Human Biology Concepts And Current Issues 8Th Ed By Johnson Test Bank

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Human Biology Concepts And Current Issues 8Th Ed By Johnson Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Human Biology Concepts And Current Issues 8Th Ed By Johnson Test Bank

Human Biology: Concepts and Current Issues, 8e (Johnson)

Chapter 5   The Skeletal System

 

5.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) All of the following are functions of bone EXCEPT which one?

  1. A) red blood cell formation
  2. B) serving as an endocrine organ, secreting several different hormones
  3. C) support and protection
  4. D) attachment of muscles, enabling movement
  5. E) mineral storage

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

2) A typical long bone has an epiphysis at each end, which can be thought of as

  1. A) yellow bone marrow.
  2. B) a cylindrical hollow shaft.
  3. C) a tough layer of connective tissue.
  4. D) a site of water storage.
  5. E) an enlarged knob.

Answer:  E

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

3) Which one of the following statements is TRUE regarding bone?

  1. A) The epiphysis of a long bone is filled with yellow bone marrow.
  2. B) Bone is not considered to be a living tissue because it does not contain cells or blood vessels.
  3. C) Dense compact bone is located in the center of a long bone.
  4. D) Stem cells responsible for the production of blood cells are located in red bone marrow.
  5. E) The outer surface of a bone is covered with loose connective tissue.

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

4) Which one of the following statements CORRECTLY describes the location of compact bone and spongy bone?

  1. A) Spongy bone is located at the ends, and compact bone is located in the core of the shaft of the bone.
  2. B) Compact bone covers the ends of the bone and forms the shaft, and spongy bone is inside the ends, under the compact bone.
  3. C) Spongy bone is found on the outside of the shaft, and compact bone forms the hard core of the shaft.
  4. D) Spongy bone is found throughout the shaft and ends, covered by a thin layer of compact bone.
  5. E) The ends of long bones are solid compact bone, and the shaft is predominantly spongy bone.

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

5) Bones are connected to other bones across a joint by

  1. A) ligaments.
  2. B) tendons.
  3. C) osteocytes.
  4. D) cartilage.
  5. E) trabeculae.

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

6) In characterizing cartilage, which one of the following is CORRECT?

  1. A) Cartilage is found where support under pressure is required.
  2. B) All types of cartilage are produced by osteocytes.
  3. C) Cartilage functions to link muscles to bone.
  4. D) Cartilage fibers make up ligaments.
  5. E) Cartilage is flexible due to a spongy network of trabeculae.

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

7) The type of cell responsible for the production of red and white blood cells in bone marrow is the

  1. A) osteon.
  2. B) osteocyte.
  3. C) osteoclast.
  4. D) stem cell.
  5. E) canaliculi.

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

8) Arrange in the proper sequence the following events as they occur in the ossification of a long bone.

  1. Chondroblasts die, and the surrounding matrix breaks down.
  2. Osteoblasts secrete osteoid.
  3. Blood vessels transport osteoblasts into the area to be ossified.
  4. Chondroblasts create a model of long bones from cartilage.
  5. Osteoblasts become osteocytes.
  6. A) 3, 2, 5, 4, 1
  7. B) 4, 1, 3, 2, 5
  8. C) 4, 1, 5, 3, 2
  9. D) 5, 2, 3, 1, 4
  10. E) 3, 2, 1, 5, 4

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 5.2

Blooms:  Applying/Analyzing

LO:  5.2

GLO:  G2

 

9) Bones continue to lengthen throughout childhood and adolescence because

  1. A) a growth plate is present in each epiphysis until the late teens.
  2. B) the production of cartilage for a lengthening bone occurs primarily on the inside of the growth plate.
  3. C) ossification cannot occur until after puberty.
  4. D) primary ossification occurs until death.
  5. E) the activity of osteoblasts cannot be reduced until adulthood.

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 5.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.2

GLO:  G1

 

10) Even before organs begin to form, rudimentary versions of the shapes of bones begin to form in a fetus due to the

  1. A) activity of growth hormone.
  2. B) formation of secondary ossification sites.
  3. C) activity of chondroblasts.
  4. D) formation of an osteoclast.
  5. E) breakdown of hyaline cartilage.

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 5.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.2

GLO:  G1

 

11) Which one of the following statements is TRUE regarding parathyroid hormone (PTH)?

  1. A) It stimulates the release of growth hormone.
  2. B) It is released when blood calcium levels are high.
  3. C) It has the same function as calcitonin.
  4. D) It causes the breakdown of bone.
  5. E) It causes decreased activity of osteoclasts.

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 5.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.3

GLO:  G1

 

12) Which one of the following is TRUE regarding bone repair?

  1. A) Fibrocartilage degenerates where the two broken ends of the bone were once together.
  2. B) Osteoblasts convert cartilage to bone in the injured area.
  3. C) Immediately after breaking a bone, a hematoma breaks free from the injured area.
  4. D) Bones heal more quickly as individuals age.
  5. E) The repaired area of a bone is much thinner than the original bone.

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 5.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.3

GLO:  G1

 

 

13) Osteoporosis is a common condition that essentially results when homeostasis cannot be maintained in ________ and ________.

  1. A) osteoclasts; osteoblasts
  2. B) osteoblasts; osteons
  3. C) chondroblasts; osteoclasts
  4. D) canaculi; chondroblasts
  5. E) canaculi; osteoclasts

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 5.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.6

GLO:  G1

14) When a bone breaks, a ________ forms until later being replaced with bone.

  1. A) cyst
  2. B) growth plate
  3. C) hematoma
  4. D) callus
  5. E) pore

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 5.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.3

GLO:  G1

 

15) Bones of trained athletes may be visibly thicker and heavier than those of nonathletes because

  1. A) athletes have lower blood calcium levels than nonathletes.
  2. B) weight-bearing exercise increases bone mass and strength.
  3. C) nonathletes have a low parathyroid hormone rate.
  4. D) athletes produce more growth plates.
  5. E) nonathletes produce fewer osteoids.

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 5.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.3

GLO:  G1

 

 

16) A young man is brought to an emergency room; his diagnosis is a broken cheek bone. Which one of the following bones has been affected?

  1. A) zygomatic
  2. B) mandible
  3. C) frontal
  4. D) sphenoid
  5. E) temporal

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Applying/Analyzing

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G2

 

17) Which one of the following separates neighboring vertebrae and also functions as shock absorbers?

  1. A) ribs
  2. B) palatine bones
  3. C) intervertebral disks
  4. D) intravertebral disks
  5. E) osteons

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

18) All of the following statements about the sinuses are TRUE EXCEPT which one?

  1. A) The sinuses are located in several of the facial bones.
  2. B) The sinuses are lined by a tissue that produces and secretes mucus.
  3. C) The sinuses give the human voice its characteristic resonance and tone.
  4. D) The sinuses add weight and bulk to the skull and facial bones, strengthening them.
  5. E) The sinuses connect to the nasal cavity by small passageways.

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

 

19) In which of the following bones are the teeth anchored?

  1. A) mandible and zygomatic bones
  2. B) mandible and maxilla
  3. C) maxilla and zygomatic bones
  4. D) mandible and sphenoid bone
  5. E) sphenoid bone and maxilla

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

20) Which one of the following is the correct classification of vertebrae, from the skull to the pelvis?

  1. A) sacral, coccygeal, lumbar, thoracic, cervical
  2. B) cervical, thoracic, lumbar, coccygeal, sacral
  3. C) cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal
  4. D) coccygeal, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, cervical
  5. E) coccygeal, thoracic, lumbar, cervical, sacral

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

21) Which one of the following bones articulates with the metatarsal bones?

  1. A) phalanges
  2. B) fibula
  3. C) patella
  4. D) tibia
  5. E) femur

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

22) Each of the following bones is part of the axial skeleton EXCEPT which one?

  1. A) ribs
  2. B) vertebrae
  3. C) sternum
  4. D) maxilla
  5. E) clavicle

Answer:  E

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

23) Which bone is frequently broken when someone dies of deliberate strangulation?

  1. A) floating ribs
  2. B) maxilla
  3. C) cervical vertebrae
  4. D) hyoid bone
  5. E) mandible

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

24) Which one of the following lists the bones of the arm from the fingertips to the shoulder joint?

  1. A) humerus, radius and ulna, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges
  2. B) phalanges, metacarpals, carpals, radius and ulna, humerus
  3. C) phalanges, carpals, metacarpals, radius and ulna, humerus
  4. D) phalanges, metacarpals, carpals, humerus, radius and ulna
  5. E) radius and ulna, humerus, carpals, metacarpals, phalanges

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

 

25) Which one of the following statements is TRUE regarding fibrous joints?

  1. A) They are freely movable and can bend and rotate.
  2. B) The bones are separated by a fluid-filled cavity that lubricates the joint.
  3. C) Fibrous joints present at birth between bones of the skull develop into sutures in the adult.
  4. D) The bones are held together by cartilage and tendons.
  5. E) They include hinge joints and ball-and-socket joints.

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 5.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.5

GLO:  G1

26) In which one of the following locations would one find a cartilaginous joint?

  1. A) between the frontal and parietal bones
  2. B) in a hinge joint
  3. C) between the lower ribs and sternum
  4. D) between the scapula and humerus
  5. E) in a ball-and-socket joint

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 5.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.5

GLO:  G1

 

27) A clear fluid lubricates

  1. A) ligaments.
  2. B) suture.
  3. C) fibrous joints.
  4. D) synovial joints.
  5. E) hyaline cartilage.

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 5.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.5

GLO:  G1

 

 

28) Which one of the following disorders of the skeletal system results from the wearing out of the cartilage that covers the ends of bones?

  1. A) bursitis
  2. B) osteoarthritis
  3. C) tennis elbow
  4. D) rheumatoid arthritis
  5. E) sinusitis

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 5.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.6

GLO:  G1

 

5.2   True/False Questions

 

1) Bone is composed only of nonliving material.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

2) As bone develops and becomes hard, osteocytes become trapped in hollow chambers called lacunae.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

3) In mature compact bone, osteocytes become isolated from one another by the extracellular matrix, making it impossible for them to communicate with each other.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

4) Cartilage-forming cells are referred to as chondroblasts.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 5.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.2

GLO:  G1

 

 

5) Late in puberty, the sex hormones signal the growth plate of a bone to stop growing; once this happens, the bone cannot get longer, but it can grow in width.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 5.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.2

GLO:  G1

 

6) Osteoporosis may result if the activity of osteoclasts outstrips the activity of osteoblasts.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 5.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.3

GLO:  G1

 

7) Surgically removed growth plates from a child result in no further increases in bone length.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 5.3

Blooms:  Applying/Analyzing

LO:  5.3

GLO:  G2

 

8) During the last two months of fetal development of the female, sex hormones cause bone remodeling of the pelvic girdle that adapts it for pregnancy and birth.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

9) Osteoclasts dissolve the hydroxyapatite and digest the matrix during bone remodeling.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 5.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.3

GLO:  G1

10) During normal healing of broken bones, a callus forms between the two broken ends.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

 

11) The stability of a synovial joint is due largely to the presence of calcium salts.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 5.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.5

GLO:  G1

 

12) Individuals can prevent osteoporosis by including sufficient supplies of vitamin C and calcium in their diets and maintaining a consistent exercise program.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 5.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.5

GLO:  G1

 

13) The foramen ovale is a large opening in the occipital bone through which the spinal cord passes.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

14) Tendons join bones to other bones across a joint.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 5.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

5.3   Matching Questions

 

 

Using the figure above, match the following.

 

1) epiphysis

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

2) diaphysis

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

3) location of red bone marrow

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

4) location of yellow bone marrow

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

5) location of hyaline cartilage

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

6) location of trabeculae

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 


Match the following.

 

  1. A) carpal tunnel syndrome
  2. B) flat bones
  3. C) irregular bone
  4. D) sinusitis
  5. E) osteoporosis
  6. F) long bone
  7. G) sprain
  8. H) short bone
  9. I) arthritis

 

7) condition resulting from a stretched or torn ligament

Topic:  Sec. 5.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.6

GLO:  G1

 

8) condition in which bones decrease in size over time due to an imbalance in the activities of osteoblasts and osteoclasts

Topic: Sec. 5.3

Blooms: Remembering/Understanding

LO: 5.3

GLO: G1

9) a repetitive stress syndrome that occurs when the tendons of the hand and fingers become inflamed

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

10) inflammation of a joint

Topic:  Sec. 5.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.6

GLO:  G1

 

11) inflammation of the air spaces of the facial bones

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

 

12) phalanges

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

13) wide as they are long, such as the carpals

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

14) vertebrae

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

15) cranial bones and sternum

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

Answers: 7) G 8) E 9) A 10) I 11) D 12) F 13) H 14) C 15) B

 


Match the following bones of the skull to their description.

 

  1. A) maxilla
  2. B) zygomatic
  3. C) parietal
  4. D) occipital
  5. E) frontal
  6. F) mandible
  7. G) lacrimal

 

16) forms the upper left and right sides of the skull

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

17) lower jaw

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

18) forms inner eye sockets; tear ducts pass through openings in this bone

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

19) forms the base and back of the skull

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

20) anchors the upper row of teeth

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

21) forms the cheekbones and portion of eye sockets

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

22) forms the forehead

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

Answers: 16) C 17) F 18) G 19) D 20) A 21) B 22) E

 

 

 

Using the figure above, identify the bones of the appendicular skeleton.

 

  1. A) humerus
  2. B) patella
  3. C) radius
  4. D) metatarsals
  5. E) phalanges
  6. F) scapula
  7. G) tibia
  8. H) femur

 

 

23) Label A represents the ________ bone.

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

24) Label B represents the ________ bone.

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

25) Label C represents the ________ bone.

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

26) Label D represents the ________ bone.

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

27) Label E represents the ________ bone.

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

28) Label F represents the ________ bone.

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

29) Label G represents the ________ bone.

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

30) Label H represents the ________ bone.

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

Answers: 23) F 24) A 25) C 26) E 27) H 28) G 29) B 30) D

 

5.4   Short Answer Questions

 

1) Stem cells in red bone marrow give rise to ________ and ________ blood cells.

Answer:  red; white

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

2) Tendons attach ________ to bone.

Answer:  muscle(s)

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

3) As osteocytes become enclosed in small chambers called lacunae, they still can communicate via ________.

Answer:  canaliculi

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

4) ________ forms the embryonic structures that later become bone.

Answer:           Hyaline cartilage or Cartilage

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

5) ________ refers to inflammation of the bursae following an injury.

Answer:  Bursitis

Topic:  Sec. 5.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.6

GLO:  G1

 

6) The outer surface of a bone is covered with a tough connective tissue called the ________.

Answer:  periosteum

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

7) The outer ear and epiglottis have a small amount of flexibility associated with them because of the presence of ________ cartilage.

Answer:  elastic

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

8) The process where cartilage is gradually replaced with bone tissue during fetal development is called ________.

Answer:  ossification

Topic:  Sec. 5.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G1

 

9) Chondroblasts produce ________.

Answer:  cartilage

Topic:  Sec. 5.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.2

GLO:  G1

 

10) The region of a long bone where cartilage is produced as a model for lengthening bone is the ________.

Answer:  growth plate

Topic:  Sec. 5.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.2

GLO:  G1

 

11) When bones undergo repair, the process begins with the formation of a blood clot known as a(n) ________.

Answer:  hematoma

Topic:  Sec. 5.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.3

GLO:  G1

 

12) The blood calcium level is regulated by two hormones: ________ causes an increase in blood calcium, whereas ________ causes a decrease in blood calcium.

Answer:  parathyroid hormone (PTH); calcitonin

Topic:  Sec. 5.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.3

GLO:  G1

 

13) The ________ bones are pierced by tiny openings through which the tear ducts drain.

Answer:  lacrimal

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

14) The coccyx is classified as a(n) ________ structure because it no longer has a function.

Answer:  vestigial

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

15) Vertebrae of the spinal cord are separated from each other by compressible, flat structures called ________ disks.

Answer:  intervertebral

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

16) Immovable joints such as those found between bones of the skull are ________ joints.

Answer:  fibrous

Topic:  Sec. 5.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.5

GLO:  G1

 

17) The coxal bones of the pelvic girdle meet in front at the ________, where they are joined by cartilage.

Answer:  pubic symphysis

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G1

 

18) Osteogenesis imperfecta, also known as brittle bone disease, is caused by a genetic defect in the gene that encodes a major fibrous protein found in bone called ________.

Answer:  collagen

Topic:  Sec. 5.1

Blooms:  Applying/Analyzing

LO:  5.1

GLO:  G2

 

 

19) A debilitating disease involving inflammation of the joints caused by an individuals own immune system is ________.

Answer:  rheumatoid arthritis

Topic:  Sec. 5.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  5.6

GLO:  G1

5.5   Essay Questions

 

1) After adolescence, bones stop growing longer. They do, however, continue to grow. Describe how bones remodel or undergo repair.

Answer:  During remodeling, osteoclasts cut through mature bone tissue, dissolving the hydroxyapatite and digesting the matrix. The result is a release of calcium and phosphate ions into the blood. The areas where bone has been removed attract new osteoblasts that produce new matrix and new hydroxyapatite.

Topic:  Sec. 5.3

Blooms:  Applying/Analyzing

LO:  5.3

GLO:  G8

 

2) If a person has a herniated disk, sometimes surgery can relieve the pain that is associated with the condition. However, one side effect can be a loss in spinal flexibility. Why does this loss occur?

Answer:  The herniated condition generally results from a ballooning of gelatinous center of intervertebral disks. These disks are soft and elastic, and positioned between bony vertebrae. Corrective surgery requires fusing of adjacent vertebrae following the removal of the damaged intervertebral disk. Thus, spinal flexibility is reduced.

Topic:  Sec. 5.4

Blooms:  Applying/Analyzing

LO:  5.4

GLO:  G9

 

3) If a child needed to have surgery that removed all growth plates, what would be the effect on bone growth?

Answer:  Growth plates are located as a narrow strip of cartilage between the diaphysis and epiphysis. If removed, the bone lengthening would stop, and the child would essentially remain the same height. Bones would still be able to grow in terms of width.

Topic:  Sec. 5.2

Blooms:  Applying/Analyzing

LO:  5.2

GLO:  G8

 

 

4) A number of different hormones work together to influence bone growth and integrity. Explain how each of the following hormones affects the development for the maintenance of bone: growth hormone, estrogen, testosterone, calcitonin, parathyroid hormone

Answer:  Growth hormone is primarily active during childhood and stimulates the lengthening of bones at the growth plates. Estrogen and testosterone also stimulate growth at the growth plate early during puberty, but as adolescence draws to a close, these same hormones stimulate the ossification of the growth plates, signaling the end of growth in bone length. Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone (PTH) affect the deposition of calcium or removal of calcium from bones as they attempt to regulate calcium homeostasis. PTH stimulates osteoclast activity and moves calcium from the bone stores into the blood. Calcitonin has the opposite effect, stimulating osteoblast activity and the deposition of calcium in the bone.

Topic:  Sec. 5.3

Blooms:  Applying/Analyzing

LO:  5.3

GLO:  G8

 

Human Biology: Concepts and Current Issues, 8e (Johnson)

Chapter 13   The Endocrine System

 

13.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) Which of the following tissues/organs is NOT a member of the endocrine system?

  1. A) kidney
  2. B) salivary gland
  3. C) adrenal gland
  4. D) thyroid gland
  5. E) stomach

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 13.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.1

GLO:  G1

 

2) Hormones act upon specific target tissues because

  1. A) they interact only with target cells at a synapse.
  2. B) they are released next to target tissues, so they cannot interact with other cells.
  3. C) target tissues display the appropriate receptor for a particular hormone.
  4. D) they can be released only following depolarization of the target cell.
  5. E) the blood has access to all body tissues.

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 13.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.1

GLO:  G1

 

3) All of the following statements about the endocrine system are TRUE EXCEPT which one?

  1. A) Many hormones are not able to cross the blood-brain barrier.
  2. B) Hormones are distributed via the circulatory system.
  3. C) Hormones exert their effects on cells that have the specific hormone receptor.
  4. D) Hormones act more quickly than the nervous system.
  5. E) The endocrine system and the nervous system frequently interact.

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 13.1

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.1

GLO:  G1

 

 

4) Nonsteroid hormones differ from steroid hormones in that they

  1. A) cause a change to occur in the target cell.
  2. B) bind to an intracellular receptor.
  3. C) are water insoluble.
  4. D) cannot be stored.
  5. E) bind to a receptor on the outer surface of the cell membrane.

Answer:  E

Topic:  Sec. 13.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.2a

GLO:  G1

5) The following is a list of events involved in the activation of a cell by a steroid hormone. Which one of the following answers best represents the order in which the steps occur?

  1. cellular response to the hormone
  2. activation of a gene
  3. formation of a hormone-receptor complex
  4. diffusion of the hormone through a target cell membrane
  5. production of a protein
  6. A) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1
  7. B) 2, 5, 4, 3, 1
  8. C) 5, 3, 4, 1, 2
  9. D) 2, 5, 1, 3, 4
  10. E) 4, 3, 2, 1, 5

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 13.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.2a

GLO:  G1

 

6) The action of nonsteroid hormones often results in conversion of ATP to cyclic AMP, which then functions

  1. A) as an internal receptor for steroid hormones.
  2. B) as an enzyme in the generation of ATP.
  3. C) to initiate a cascade of enzyme activations.
  4. D) to stimulate the release of the original hormone from the cell surface receptor.
  5. E) as a secondary hormone released into the bloodstream.

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 13.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.2a

GLO:  G1

 

 

7) The pituitary gland is often called the master of the endocrine system because

  1. A) it secretes eight different hormones that in turn regulate many of the other endocrine glands.
  2. B) all other hormones must be activated by enzymes released by the pituitary gland.
  3. C) it contains neuroendocrine cells that activate many of the other endocrine glands.
  4. D) all blood vessels must pass through the pituitary so hormones can be regulated.
  5. E) releasing and inhibiting factors for most other endocrine glands are released by the pituitary.

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3a

GLO:  G1

8) The anterior pituitary gland produces all of the following EXCEPT which one?

  1. A) ACTH
  2. B) LH
  3. C) PRL
  4. D) TSH
  5. E) ADH

Answer:  E

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

 

9) Luteinizing hormone is considered a gonadotropin because of which one of the following reasons?

  1. A) It stimulates the growth and development of gonads, but only in females.
  2. B) It stimulates the growth but not the development of gonads in males.
  3. C) It promotes the growth of reproductive organs in both males and females.
  4. D) It functions to complement the activity of TSH.
  5. E) It triggers the production of gonadotropin hormones.

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c, 13.7

GLO:  G1

 

 

10) When oxytocin is released during childbirth, the hormone targets cells in the

  1. A) kidneys.
  2. B) breasts.
  3. C) hypothalamus.
  4. D) uterus.
  5. E) breasts and uterus.

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3b

GLO:  G1

 

11) FSH is a hormone important to the proper functioning of the ovaries and testes. This hormone will not be released from the anterior pituitary until ________ is released from the hypothalamus.

  1. A) TSH
  2. B) GnRH
  3. C) ACTH
  4. D) LH
  5. E) PRL

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c, 13.7

GLO:  G1

12) Hyposecretion of ADH results in

  1. A) stimulation of protein synthesis.
  2. B) reduced uptake of blood glucose.
  3. C) diabetes insipidus.
  4. D) an increase in the mass and length of bones.
  5. E) overstimulation of cell division.

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3b

GLO:  G1

 

 

13) Which one of the following hormones stimulates the production of testosterone in males?

  1. A) prolactin
  2. B) LH
  3. C) aldosterone
  4. D) FSH
  5. E) growth hormone

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c, 13.7

GLO:  G1

 

14) Insufficient production of growth hormone by the anterior pituitary may result in

  1. A) diabetes insipidus.
  2. B) a drop in blood glucose levels.
  3. C) acromegaly.
  4. D) dwarfism.
  5. E) gigantism.

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

 

15) Uptake of blood glucose by liver cells is stimulated by

  1. A) ADH.
  2. B) prolactin.
  3. C) parathyroid hormone.
  4. D) glucagon.
  5. E) insulin.

Answer:  E

Topic:  Sec. 13.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.4

GLO:  G1

16) Insulin helps regulate blood sugar at homeostatic levels by

  1. A) stimulating alpha cells of the pancreas to produce more hormones.
  2. B) promoting the entry of glucose into cells.
  3. C) stimulating the breakdown of glycogen to glucose.
  4. D) activating hormone production in the posterior pituitary gland.
  5. E) promoting the breakdown of fat.

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 13.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.4

GLO:  G1

 

17) Cortisol is a glucocorticoid that helps maintain blood glucose levels during fasting by

  1. A) stimulating the synthesis of fatty acids.
  2. B) promoting the conversion of amino acids into proteins in muscle tissues.
  3. C) increasing the glucose-dependent inflammatory response.
  4. D) promoting fat utilization.
  5. E) inhibiting glucose utilization in muscle cells.

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 13.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.5a

GLO:  G1

 

18) During times of stress, which one of the following glands stimulates the anterior pituitary to release ACTH?

  1. A) hypothalamus
  2. B) pancreas
  3. C) adrenal medulla
  4. D) posterior pituitary
  5. E) anterior pituitary

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 13.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.5a

GLO:  G1

 

19) Prednisone is a glucocorticoid hormone that is sometimes prescribed to treat rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, and severe allergic reactions. If prednisone were taken for several weeks, which one of the following might occur?

  1. A) Production of natural cortisol may decrease.
  2. B) Production of estrogen by the ovaries may decrease.
  3. C) Levels of thyroid hormone may be elevated.
  4. D) Levels of aldosterone may be elevated.
  5. E) Levels of parathyroid hormone may be decreased.

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 13.5

Blooms:  Applying/Analyzing

LO:  13.5a

GLO:  G2

 

20) An individual, driving through his neighborhood, suddenly jams on his car brakes to avoid hitting a child who runs into the road after a ball. A few seconds later, the driver finds that he is shaking and his heart is pounding. This is primarily due to the secretion of which one of the following?

  1. A) epinephrine from the adrenal medulla
  2. B) cortisol from the adrenal cortex
  3. C) insulin from the pancreas
  4. D) thyroxine from the thyroid
  5. E) norepinephrine from the adrenal cortex

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 13.5

Blooms:  Applying/Analyzing

LO:  13.5b

GLO:  G2

 

21) Which one of the following causes the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine from the adrenal medulla?

  1. A) ACTH from the anterior pituitary
  2. B) AMTH form the anterior pituitary
  3. C) releasing hormone from the hypothalamus
  4. D) sympathetic nerves
  5. E) parasympathetic nerves

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 13.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.5b

GLO:  G1

 

22) A goiter results from low dietary iodine levels

  1. A) because the hypothalamus cannot be inhibited without iodine.
  2. B) because ADH levels rise controllably.
  3. C) due to the activity of the anterior pituitary gland.
  4. D) as glucagon levels elevate.
  5. E) because thyroxine cannot be made, which results in high levels of TSH.

Answer:  E

Topic:  Sec. 13.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.6a

GLO:  G1

 

 

23) Thyroxine is released from the thyroid gland in response to the presence of

  1. A) ACTH.
  2. B) TSH.
  3. C) FSH.
  4. D) LH.
  5. E) GH.

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 13.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.6a

GLO:  G1

24) Which one of the following is required in the diet in order for active thyroid hormones to be produced?

  1. A) calcium
  2. B) phosphorus
  3. C) iodine
  4. D) zinc
  5. E) iron

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 13.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.6a

GLO:  G1

 

25) Which two endocrine glands exert the most control over blood calcium levels?

  1. A) thyroid and ovaries
  2. B) adrenal cortex and thyroid
  3. C) anterior pituitary and adrenal cortex
  4. D) thyroid and parathyroid
  5. E) parathyroid and anterior pituitary

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 13.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.6a, 13.6b

GLO:  G1

 

 

26) The ovaries of women function as endocrine organs by producing

  1. A) estrogen and progesterone.
  2. B) oxytocin.
  3. C) growth hormone.
  4. D) ADH.
  5. E) prostaglandins.

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 13.7

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.7

GLO:  G1

 

27) All of following statements are TRUE regarding estrogen and progesterone, EXCEPT which one?

  1. A) They are produced and secreted by the ovaries in response to hormones from the anterior pituitary gland.
  2. B) They are released during a females reproductive years.
  3. C) They are peptide hormones that activate target cells through the cyclic AMP second messenger mechanism.
  4. D) They regulate the menstrual cycle.
  5. E) They stimulate development of female secondary sex characteristics.

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 13.7

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.7

GLO:  G1

28) The thymus produces two peptides that function to

  1. A) regulate iodine levels in the thyroid.
  2. B) aid in the maturation of T lymphocytes.
  3. C) regulate thyroxine release.
  4. D) increase blood calcium levels.
  5. E) promote the breakdown of bone.

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 13.8

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.8a

GLO:  G1

 

 

29) Which one of the following is caused by the secretion of atrial natriuretic hormone by the heart?

  1. A) decrease in blood pressure
  2. B) decrease in blood calcium level
  3. C) decrease in kidney function
  4. D) increase of blood sugar level
  5. E) increased production of fats and proteins

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 13.8

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.8b

GLO:  G1

 

30) Which one of the following nonhormonal chemical messengers is important in local control of blood flow and blood clotting?

  1. A) prostaglandins
  2. B) nerve growth factor
  3. C) tumor angiogenesis growth factor
  4. D) histamine
  5. E) epidermal growth factor

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 13.9

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.9

GLO:  G1

 

31) All of the following may result from untreated diabetes mellitus EXCEPT which one?

  1. A) neural disorders
  2. B) kidney failure
  3. C) blindness
  4. D) cardiovascular disorders
  5. E) increased susceptibility to cancer

Answer:  E

Topic:  Current Issue

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.10

GLO:  G1

 

32) Which one of the following hormone pairs is antagonistic, in that they have opposing effects?

  1. A) estrogen, progesterone
  2. B) epinephrine, norepinephrine
  3. C) glucagon, insulin
  4. D) oxytocin, prolactin
  5. E) thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 13.3, 13.4, 13.5, 13.6, 13.7

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.4

GLO:  G1

 

13.2   True/False Questions

 

1) Every hormone in the human body needs to interact with an appropriate receptor on the target cells membrane before it can cause a response.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 13.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.1

GLO:  G1

 

2) Steroid hormones typically move across the cell and nuclear membranes to bind to receptors in the nucleus.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 13.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.2a

GLO:  G1

 

3) Nonsteroid hormones cause the production of ATP from cAMP.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 13.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.2a

GLO:  G1

 

4) The secretion of oxytocin during childbirth stimulates ADH release by the anterior pituitary gland.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3b

GLO:  G1

 

 

5) In females, LH promotes the monthly development of the egg and FSH causes release of the egg from the ovary.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

6) Disorders associated with the endocrine system can be caused by problems with hormone production or lack of receptors for the hormones on the target cells.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.1

GLO:  G1

 

7) Somatostatin functions to inhibit both insulin and glucagon.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 13.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.4

GLO:  G1

 

8) The alpha, beta, and delta cells located in the islets of Langerhans of the thyroid produce three different hormones that are important in the regulation of sodium and potassium levels of the blood.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 13.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.4

GLO:  G1

 

9) Insulin helps regulate blood sugar levels by stimulating the release of glucose from glycogen stores.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 13.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.4

GLO:  G1

 

10) The levels of potassium and sodium in the body are regulated primarily by the hormone aldosterone.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 13.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.5b

GLO:  G1

 

11) Epinephrine and norepinephrine secreted by the adrenal gland enhance the response of the parasympathetic nervous system.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 13.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.5b

GLO:  G1

12) During prolonged fasting, cortisol assists in maintaining blood glucose levels by stimulating the conversion of proteins to amino acids in muscle.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 13.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.5a

GLO:  G1

 

13) When the amount of thyroxine in the body increases, the basal metabolic rate of the body also increases.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 13.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.6a

GLO:  G1

 

14) The responsiveness of cells to calcitonin increases as an individual ages; maximum responsiveness occurs in elderly individuals as a mechanism to improve the stability and strength of bones.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 13.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.6a

GLO:  G1

 

15) Nitric oxide helps regulate blood flow in many tissues and is involved in the development and control of penile erection.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 13.9

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.9

GLO:  G1

 

 

16) Graves disease is an autoimmune disorder in which a persons thyroid is stimulated to produce too much thyroxine.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 13.10

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.10

GLO:  G1

 

17) Erythropoietin, a hormone secreted by the liver, stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow.

Answer:  FALSE

Topic:  Sec. 13.8

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.8b

GLO:  G1

18) Calcitonin and PTH have opposing effects on blood calcium levels.

Answer:  TRUE

Topic:  Sec. 13.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.6a, 13.6b

GLO:  G1

 

13.3   Matching Questions

 

Match each of the following hormones to its target organ.

 

  1. A) ovary, testis
  2. B) breasts
  3. C) adrenal cortex
  4. D) anterior pituitary
  5. E) stomach
  6. F) thyroid
  7. G) kidney
  8. H) muscles and bones

 

1) ACTH

Topic: Sec. 13.3

Blooms: Remembering/Understanding

LO: 13.3c

GLO: G1

 

2) thyrotropin

Topic: Sec. 13.3

Blooms: Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

 

3) GnRH

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

 

4) ADH

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3b

GLO:  G1

 

5) growth hormone

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

 

 

6) LH

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

 

7) gastrin

Topic:  Sec. 13.8

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.8b

GLO:  G1

8) prolactin

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

 

Answers: 1) C 2) F 3) D 4) G 5) H 6) A 7) E 8) B

 

 

Using the figure above, identify each endocrine gland (A-G).

 

9) adrenal gland

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 13.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.5a, 13.5b

GLO:  G1

 

10) thyroid gland

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 13.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.6a

GLO:  G1

 

11) pancreas

Answer:  E

Topic:  Sec. 13.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.4

GLO:  G1

 

12) pituitary

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3a

GLO:  G1

 

13) ovaries

Answer:  F

Topic:  Sec. 13.7

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.7

GLO:  G1

 

14) testes

Answer:  G

Topic:  Sec. 13.7

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.7

GLO:  G1

 

15) thymus

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 13.8

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.8a

GLO:  G1

 


Match each of the following hormones to its function.

 

  1. A) insulin
  2. B) LH
  3. C) oxytocin
  4. D) calcitonin
  5. E) ACTH
  6. F) aldosterone

 

16) stimulates cell uptake of glucose by cells throughout the body

Topic: Sec. 13.4

Blooms: Remembering/Understanding

LO: 13.4

GLO: G1

 

17) promotes sodium uptake and potassium excretion

Topic:  Sec. 13.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.5b

GLO:  G1

 

18) lowers blood calcium levels

Topic:  Sec. 13.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.6a

GLO:  G1

 

19) causes ejection of milk into ducts during breast-feeding

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3b

GLO:  G1

 

20) stimulates the release of glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

 

21) causes release of the egg from the ovary

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

 

Answers: 16) A 17) F 18) D 19) C 20) E 21) B

 

Match each event labeled on the graph with the description of what is occurring in relation to blood glucose levels.

 

22) pancreas stops secretion of insulin

Answer:  D

Topic:  Sec. 13.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.4

GLO:  G1, G3

 

23) glucagon secretion is inhibited

Answer:  A

Topic:  Sec. 13.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.4

GLO:  G1, G3

 

24) adipose tissues use glucose to produce fats for storage

Answer:  C

Topic:  Sec. 13.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.4

GLO:  G1, G4

 

25) peak glucose levels in plasma

Answer:  B

Topic:  Sec. 13.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.4

GLO:  G1, G4

 

13.4   Short Answer Questions

 

1) Nonsteroid hormones require a(n) ________ on the cell surface to communicate with cells.

Answer:  receptor

Topic:  Sec. 13.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.2a

GLO:  G1

 

2) Steroid hormones depend on receptors inside the cell because these hormones are ________ soluble.

Answer:  lipid

Topic:  Sec. 13.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.2a

GLO:  G1

 

3) ________ cells have axons that can transmit nerve impulses in addition to being able to secrete hormones like endocrine cells.

Answer:  Neuroendocrine

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3b, 13.5b

GLO:  G1

 

4) Nonsteroid hormones are ________ acting than steroid hormones because they activate molecules that are already present in the target cell in an inactive form.

Answer:  faster

Topic:  Sec. 13.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.2a

GLO:  G1

 

5) Hormones important in internal homeostatic control mechanisms are generally part of a(n) ________ feedback loop.

Answer:  negative

Topic:  Sec. 13.2

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.2b

GLO:  G1

 

6) Neuroendocrine cells can be found in the ________.

Answer:           hypothalamus, adrenal cortex, posterior pituitary (any term can be used)

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3b, 13.5b

GLO:  G1

7) Releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus are carried to the anterior pituitary gland by the ________.

Answer:  pituitary portal system

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

 

8) Hormones from the anterior pituitary gland are not secreted unless they are stimulated to be released by ________ from the hypothalamus.

Answer:  releasing hormones

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

 

9) Gigantism is caused by hypersecretion of ________ hormone during childhood and adolescence.

Answer:  growth

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

 

10) The endocrine cells of the pancreas are located in small groupings throughout the organ known as the ________.

Answer:           islets of Langerhans or pancreatic islets (either answer is correct)

Topic:  Sec. 13.4

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.4

GLO:  G1

 

11) A student just finished a delicious breakfast of pancakes with syrup, orange juice, and Danish pastries. Because his blood sugar level has increased, the pancreas secretes ________.

Answer:  insulin

Topic:  Sec. 13.4

Blooms:  Applying/Analyzing

LO:  13.4

GLO:  G1, G2

 

12) ________ of growth hormone during childhood can result in pituitary dwarfism.

Answer:  Hyposecretion

Topic:  Sec. 13.3

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.3c

GLO:  G1

13) Although most of the estrogen and testosterone produced in the human body is made by the ovaries and testes, respectively, small amounts of these hormones are also produced by the ________.

Answer:  adrenal cortex

Topic:  Sec. 13.5

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.5a

GLO:  G1

 

14) The effect of parathyroid hormone is to ________ blood calcium levels.

Answer:  raise

Topic:  Sec. 13.6

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.6b

GLO:  G1

 

15) Thymosin and thymopoietin are secreted by the ________.

Answer:  thymus

Topic:  Sec. 13.8

Blooms:  Remembering/Understanding

LO:  13.8a

GLO:  G1

 

16) The pineal gland secretes ________, also known as the hormone of darkness.

Answer:  me

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