Health Psychology (B&B Psychology) 9th Edition by Shelley Taylor Test Bank

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Health Psychology (B&B Psychology) 9th Edition by Shelley Taylor Test Bank

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Chapter 05
Health-Compromising Behaviors
 
 
Multiple Choice Questions 
1. (p. 79) Alcohol abuse and smoking share a window of vulnerability especially during _____. A. adolescenceB. adulthoodC. middle ageD. old age
 
Level: Factual 
2. (p. 79) Health compromising behaviors usually cluster and emerge during _____. A. adolescenceB. adulthoodC. middle ageD. old age
 
Level: Factual 
3. (p. 80) Individuals who are obese have a body mass index (BMI) of _____. A. over 15B. over 20C. over 25D. over 30
 
Level: Factual 

4. (p. 80) Fat should ideally constitute about _____ percent of body tissue in women. A. 30-37B. 6-13C. 15-22D. 20-27
 
Level: Factual 
5. (p. 80) _____ is presently the most severe problem in the United States. A. AlcoholismB. SmokingC. AnorexiaD. Obesity
 
Level: Factual 
6. (p. 81) Obesity is a chief cause of _____. A. lung cancerB. memory lossC. disabilityD. drug abuse
 
Level: Factual 
7. (p. 82) _____ is an especially potent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A. Abdominally localized fatB. Localized fat in the hipsC. Fat in the thighsD. Fat in the buttocks
 
Level: Factual 

8. (p. 82) Fat tissues produce _____ that exacerbate diseases related to inflammatory processes. A. carotenaemiaB. proinflammatory cytokinesC. inflammatory smearsD. keratin
 
Level: Factual 
9. (p. 83) _____ is secreted by fat cells that signal the neurons of the hypothalamus to determine if the body has sufficient stores of fat. A. DopamineB. CollagenC. LeptinD. Ghrelin
 
Level: Factual 
10. (p. 83) _____ is secreted by specialized cells in the stomach that stimulate hunger. A. GhrelinB. LeptinC. CollagenD. Dopamine
 
Level: Factual 
11. (p. 84) Overweight is defined as greater than or equal to the _____ percentile of age and sex-specific BMI. A. 80thB. 85thC. 95thD. 90th
 
Level: Factual 

12. (p. 84) Obesity depends on both the number and size of fat cells, and moderately obese people are said to have: A. a large number of small fat cells.B. a limited number of small fat cells.C. a large number of large fat cells.D. a limited number of large fat cells.
 
Level: Factual 
13. (p. 85) Many obese people have high _____ which promotes overeating due to increased hunger. A. dopamine levelsB. serotonin levelsC. basal insulin levelsD. estrogen levels
 
Level: Factual 
14. (p. 87) In a _____ surgery an adjustable gastric band is inserted surgically around the top of the stomach to create a small pouch in the upper stomach to reduce the stomachs capacity to take in food. A. lumbar fusionB. lap bandC. lobectomyD. mastectomy
 
Level: Factual 

15. (p. 89) Women between the ages of _____ are most likely to be suffering from eating disorders. A. 45-54B. 35-44C. 25-34D. 15-24
 
Level: Factual 
16. (p. 90) Which of the following characteristics is usually exhibited by anorexics? A. Lack of controlB. Subservient behaviorC. Disregard for approvalD. Excessive self-control
 
Level: Conceptual 
17. (p. 90) Monica is extremely concerned about her weight, she is influenced by TV shows and magazines that portray women with supposedly good figures, and she has a flawed perception of most womens actual and ideal weight. These symptoms are a likely cause of which of the following disorders? A. Obsessive-compulsive disorderB. Binge eatingC. Anorexia nervosaD. Anxiety disorder
 
Level: Applied 
18. (p. 91) Binge eating is usually triggered by: A. negative emotions produced by stressful experiences.B. excessive smoking habits.C. hunger splurges in anorexic individuals.D. collagen that is produced in the cells of the stomach.
 
Level: Factual 

19. (p. 93) _____ is a process by which the body increasingly adapts to the use of a substance, requiring larger and larger doses of it to obtain the same effects, and eventually reaching a plateau. A. WithdrawalB. ToleranceC. MetacognitionD. Relapse
 
Level: Factual 
20. (p. 93) John has been a chain smoker for the past ten years. He quit a week ago, and since then he has been fighting the urge to smoke again. It is especially difficult for him to abstain when he is around other smokers. This is an example of _____. A. addictionB. toleranceC. cravingD. withdrawal
 
Level: Applied 
21. (p. 94) Individuals usually begin drinking to: A. decrease their self-esteem.B. improve their cognitive functioning.C. avoid social occasions.D. enhance positive emotions.
 
Level: Factual 
22. (p. 94) Alcohol consumption is associated with: A. lowered self-esteem.B. increased cognitive functioning.C. reduced anxiety.D. increased depression.
 
Level: Factual 

23. (p. 94) Late-onset problem drinkers are: A. less likely to control their drinking on their own.B. less likely to be successfully treated.C. more likely to control their drinking on their own.D. more likely to use alcohol as a coping method for managing stress.
 
Level: Factual 
24. (p. 94) The first phase of treatment for alcoholics begins with _____. A. follow-upB. maintenance of sobrietyC. detoxificationD. rehabilitation
 
Level: Factual 
25. (p. 95) The occurrence of a major stressful event within the first _____ days after treatment can trigger relapse among apparently recovered alcoholics. A. 30B. 60C. 90D. 120
 
Level: Factual 
26. (p. 95) A meta-analysis of alcohol treatment outcome studies estimates that more than _____ percent of treated patients relapse within the first three months after treatment. A. 10B. 25C. 50D. 75
 
Level: Factual 

27. (p. 96) Alcohol treatment programs are more successful with: A. people from low socio-economic statuses.B. people from high socio-economic statuses.C. female clients.D. juvenile delinquents.
 
Level: Factual 
28. (p. 96) Alcoholics Anonymous was one of the earliest _____ for people suffering from health problems. A. out-groupsB. self-help groupsC. for-profit organizationsD. government-funded organizations
 
Level: Factual 
29. (p. 96) Which of the following components, if included, can produce up to a 40% treatment success rate for alcoholism? A. Excluding relatives and employers from the treatment processB. Increasing the length of participationC. Avoiding environmental factors that may elicit drinking behaviorD. Instilling coping skills to manage environmental pressures
 
Level: Conceptual 
30. (p. 96) _____ is required to complement formal alcohol intervention efforts so more people can receive formal treatment. A. Collaborative therapyB. Social engineeringC. Transactional analysisD. Theraplay
 
Level: Factual 

31. (p. 97) Which of the following best describes placebo drinking? A. Consuming five or more drinks on the same day for at least three days in a weekB. Drinking with the primary aim of getting others in a group heavily intoxicatedC. Consuming non-alcoholic beveragesD. Drinking once every six months with an intention to get intoxicated
 
Level: Conceptual 
32. (p. 98) Evaluations of alcohol prevention programs for adolescents suggest that such programs: A. are expensive and ineffective.B. enhance participants sense of self-efficacy.C. have little influence on individuals ability to resist peer pressure.D. rarely impact the social norms associated with the onset of drinking.
 
Level: Factual 
33. (p. 99) _____ is the single greatest cause of preventable death. A. ObesityB. AlcoholismC. AnorexiaD. Smoking
 
Level: Factual 
34. (p. 99) Smoking accounts for more than _____ deaths every year in the United States. A. 400,000B. 553,000C. 500,000D. 443,000
 
Level: Factual 

35. (p. 99) In the United States, the most common cause of smoking-related mortality is _____. A. liver cirrhosisB. heart diseaseC. lung cancerD. stroke
 
Level: Factual 
36. (p. 100) Maxwell is a smoker. He works long hours for a low pay, and has a considerable amount of stress at work. He also suffers from high cholesterol and blood pressure. The doctor suspects that Maxwells problems may be related to his smoking habit. This is called the ____ effects of smoking. A. instantaneousB. extraneousC. converseD. synergistic
 
Level: Applied 
37. (p. 100) The first _____ on smoking from the U. S. Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, and U. S. Public Health Service was published in 1964. A. consumer reportB. emergency medical journalC. surgeon generals reportD. National Healthcare Quality Report
 
Level: Factual 

38. (p. 100) It is estimated that by 2050, three million men in _____ will die from the effects of tobacco. A. AmericaB. IndiaC. ChinaD. Argentina
 
Level: Factual 
39. (p. 101) Individuals who possess genes that regulate the functioning of _____ are likely candidates for inheriting smoking influences. A. pentoseB. dopamineC. nucleophileD. allele
 
Level: Factual 
40. (p. 102) Identifying oneself as a smoker: A. reduces the chances of getting addicted to any other substance.B. increases an individuals self-esteem.C. increases the chances of being a quitter.D. impedes the ability to quit smoking.
 
Level: Factual 
41. (p. 103) _____ is used to engage neuroregulators which produce temporary improvements in performance. A. HeroinB. BromideC. AlcoholD. Nicotine
 
Level: Factual 

42. (p. 103) Which among the following is the strongest addictive? A. NicotineB. AlcoholC. HeroineD. Morphine
 
Level: Conceptual 
43. (p. 103) Which of the following is a long-term effect of abstaining from smoking? A. Reduced energy levelsB. Increased symptoms of withdrawalC. Reduced self-esteemD. Increased sense of mastery
 
Level: Conceptual 
44. (p. 103) Group interventions may not address the motives underlying smoking habits because: A. smokers are already aware of the benefits of remaining abstinent.B. previous interventions have proven to be unsuccessful.C. smoking patterns are highly individualized.D. smokers prefer solitude.
 
Level: Factual 

45. (p. 103) Which of the following best explains the Nicotine Replacement Therapy? A. A nicotine patch steadily releases doses of nicotine into the bloodstream to increase the chances of smoking cessationB. A technique that teaches positive methods of communicating emotion, and handling conflict to avoid relapseC. A combination of medication and cognitive behavioral techniques are applied to inculcate self-monitoring habitD. A treatment designed to restore, and rehabilitate an individuals level of functioning to promote health and wellness
 
Level: Conceptual 
46. (p. 103) Mass media has dramatically changed attitudes toward smoking because it: A. provides information to smokers about health effects, although it has little effect on their habit.B. promotes smoking as a habit adopted by people from high-class societies.C. promotes antismoking attitudes which seem to have a great impact on the society.D. provides information about health habits that discourage nonsmokers from beginning smoking.
 
Level: Factual 
47. (p. 104) Ex-smokers are more likely to be successful over the short term if they: A. reduce contact with their family.B. discourage their friends from smoking.C. have supportive friends who smoke.D. have a supportive partner.
 
Level: Factual 

48. (p. 105) Adult smokers benefit from cognitive behavioral interventions that: A. include maintenance of the stimuli that elicit and maintain smoking.B. induce self-monitoring.C. undermine successful smoking cessation.D. expel alternative coping techniques.
 
Level: Factual 
49. (p. 105) Brief interventions by ____ can bring about smoking cessation and control relapse. A. physiotherapistsB. physiciansC. employersD. government authorities
 
Level: Factual 
50. (p. 106) Which of the following is a component of a social influence intervention? A. Materials are developed to convey a negative image of a smoker.B. The peer group is asked to debar the smoker until the frequency of smoking is reduced.C. Information on the effects of smoking is carefully constructed to appeal to adolescents.D. New experimental methods such as cognitive recalibration is used to cease smoking.
 
Level: Conceptual 
51. (p. 107) Social influence programs are known to reduce smoking rates for as long as _____ years. A. thirteenB. sevenC. tenD. four
 
Level: Factual 

52. (p. 107) _____ is a common cause of prenatal exposure to secondhand smoke. A. Yellow-nail syndromeB. Asperger syndromeC. Fetal alcohol syndromeD. Sudden infant death syndrome
 
Level: Factual 
53. (p. 108) Most treatment programs for alcoholism begin with a _____, and is followed by some cognitive behavioral techniques. A. medication programB. follow-up sessionC. drying out periodD. relapse session
 
Level: Factual 
54. (p. 108) In any kind of intervention, the _____ is the best predictor of success. A. physicianB. spouseC. patientD. family
 
Level: Factual 
55. (p. 108) Cognitive behavioral techniques can produce weight losses of two pounds every week for up to _____ weeks, maintained over a two-year period. A. tenB. twentyC. fiveD. thirty
 
Level: Factual 
 
True / False Questions 
56. (p. 88) Multimodal programs include training in eliciting effective support from families, friends, and coworkers. TRUE
 
Level: Factual 
57. (p. 88) Restricting smoking to a particular place is an example of social engineering. TRUE
 
Level: Factual 
58. (p. 95) Research shows that most alcoholics eventually receive some form of inpatient or outpatient treatment. FALSE
 
Level: Factual 
59. (p. 97) Often, merely monitoring drinking leads to a reduction in drinking. TRUE
 
Level: Factual 
60. (p. 98) Alcohol interventions are increasingly being incorporated into freshman orientation programs in colleges. TRUE
 
Level: Factual
 
61. (p. 98) AlcoholEdu is an on-campus alcohol prevention program used by more than 500 college and university campuses. FALSE
 
Level: Factual 
62. (p. 98) MADD (Mothers Against Drunk Driving) was founded and staffed by the families and friends of those killed by drunk drivers. TRUE
 
Level: Factual 
63. (p. 101) Trying cigarettes make a person significantly more likely to use other drugs in the future. TRUE
 
Level: Factual 
64. (p. 104) It is well-established that commercial smoking cessation programs have higher cure rates. FALSE
 
Level: Factual 
65. (p. 107) Passive smoking or secondhand smoke is a documented health risk. TRUE
 
Level: Factual 
 
Essay Questions 
66. (p. 79) Describe the important characteristics of health-compromising behaviors. 
The most vulnerable period for health-compromising behaviors is adolescence. These behaviors begin in early adolescence and sometimes cluster together as part of a problem behavior syndrome. They develop gradually as the person is exposed to the behavior, and experiments with it and later engages in it regularly. Substance abuse is another major risk factor affecting adolescents. Adolescents with a penchant for deviant behavior and with low self-esteem also show these behaviors.
 
Level: Factual 
67. (p. 92) Describe the biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors implicated in alcohol abuse. 
Alcohol abuse has a negative impact as it poses a great health issue. High blood pressure, stroke, cirrhosis of the liver, some forms of cancer are biological risk factors. Psychologically, excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain atrophy and consequent deteriorating of cognitive functioning. Socio-culturally, alcohol abuse deteriorates the general health standards of a nation, and it costs billions of dollars every year due to lack of productivity. It also increases the use of health care resources to treat alcoholism.
 
Level: Factual 
68. (p. 95) Explain the problem of relapse in the treatment of alcohol abuse. Which intervention strategies address this problem most effectively? 
Relapse occurs when an individual who has quit an addictive substance begins to reuse it in high-risk situations by giving-in to environmental temptations. Therefore, relapse prevention is a major concern in most intervention programs. Relapse prevention helps clients restructure their environment to remove temptation, and develop coping strategies to deal with high-risk situations. Most often cognitive behavioral techniques and relaxation techniques have proven to be successful intervention strategies to address alcohol abuse.
 
Level: Factual 

69. (p. 100) Identify and discuss the synergistic effects of smoking on other health-related risk factors. 
Smoking enhances the detrimental effects of other risk factors. Smoking and cholesterol interact to produce higher rates of heart disease. Stress and smoking can also interact in dangerous ways. For example, nicotine can increase heart rate reactivity to stress in men, and increase blood pressure responses to stress in women. Weight and smoking can also interact to increase mortality. Cigarette smokers who are thin are at an increased risk of mortality compared with average-weight smokers. Smoking is a more likely habit among people who are depressed, and it interacts synergistically with depression to substantially increase risks of cancer. Smoking is also related to anxiety in adolescence.
 
Level: Factual 
70. (p. 101) What are the factors associated with smoking in adolescents? 
Adolescents are more likely to start smoking if their parents smoke, or if they are from a lower social class. Most adolescents begin smoking due to social pressures, and if there has been a major stressor in the family such as parental separation or job loss. Once adolescents begin to smoke, the risks they perceive from smoking decline, and so smoking itself reduces perceptions of risk. Teenagers whose ideal self-image is close to that of a typical smoker is most likely to smoke. Low self-esteem, dependency, feelings of powerlessness, and social isolation increase the tendency to imitate others and begin smoking.
 
Level: Factual 

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