Human Anatomy & Physiology 9th Edition Test Bank Elaine N. Marieb

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Human Anatomy & Physiology 9th Edition Test Bank Elaine N. Marieb

Description

Exam
Name___________________________________

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

Figure 3.1

Using Figure 3.1, match the following:

1)

Produces ATP aerobically.

1)

_____________

2)

Site of enzymatic breakdown of phagocytized material.

2)

_____________

3)

Packages proteins for insertion in the cell membrane or for exocytosis.

3)

_____________

4)

Site of synthesis of lipid and steroid molecules.

4)

_____________

5)

Forms the mitotic spindle.

5)

_____________

6)

Replicate for cell division.

6)

_____________

7)

Source of cell autolysis.

7)

_____________

Figure 3.2

Using Figure 3.2, match the following:

8)

Nonpolar region of phospholipid.

8)

_____________

9)

Glycocalyx.

9)

_____________

10)

Polar region of phospholipid.

10)

_____________

11)

Peripheral protein.

11)

_____________

12)

Integral protein.

12)

_____________

13)

Identification tags for the cell.

13)

_____________

14)

Hydrophilic portion of phospholipid.

14)

_____________

MATCHING. Choose the item in column 2 that best matches each item in column 1.

Match the following:

15)

Forms part of the protein synthesis site in the cytoplasm.

A)

ATP

15)

______

B)

Synthetase enzymes

16)

Act as interpreter molecules that recognize specific amino acids and nucleotide base sequences.

16)

______

C)

Messenger RNA

D)

17)

Attaches the correct amino acid to its transfer RNA.

Ribosomal RNA

17)

______

E)

Transfer RNA

18)

Provides the energy needed for synthesis reactions.

18)

______

19)

Produced in the nucleus, this molecule specifies the exact sequence of amino acids of the protein to be made.

19)

______

20)

May be attached to the ER or scattered in the cytoplasm.

20)

______

Match the following:

21)

Chromosomes uncoil to form chromatin.

A)

Late prophase

21)

______

B)

Early prophase

22)

Chromosomal centromeres split and chromosomes migrate to opposite ends of the cell.

22)

______

C)

Anaphase

D)

23)

Nuclear membrane and nucleolus disintegrate.

Metaphase

23)

______

E)

Telophase

24)

Chromosomes align on the spindle equator.

24)

______

25)

Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell.

25)

______

Match the following:

26)

Plays a role in the synthesis of steroid-based hormones and proteins.

A)

Nucleoli

26)

______

B)

Endoplasmic reticulum

27)

The actual site of protein synthesis.

27)

______

C)

Ribosomes

28)

Hollow cytoskeletal elements that act as organizers for the cytoskeleton.

28)

______

D)

Nucleus

29)

Dense spherical bodies in the nucleus that are the synthesis site for ribosomal RNA.

E)

Microtubules

29)

______

30)

Houses DNA and RNA.

30)

______

Match the following:

31)

Help prevent molecules from passing through the extracellular space between adjacent cells.

A)

Tight junctions

31)

______

B)

Desmosomes

32)

Type of anchoring junction.

C)

Gap junctions

32)

______

33)

Communicating junction.

33)

______

34)

Present in electrically excitable tissues.

34)

______

35)

Abundant in tissues subjected to great mechanical stress.

35)

______

TRUE/FALSE. Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false.

36)

Each daughter cell resulting from mitotic cell division has exactly as many chromosomes as the parent cell.

36)

______

37)

Apoptosis is programmed cell suicide; cancer cells do not undergo this process.

37)

______

38)

Introns represent a genome scrap yard that provides DNA segments for genome evolution and a variety of small RNA molecules.

38)

______

39)

Final preparation for cell division is made during the cell life cycle subphase called G2.

39)

______

40)

Lipid rafts, found in the cell outer membrane surface, are concentrating platforms for certain receptor molecules or for protein molecules needed for cell signaling..

40)

______

41)

In osmosis, movement of water occurs toward the solution with the lower solute concentration.

41)

______

42)

The genetic information is coded in DNA by the regular alternation of sugar and phosphate molecules.

42)

______

43)

A process by which large particles may be taken into the protection of the body by invaders like bacteria, or for disposing of old or dead cells is called phagocytosis.

43)

______

44)

The orderly sequence of the phases of mitosis is prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.

44)

______

45)

Diffusion movement always occurs from areas of greater to areas of lesser concentration.

45)

______

46)

Facilitated diffusion always requires a carrier protein.

46)

______

47)

DNA transcription is another word for DNA replication.

47)

______

48)

The glycocalyx is often referred to as the cell coat, which is somewhat fuzzy and sticky with numerous cholesterol chains sticking out from the surface of the cell membrane.

48)

______

49)

In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential ranging from -50 to about +50 millivolts.

49)

______

50)

Microfilaments are thin strands of the contractile protein myosin.

50)

______

51)

Interstitial fluid represents one type of extracellular material.

51)

______

52)

Cholesterol helps to stabilize the cell membrane while decreasing the mobility of the phospholipids.

52)

______

53)

Aquaporins are believed to be present in red blood cells and kidney tubules, but not in any other cells in the body.

53)

______

54)

Most organelles are bounded by a membrane that is quite different in structure from the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane.

54)

______

55)

There is only one cell type in the human body that has a flagellum.

55)

______

56)

Microtubules are hollow tubes made of subunits of the protein tubulin.

56)

______

57)

Telomeres are the regions of chromosomes that code for the protein ubiquitin.

57)

______

58)

Nitric oxide is known to be the first gas to act as a biological messenger.

58)

______

59)

The speed of individual particle diffusion is influenced by temperature and particle size, not by concentration.

59)

______

60)

Concentration differences cause ionic imbalances that polarize the cell membrane, and active transport processes.

60)

______

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

61)

Which of the following is FALSE regarding the membrane potential?

61)

______

A)

The resting membrane potential is determined mainly by the concentration gradients and differential permeability of the plasma membrane to K+ and Na+ions.

B)

The resting membrane potential occurs due to active transport of ions across the membrane due to the sodium-potassium pump.

C)

The resting membrane potential is maintained by solely by passive transport processes.

D)

In their resting state, all body cells exhibit a resting membrane potential.

62)

Which vesicular transport process occurs primarily in some white blood cells and macrophages?

62)

______

A)

exocytosis

B)

intracellular vesicular trafficking

C)

pinocytosis

D)

phagocytosis

63)

In certain kinds of muscle cells, calcium ions are stored in ________.

63)

______

A)

both smooth and rough ER

B)

the cytoplasm

C)

the smooth ER

D)

the rough ER

64)

The RNA responsible for bringing the amino acids to the ribosome for protein formation is ________.

64)

______

A)

tRNA

B)

mRNA

C)

rRNA

D)

ssRNA

65)

A red blood cell placed in pure water would ________.

65)

______

A)

swell and burst

B)

swell initially, then shrink as equilibrium is reached

C)

neither shrink nor swell

D)

shrink

66)

Which of the following describes the plasma membrane?

66)

______

A)

a membrane composed of tiny shelves or cristae

B)

a double layer of protein enclosing the plasma

C)

a single-layered membrane that surrounds the nucleus of the cell

D)

a phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell

67)

Which of these is not a function of the plasma membrane?

67)

______

A)

It encloses the cell contents in such a way that water I the body is divided into separate compartments.

B)

It is selectively permeable but permits water and gases to cross.

C)

It prevents potassium ions from leaking out and sodium ions from crossing into the cell.

D)

It acts as a site of cell-to-cell interaction and recognition.

68)

Which structures are fingerlike projections that greatly increase the absorbing surface of cells?

68)

______

A)

microvilli

B)

primary cilia

C)

flagella

D)

stereocilia

69)

Which of the following statements is correct regarding net diffusion?

69)

______

A)

Molecular weight of a substance does not affect the rate.

B)

The rate is independent of temperature.

C)

The greater the concentration gradient, the faster the rate.

D)

The lower the temperature, the faster the rate.

70)

Which type of cell junction acts as anchors and distributes tension through a cellular sheet and reduces the chance of tearing when it is subjected to great mechanical stress?

70)

______

A)

desmosomes

B)

tight junctions

C)

gap junctions

D)

connexons

71)

If cells are placed in a hypertonic solution containing a solute to which the membrane is impermeable, what could happen?

71)

______

A)

The cells will show no change due to diffusion of both solute and solvent.

B)

The cells will shrink at first, but will later reach equilibrium with the surrounding solution and return to their original condition.

C)

The cells will lose water and shrink.

D)

The cells will swell and ultimately burst.

72)

What moves cell organelles from one location to another inside a cell?

72)

______

A)

Microfilaments

B)

Intermediate filaments

C)

Motor proteins

D)

Microtubules

73)

Once solid material is phagocytized and taken into a vacuole, which of the following statements best describes what happens?

73)

______

A)

A lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid material.

B)

The vacuole remains separated from the cytoplasm and the solid material persists unchanged.

C)

The phagocytized material is stored until further breakdown can occur..

D)

A ribosome enters the vacuole and uses the amino acids in the invader to form new protein.

74)

Riboswitches are folded RNAs that act as switches to turn protein synthesis on or off in response to ________.

74)

______

A)

the presence or absence of ubiquitins

B)

specific tRNAs

C)

specific codes from the DNA

D)

changes in the environment

75)

Which of the following is a function of a plasma membrane protein?

75)

______

A)

forms a lipid bilayer

B)

molecular transport through the membrane

C)

oxygen transport

D)

circulating antibody

76)

Which of the following statements is correct regarding RNA?

76)

______

A)

If the base sequence of DNA is ATTGCA, the messenger RNA template will be UCCAGU.

B)

There is exactly one specific type of mRNA for each amino acid.

C)

rRNA is always attached to the rough ER.

D)

Messenger RNA, transfer RNA, and ribosomal RNA play a role in protein synthesis.

77)

Which of the following would not be a constituent of a plasma membrane?

77)

______

A)

glycolipids

B)

messenger RNA

C)

phospholipids

D)

glycoproteins

78)

Mitosis ________.

78)

______

A)

is the formation of sex cells

B)

creates diversity in genetic potential

C)

is division of the nucleus

D)

is always a part of the cell cycle

79)

The electron microscope has revealed that one of the components within the cell consists of pinwheel array of 9 triplets of microtubules arranged to form a hollow tube. This structure is a ________.

79)

______

A)

chromosome

B)

centriole

C)

centrosome

D)

ribosome

80)

Which of these is an inclusion, not an organelle?

80)

______

A)

cilia

B)

melanin

C)

microtubule

D)

lysosome

81)

Which of the following is not a factor that binds cells together?

81)

______

A)

glycoproteins in the glycocalyx

B)

glycolipids in the glycocalyx

C)

special membrane junctions

D)

wavy contours of the membranes of adjacent cells

82)

If the nucleotide or base sequence of the DNA strand used as a template for messenger RNA synthesis is ACGTT, then what would be the sequence of bases in the corresponding mRNA?

82)

______

A)

GUACC

B)

UGCAA

C)

ACGTT

D)

TGCAA

83)

Which transport process is the main mechanism for the movement of most macromolecules by body cells?

83)

______

A)

receptor-mediated endocytosis

B)

phagocytosis

C)

pinocytosis

D)

secondary active transport

84)

Caveolae are closely associated with all of the following except ________.

84)

______

A)

lipid rafts

B)

receptors for hormones

C)

enzymes involved in cell metabolism

D)

enzymes involved in cell regulation

85)

Passive membrane transport processes include ________.

85)

______

A)

consumption of ATP

B)

movement of a substance down its concentration gradient

C)

movement of water from an area of high solute concentration to an area of low concentration

D)

the use of transport proteins when moving substances from areas of low to high concentration

86)

Which of the following is NOT a function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

86)

______

A)

breakdown of stored glycogen to form free glucose

B)

lipid metabolism and cholesterol synthesis

C)

steroid-based hormone synthesis

D)

protein synthesis in conjunction with ribosomes

87)

Mitochondria ________.

87)

______

A)

are always the same shape

B)

synthesize proteins for use outside the cell

C)

contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function

D)

are single-membrane structures involved in the breakdown of ATP

88)

Ribosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus functionally act in sequence to synthesize and modify proteins for secretory use (export) only, never for use by the cell. This statement is ________.

88)

______

A)

false; integral cell membrane proteins are also synthesized this way

B)

false; proteins thus manufactured are for use inside the cell only

C)

true

D)

false; lipids, not proteins, are synthesized this way

89)

Peroxisomes ________.

89)

______

A)

are also called microbodies, and contain acid hydrolases

B)

function to digest particles ingested by endocytosis

C)

are able to detoxify substances by enzymatic action

D)

sometimes function as secretory vesicles

90)

Which of the following is NOT a function of lysosomes?

90)

______

A)

breaking down bone to release calcium ions into the blood

B)

forming acid hydrolases which are necessary to help form cell membranes

C)

digesting particles taken in by endocytosis

D)

degrading worn-out or nonfunctional organelles

91)

Which statement is the most correct regarding transcription/translation?

91)

______

A)

The nucleotide sequence in a tRNA anticodon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it.

B)

The nucleotide sequence in a mRNA codon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it.

C)

The nucleotide sequence in a tRNA anticodon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it except that uracil is substituted for thymine.

D)

The nucleotide sequence in a mRNA codon is an exact copy of the DNA triplet that coded for it except that uracil is substituted for thymine.

92)

In which stage of mitosis do the identical sets of chromosomes uncoil and resume their chromatin form?

92)

______

A)

telophase

B)

anaphase

C)

prophase

D)

metaphase

93)

Which of the following is NOT a role of cell adhesion molecules:

93)

______

A)

anchor cells to molecules in the extracellular space and to each other

B)

transmitters of intracellular signals that direct cell migration, proliferation, and specialization

C)

initiators of cell-to-cell signaling for muscle contraction

D)

mechanical sensors

94)

Which of the following does not serve as a signal for cell division?

94)

______

A)

repressor genes

B)

loss of contact inhibition

C)

shrinking surface-to-volume ratio

D)

joining of cyclins and Cdks

95)

Which of the following is a principle of the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure?

95)

______

A)

Phospholipids consist of a polar head and a nonpolar tail made of three fatty acid chains.

B)

Phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules.

C)

The lipid bilayer is a solid at body temperature, thus protecting the cell.

D)

All proteins associated with the cell membrane are contained in a fluid layer on the outside of the cell.

96)

Which of the following statements is most correct regarding the intracellular chemical signals known as second messengers?

96)

______

A)

Second messengers usually inactivate protein kinase enzymes.

B)

Cyclic AMP and calcium may be second messengers.

C)

Second messengers usually act to remove nitric oxide (NO) from the cell.

D)

Second messengers act through receptors called K-proteins.

97)

The main component of the cytosol is ________.

97)

______

A)

sugars

B)

water

C)

salts

D)

proteins

98)

The functions of centrioles include ________.

98)

______

A)

organizing the mitotic spindle in cell division

B)

serving as the site for ribosomal RNA synthesis

C)

producing ATP

D)

providing a whiplike beating motion to move substances along cell surfaces

99)

A gene can best be defined as ________.

99)

______

A)

an RNA messenger that codes for a particular polypeptide

B)

a three-base triplet that specifies a particular amino acid

C)

a segment of DNA that carries the instructions for one polypeptide chain

D)

noncoding segments of DNA up to 100,000 nucleotides long

100)

Crenation (shrinking) is likely to occur in blood cells immersed in ________.

100)

_____

A)

a hypertonic solution

B)

blood plasma

C)

a hypotonic solution

D)

an isotonic solution

101)

Some hormones enter cells via ________.

101)

_____

A)

primary active transport

B)

exocytosis

C)

pinocytosis

D)

receptor-mediated endocytosis

102)

If a tRNA had an AGC anticodon, it could attach to a(n) ________ mRNA codon.

102)

_____

A)

UCG

B)

TCG

C)

UGA

D)

AUG

SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

103)

The RNA that has an anticodon and attaches to a specific amino acid is ________ RNA.

103)

____________

104)

Water may move through membrane pores constructed by transmembrane proteins called ________.

104)

____________

105)

________ is the division of the cytoplasmic mass into two parts.

105)

____________

106)

The metabolic or growth phase of a cell life cycle is called ________.

106)

____________

107)

In order for the DNA molecule to get short and fat to become a chromosome, it must first wrap around small molecules called ________.

107)

____________

108)

________ are hollow tubes made of spherical protein subunits called tubulins.

108)

____________

109)

Aerobic cellular respiration occurs in the ________.

109)

____________

110)

What major chemical is responsible for apoptosis?

110)

____________

111)

The most common extracellular ion is ________.

111)

____________

112)

The process of discharging particles from inside a cell to the outside is called ________.

112)

____________

113)

A red blood cell would swell if its surrounding solution were ________.

113)

____________

114)

Hollow cylinders that connect plasma membranes composed of transmembrane protein are called ________.

114)

____________

115)

Describe two important functions of the Golgi apparatus.

115)

____________

116)

Why can we say that a cell without a nucleus will ultimately die?

116)

____________

117)

Are Brownian motion, diffusion, and osmosis seen only in living tissue?

117)

____________

118)

What processes maintain a steady state resting membrane potential?

118)

____________

119)

Briefly describe the glycocalyx and its functions.

119)

____________

120)

Explain the term genetic code. What does it code for? What are the letters of the code?

120)

____________

121)

Why are free radicals so dangerous to cells, and how are they dealt with by the body?

121)

____________

122)

In all living cells hydrostatic and osmotic pressures exist. Define these pressures and explain how they are used in the concept of tonicity of the cell.

122)

____________

123)

What is the common route of entry for flu viruses into a cell?

123)

____________

124)

Other than the nucleus, which organelle has its own DNA?

124)

____________

125)

How are the products of free ribosomes different from membrane-bound ribosomes?

125)

____________

126)

How are peroxisomes different from lysosomes?

126)

____________

127)

Briefly name the subphases of interphase and tell what they do.

127)

____________

128)

What are nucleolar organizer regions?

128)

____________

129)

How is the resting potential formed? How is it maintained?

129)

____________

130)

List possible causes of aging.

130)

____________

131)

What factors contribute to the fragility of the lysosome and subsequent cell autolysis?

131)

____________

132)

Why can we say that cells are protein factories?

132)

____________

133)

What are cell exons and introns?

133)

____________

134)

What are lipid rafts? What are their functions?

134)

____________

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

135)

A patient was admitted to the hospital for severe dehydration. Explain what changes occur in extracellular and intracellular fluid compartments during dehydration.

136)

Your patient has the flu and reports 56 loose stools a day. He has experienced an isotonic fluid volume loss. Explain what an isotonic fluid loss means.

137)

At of age of 6 months, Caleb was diagnosed with Tay-Sachs disease. As his primary care physician, what would you tell his parents about this disease?

138)

Your patient has a respiratory disease that has literally paralyzed the cilia. Explain why this patient would be at an increased risk for a respiratory infection.

139)

Describe the difference in cell division between normal cells and cancer cells.

140)

Research shows that neurofibrillary tangles associated with the disintegration of microtubules are the primary cause of Alzheimers disease. If microtubules disintegrate, what then might happen to brain cells?

1)

B

2)

C

3)

E

4)

A

5)

D

6)

D

7)

C

8)

C

9)

A

10)

B

11)

E

12)

D

13)

A

14)

B

15)

D

16)

E

17)

B

18)

A

19)

C

20)

D

21)

E

22)

C

23)

A

24)

D

25)

B

26)

B

27)

C

28)

E

29)

A

30)

D

31)

A

32)

B

33)

C

34)

C

35)

B

36)

TRUE

37)

TRUE

38)

TRUE

39)

TRUE

40)

TRUE

41)

FALSE

42)

FALSE

43)

TRUE

44)

TRUE

45)

FALSE

46)

FALSE

47)

FALSE

48)

FALSE

49)

FALSE

50)

FALSE

51)

TRUE

52)

TRUE

53)

FALSE

54)

FALSE

55)

TRUE

56)

TRUE

57)

FALSE

58)

TRUE

59)

TRUE

60)

TRUE

61)

C

62)

D

63)

C

64)

A

65)

A

66)

D

67)

C

68)

A

69)

C

70)

A

71)

C

72)

C

73)

A

74)

D

75)

B

76)

D

77)

B

78)

C

79)

B

80)

B

81)

B

82)

B

83)

A

84)

C

85)

B

86)

D

87)

C

88)

A

89)

C

90)

B

91)

C

92)

A

93)

C

94)

A

95)

B

96)

B

97)

B

98)

A

99)

C

100)

A

101)

D

102)

A

103)

transfer

104)

aquaporins

105)

Cytokinesis

106)

interphase

107)

histones

108)

Microtubules

109)

mitochondria

110)

caspases

111)

sodium

112)

exocytosis

113)

hypotonic

114)

connexon

115)

To modify, sort, and package proteins.

116)

Without a nucleus, a cell cannot make proteins, nor can it replace any enzymes or other cell structures (which are continuously recycled). Additionally, such a cell could not replicate.

117)

No. Because they are passive processes that do not require energy, they can occur in the absence of any cellular processes.

118)

Both diffusion and active transport mechanisms operate within the cell membrane to maintain a resting membrane potential.

119)

The glycocalyx is the sticky, carbohydrate-rich area on the cell surface. It helps bind cells together and provides a highly specific biological marker by which cells can recognize each other.

120)

The genetic code is the information encoded in the nucleotide base sequence of DNA. A sequence of three bases, called a triplet, specifies an amino acid in a protein. The letters of the code are the four nucleotide bases of DNA designated as A, T, C, and G.

121)

Free radicals are highly reactive chemicals that cause havoc in any cellular environment by reacting with things they should not. Cells with peroxisomes have enzymes specific to reducing free radicals into less reactive chemicals.

122)

Hydrostatic pressure is the pressure of water exerted on the cell membrane. Osmotic pressure is created by different concentrations of molecules in a solution separated by the cell membrane. Because these pressures are exerted on the membrane they can be used by the cell to change the shape of the cell, regulate substances entering and exiting the cell, and change the osmolarity of the cell.

123)

Flu viruses and diphtheria toxins use receptor-mediated endocytosis. The virus can attach to the receptors or to the substances the receptors accept to hitch a ride into the cell.

124)

Mitochondria.

125)

Free ribosomes make soluble proteins that function in the cytosol. Membrane-bound ribosomes produce proteins that are to be used on the cell membrane or exported from the cell.

126)

Peroxisomes contain oxidases that use oxygen to detoxify harmful substances. They are very good at neutralizing free radicals. Peroxisomes directly bud from the ER. Lysosomes contain powerful hydrolytic enzymes that will pretty much destroy anything they come in contact with. They are manufactured by the Golgi apparatus.

127)

G1 growth phase. The cell is metabolically active and the centriole begins to divide at the end of this phase.
S DNA replicates itself. New histones are made and assembled into chromatin.
G2 Enzymes and proteins are synthesized and centriole replication is completed. This is the final phase of interphase.

128)

nuclear regions containing the DNA that issues genetic instructions for synthesizing ribosomal RNA

129)

It is formed by diffusion-limited concentration differences of ions resulting in ionic imbalances that polarize the membrane. It is maintained by active transport processes.

130)

1. chemical insults and free radical formation (wear and tear theory)
2. diminished energy production by free radical-damaged mitochondria
3. progressive disorders in the immune system
4. genetic programming

131)

cell injury, cell oxygen deprivation, presence of excessive amounts of vitamin A in the cell

132)

Most of the metabolic machinery of the cell is involved in protein synthesis since structural proteins constitute most of the dry cell material and functional proteins direct all cellular activities.

133)

Exons are amino acid-specifying informational sequences in genes. Introns are noncoding gene segments that provide a reservoir of ready-to-use DNA segments for genome evolution and a source of a large variety of RNA molecules.

134)

They are assemblies of saturated phospholipids associated with sphingolipids and cholesterol. They are concentrating platforms for molecules needed for cell signaling.

135)

Fluid volume deficit occurs when the body loses both water and electrolytes from the extracellular fluid compartment. Fluid is initially lost from the intravascular compartment (blood). Then fluid is drawn from the interstitial compartment into the intravascular compartment, depleting the interstitial compartment. To compensate for the decreased volume, the body then draws intracellular fluid out of the cells. This could lead to collapse and death.

136)

An isotonic fluid volume loss occurs when water and electrolytes are lost in equal proportion.

137)

It is an inherited condition where various chemicals are broken down in the brain by a cell organelle called the lysosome. Unfortunately, because of the buildup of undigested nerve cell lipids, the symptoms of listlessness and motor weakness will progress to mental retardation, seizures, blindness, and ultimately death.

138)

Ciliated cells that live in the respiratory tract propel mucus, laden with dust particles and bacteria, upward and away from the lungs. If the cilia are paralyzed, bacteria remain in the lungs and may cause infection.

139)

Normal cells divide in two distinct eventsmitosis and cytokinesis which are well-controlled. Cancer cells divide wildly, with uncontrollable mechanisms and defective mitosis, sometimes ending in unequal chromosome sets, which makes them dangerous to their host.

140)

Microtubules determine cell shape and intracellular movement. They are dynamic organelles constantly growing from the centrosome, dissembling, and then reassembling. Without microtubules, the elongated brain cell might either lose shape or lose its ability to move materials from end to end and keep its distant parts well-supplied and alive. Loss of signal followed by cell death result.

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