowledge of basic scientific methods and processes.
AACN Essentials Competencies: I.1. Integrate theories and concepts from liberal education into nursing practice.
NLN Competencies: Knowledge and Science: Relationships between knowledge/science and quality and safe patient care.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
Learning Outcome: 15.6: Differentiate normal from abnormal findings in physical assessment of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.2.1. Differentiate normal and abnormal variations in the body system observed during physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 317

Question 27
Type: MCSA
The nurse is assessing an African American adult client who is experiencing visual changes. Which question to the client is the priority?
1. Have you or anyone in your family ever been diagnosed with diabetes?
2. Do you wear sunglasses when you are outside?
3. Did your mother have a vaginal infection at the time of your delivery?
4. Do you see any halos around lights?
Correct Answer: 1
Rationale 1: Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the United States. It is important for the nurse to determine if the client has a personal or family history of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs more frequently in African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans than in Caucasian clients. This will assist the nurse to determine if the client may be suffering visual changes as a result of diabetic retinopathy.
Rationale 2: The nurse can ask about the clients behaviors to determine his risk of developing problems associated with ultraviolet radiation.
Rationale 3: When the nurse is assessing an infant, the nurse should inquire about whether the mother of the infant had a vaginal infection at the time of delivery because this can result in eye infections in the newborn.
Rationale 4: Clients who see halos around lights may be suffering from glaucoma and increased intraocular pressure.
Global Rationale: Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness in the United States. It is important for the nurse to determine if the client has a personal or family history of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes occurs more frequently in African Americans, Asian Americans, Hispanic Americans, and Native Americans than in Caucasian clients. This will assist the nurse to determine if the client may be suffering visual changes as a result of diabetic retinopathy. The nurse can ask about the clients behaviors to determine his risk of developing problems associated with ultraviolet radiation. When the nurse is assessing an infant, the nurse should inquire about whether the mother of the infant had a vaginal infection at the time of delivery because this can result in eye infections in the newborn. Clients who see halos around lights may be suffering from glaucoma and increased intraocular pressure.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Health Promotion and Maintenance
Client Need Sub:
QSEN Competencies: I.B.1. Elicit patient values, preferences, and expressed needs as part of clinical interview, implementation of care plan, and evaluation of care.
AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Assessment
Learning Outcome: 15.7: Describe developmental, psychosocial, cultural, and environmental variations in assessment techniques and findings of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 297

Question 28
Type: MCMA
The nurse is assessing a child previously diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome. When conducting a health history interview, which statements by the clients mother are consistent with the childs diagnosis?
Standard Text: Select all that apply.
1. It seems as if one of his eyelids is droopy.
2. Theres a firm little bump on his eyelid but he says it doesnt hurt.
3. His eyes almost look cloudy.
4. He has required glasses to see well since he was 2 years old.
5. His eyelids look they have turned under and he complains that his eyes hurt.
Correct Answer: 1, 3, 4
Rationale 1: A child with fetal alcohol syndrome may experience ptosis.
Rationale 2: Chalazions are firm, non-tender nodules located on the eyelids that are associated with infection. They are not associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.
Rationale 3: Cataracts are associated with children who have been diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome.
Rationale 4: Structural abnormalities of the eye are associated with fetal alcohol syndrome. These abnormalities may result in reduced visual acuity.
Rationale 5: Entropion is when the eyelids invert and the lashes can scratch the cornea. Entropion is not associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.
Global Rationale: A child with fetal alcohol syndrome may experience ptosis. Cataracts are associated with children who have been diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome. Structural abnormalities of the eye are associated with fetal alcohol syndrome. These abnormalities may result in reduced visual acuity. Chalazions are firm, non-tender nodules located on the eyelids that are associated with infection. They are not associated with fetal alcohol syndrome. Entropion is when the eyelids invert and the lashes can scratch the cornea. Entropion is not associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.
Cognitive Level: Applying
Client Need: Physiological Integrity
Client Need Sub: Physiological Adaptation
QSEN Competencies: I.B.1. Elicit patient values, preferences, and expressed needs as part of clinical interview, implementation of care plan, and evaluation of care.
AACN Essentials Competencies: IX.1. Conduct comprehensive and focused physical, behavioral, psychological, spiritual, socioeconomic, and environmental assessments of health and illness parameters in patients, using developmentally and culturally appropriate approaches.
NLN Competencies: Context and Environment: Conduct population-based transcultural health assessments and interventions.
Nursing/Integrated Concepts: Nursing Process: Diagnosis
Learning Outcome: 15.7: Describe developmental, psychosocial, cultural, and environmental variations in assessment techniques and findings of the eye.
MNL Learning Outcome: 5.1.3. Utilize the appropriate techniques, tools, and tests to perform a focused physical assessment.
Page Number: p. 303

Question 29
Type: MCSA
The nurse is teaching a group of nursing students about the cultural implications associated with eye diseases. At the conclusion of the teaching session, which student comment indicates the need for further education?
1. It is important to assess the African American client for clinical manifestations associated with increased intraocular pressure.
2. We should assess serum glucose levels in our adult Hispanic clients.
3. Our diabetic clients should return every 2 years for an assessment of their vision and their retina.
4. Poorly controlled serum glucose levels can result in retinal changes that affect the clients vision and can even result in blindness.
Correct Answer: 3
Rationale 1: African Americans have a higher risk for developing glaucoma. Glaucoma occurs when the flow of fluid around the anterior chamber of the eye is blocked and the clients intraocular pressure increases.
Rationale 2: Hispanics are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes which can increase their risk of developing visual changes associated with diabetic retinopathy.
Rationale 3: A client who has a personal or family history of diabetes should retur

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