Human Development 11th Edition by Diane Papalia Sally Olds Ruth Feldman Test bank

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Human Development 11th Edition by Diane Papalia Sally Olds Ruth Feldman Test bank

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8 PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

Guideposts

1. How does the self-concept develop during early childhood, and do children show self-esteem, emotional growth, and initiative?
2. How do boys and girls become aware of the meaning of gender, and what explains differences in behavior between the sexes?
3. How do preschoolers play, and how does play contribute to and reflect development?
4. How do parenting practices influence development?
5. Why do young children help or hurt others, and why do they develop fears?
6. How do young children get along withor withoutsiblings, playmates, and friends?

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. A system of descriptive and evaluative representations about the self is called
A. self-concept.
B. self-awareness.
C. self-definition.
D. ideal self.
Answer: A
Page: 252
Guidepost: 1
Type: Knowledge

2. When children talk about their own concrete, observable behaviors, they are defining
A. cognition.
B. self.
C. others.
D. None of these.
Answer: B
Page: 252
Guidepost: 1
Type: Comprehension

3. When a 4-year-old boy is asked to describe himself, he will typically tell you about his
A. relational self.
B. real self.
C. descriptive self.
D. ideal self.
Answer: D
Page: 253
Guidepost: 1
Type: Comprehension

4. In neo-Piagetian terminology, the first stage in development of self-definition, in which children describe themselves in terms of individual unconnected characteristics and in all-or-nothing terms, is called
A. deductive.
B. single representations.
C. representational mappings.
D. ideal self.
Answer: B
Page: 253
Guidepost: 1
Type: Knowledge

5. Which of the following is a part of self-definition?
A. recognizing oneself
B. parental values
C. developing a concept of the ideal self
D. developing a concept of self-centeredness
Answer: C
Page: 252
Guidepost: 1
Type: Comprehension

6. The judgment children make about their overall worth is their
A. self-worth.
B. self-concept.
C. self-esteem.
D. self-description.
Answer: C
Page: 253
Guidepost: 1
Type: Knowledge

7. When Austin says, I am Spiderman, he is demonstrating a perception of his _______ self.
A. conception
B. real
C. ideal
D. perceived
Answer: C
Page: 253
Guidepost: 1
Type: Application

8. A child is motivated to achieve when his or her personal self-esteem is
A. high.
B. low.
C. medium.
D. absent.
Answer: A
Page: 254
Guidepost: 1
Type: Knowledge

9. When children with high self-esteem experience failure, they
A. attribute failure to themselves.
B. attribute disappointments to their own choices.
C. move on and do something different.
D. persevere and develop strategies that will provide success.
Answer: D
Page: 254-255
Guidepost: 1
Type: Comprehension

10. Understanding their emotions helps children to do all of the following EXCEPT
A. guide their behavior in social situations.
B. control the way they show their feelings.
C. talk about their feelings.
D. control all social situations.
Answer: D
Page: 255
Guidepost: 1
Type: Comprehension

11. According to research on childrens understanding of emotions, when 4-year-olds do something that has been forbidden by their parents, they feel shame
A. whether or not their parents see them perform the forbidden act.
B. only if their parents see them perform the forbidden act.
C. only if their parents punish them for performing the forbidden act.
D. never, even if their parents saw them perform the forbidden act.
Answer: D
Page: 256
Guidepost: 1
Type: Comprehension

12. At what age do children first begin to take pride in their accomplishments, even when no one is around to see them doing something well?
A. 4 to 5 years
B. 7 to 8 years
C. 10 to 12 years
D. 13 to 15 years
Answer: B
Page: 256
Guidepost: 1
Type: Knowledge

13. According to the text, which of the following is a reason for the difficulty that 3-year-olds have in understanding their own emotions?
A. They do not recognize that they can experience different emotions at the same time.
B. They only experience strong emotions when others around them show emotions.
C. They dont realize that anyone besides them actually has emotions.
D. They do not understand that emotions depend on innate, temperamental factors.
Answer: A
Page: 255
Guidepost: 1
Type: Knowledge

14. According to Erikson, which of the following is the central issue of early childhood?
A. trust versus mistrust
B. autonomy versus shame and doubt
C. initiative versus guilt
D. identity versus role confusion
Answer: C
Page: 256
Guidepost: 1
Type: Knowledge

15. According to Erikson, the conflict between young childrens urge to pursue goals and their moral judgments about those urges is
A. initiative versus guilt.
B. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
C. industry versus inferiority.
D. identity versus role confusion.
Answer: A
Page: 256
Guidepost: 1
Type: Knowledge

16. Four-year-old Marcie would like to hide her little brothers toys in the basement. However, she realizes this will make her brother cry, and she wonders if she will feel bad about this. According to Erikson, Marcie is experiencing the conflict of
A. identity versus role confusion.
B. initiative versus guilt.
C. purpose versus will.
D. industry versus inferiority.
Answer: B
Page: 256
Guidepost: 1
Type: Application

17. The virtue acquired through successful resolution of Eriksons developmental crisis of initiative versus guilt is
A. hope.
B. purpose.
C. trust.
D. will.
Answer: B
Page: 256
Guidepost: 1
Type: Knowledge

18. According to Erikson, a child who feels comfortable trying new things, without excessive guilt or fear, is said to have acquired the virtue of
A. will.
B. hope.
C. trust.
D. purpose.
Answer: D
Page: 256
Guidepost: 1
Type: Knowledge

19. Gender refers to
A. role-learning.
B. what it means to be male or female.
C. identification with parents.
D. friendship patterns between males and females.
Answer: B
Page: 256
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

20. Psychological or behavioral differences between males and females are called
A. sex differences.
B. gender differences.
C. gender stereotypes.
D. gender constancy.
Answer: B
Page: 256
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

21. One of the measurable differences between males and females is that females
A. have a biological advantage for survival.
B. are more physically vulnerable.
C. are more reactive to stress.
D. are more active in utero than males.
Answer: A
Page: 257
Guidepost: 2
Type: Comprehension

22. Research has found that the genders differ in that
A. boys are more physically aggressive.
B. girls are more empathetic.
C. boys are more cooperative.
D. girls know more about taking care of babies.
Answer: A
Page: 257
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

23. Mike is becoming aware that he is a boy and that boys play with trucks and trains. He is developing a gender
A. need.
B. role.
C. desire.
D. All of these.
Answer: B
Page: 257
Guidepost: 2
Type: Application

24. Learning ones gender role is called
A. achieving gender identity.
B. gender conservation.
C. gender-typing.
D. gender stereotyping.
Answer: C
Page: 257
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

25. Melissa is 4 years old, and now wants to avoid dressing like a boy. She talks about being a wife and mommy when she grows up. Melissa is engaged in the process of
A. sex-typing.
B. gender-typing.
C. sexism-generalizing.
D. conflict-resolution.
Answer: B
Page: 257
Guidepost: 2
Type: Application

26. At preschool, Tommy plays with trucks and Mary plays with dolls. They are
A. undergoing gender-typing.
B. acquiring gender stereotypes.
C. learning the sexism schema.
D. becoming androgynous.
Answer: A
Page: 257
Guidepost: 2
Type: Comprehension

27. Gender stereotypes are
A. preconceived generalizations about male and female behavior.
B. often a result of gender conservation and identity.
C. based on myths about sex differences.
D. All of these.
Answer: A
Page: 258
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

28. Gender differences are believed to be influenced by
A. hormones.
B. parents.
C. the media.
D. All of these.
Answer: D
Page: 256-257
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

29. Research has linked aggressive behavior in certain animals to prenatal exposure to the hormone
A. estrogen.
B. progesterone.
C. testosterone.
D. adrenaline.
Answer: C
Page: 259
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

30. A male rat has been given an injection of testosterone. Which of the following behaviors is likely to INCREASE as a consequence?
A. aggressive behavior
B. maternal behavior
C. nonspecific gender behavior
D. All of these.
Answer: A
Page: 259
Guidepost: 2
Type: Application

31. A baby boy had reconstructive surgery to have his severely damaged penis removed, and thereafter, he was raised as a girl. He rejected this female role as a teenager, providing evidence that
A. gender identity requires more counseling.
B. gender assignment works when the social support is increased.
C. gender identity may be rooted in chromosomal structure.
D. gender identity occurs in early childhood.
Answer: C
Page: 259
Guidepost: 2
Type: Comprehension

32. Ruthann has a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which has caused her to
A. prefer the gender-specific behavior of other girls.
B. prefer the type of rough-and-tumble play activities that boys generally prefer.
C. show decreased spatial skill orientation.
D. seek out female playmates and reject playing with boys.
Answer: B
Page: 259
Guidepost: 2
Type: Comprehension

33. According to ___________, male competitiveness and aggressiveness and female nurturance develop during childhood as preparation for these adult roles.
A. evolutionary theory
B. Piagetian theory
C. behaviorism
D. learning theory
Answer: A
Page 259
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

34. Freud referred to the adoption of the characteristics, values, and behaviors of the parent of the same sex as
A. gender identity.
B. gender-typing.
C. identification.
D. androgyny.
Answer: C
Page: 260
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

35. Jessica imitates her mothers gestures, speech, and behaviors. Which of the following terms describes this?
A. identification
B. reinforcement
C. role conflict
D. gender constancy
Answer: A
Page: 260
Guidepost: 2
Type: Application

36. According to Kohlberg, children learn their gender through
A. identification.
B. imitation of adult models, reinforcement, and punishment.
C. their own active mental classification and organization of behavior.
D. maturation.
Answer: C
Page: 260
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

37. Brooke becomes upset because a stranger mistakes her for a boy. Kohlberg would say that she has developed
A. gender conservation.
B. gender constancy.
C. penis envy.
D. cognitive awareness.
Answer: B
Page: 261
Guidepost: 2
Type: Application

38. Tina realizes that she will never be a boy. According to Kohlberg, she has developed
A. identification.
B. gender identity.
C. gender constancy.
D. penis envy.
Answer: C
Page: 261
Guidepost: 2
Type: Application

39. Danielle knows that she is a girl, but she becomes angry when she is told that she cannot grow up to be a father. I will, too! she cries. According to cognitive-developmental theory, she has not yet achieved
A. gender identity.
B. gender constancy.
C. penis envy.
D. an Electra complex.
Answer: B
Page: 261
Guidepost: 2
Type: Application

40. Which of the following behavior patterns is INCONSISTENT with Kohlbergs views regarding the acquisition of gender roles?
A. A young boy has acquired gender constancy and refuses to play dolls with his sister.
B. A young girl has not yet achieved gender constancy and claims to want to be a daddy when she grows up.
C. A young boy has not yet achieved gender identity, and when asked if he is a boy or girl, he says he doesnt know.
D. A young boy who has not yet achieved gender constancy asks to be given only toys for boys and no girl toys for his birthday.
Answer: D
Page: 261
Guidepost: 2
Type: Comprehension

41. According to Sandra Bems gender-schema theory, how do children adopt gender-appropriate behavior?
A. through identification with same-sex parent after resolution of sexual conflict
B. as a result of imitation and reinforcement
C. as a by-product of achieving gender constancy
D. by socializing themselves to their gender roles
Answer: D
Page: 261
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

42. Don is beginning to understand how his culture classifies males and females. Based upon this knowledge, Don is developing patterns of behavior based upon his organized knowledge of male-appropriate and female-appropriate behavior. According to Bem, the patterns of behavior that Don is beginning to develop are organized around
A. sexism schema.
B. gender constancy.
C. gender schema.
D. gender identity.
Answer: C
Page: 261-262
Guidepost: 2
Type: Application

43. According to traditional social learning theory, children acquire gender roles by observing models. Children then
A. pick models that are powerful and nurturing.
B. always pick the same sex parent.
C. avoid patterning themselves after peers.
D. focus only on indirect teaching by parents.
Answer: A
Page: 262-263
Guidepost: 2
Type: Comprehension

44. Social learning theory holds that a child identifies with a parent
A. as a consequence of the phallic stage.
B. after resolving the Electra or Oedipus complex.
C. through observation and imitation.
D. because of guilt.
Answer: C
Page: 263-264
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

45. Some studies have found that parents affect childrens knowledge about gender more than their gender
A. identity.
B. schemas.
C. behavior.
D. constancy.
Answer: C
Page: 263-264
Guidepost: 2
Type: Comprehension

46. Billy sees his father working with power tools. As a consequence, Billy grows up enjoying work with power tools himself, and he perceives this kind of work to be masculine. The sequence of events is consistent with the ___________________ theory of identification.
A. psychoanalytic
B. gender-constancy
C. social learning
D. conflict-resolution
Answer: C
Page: 263
Guidepost: 2
Type: Application

47. With regard to the social learning theory of gender-typing, research has indicated that
A. boys do not imitate their mothers.
B. most parents punish fighting and reward helpfulness in girls but not in boys.
C. children imitate their parents as well as many other adults.
D. children are more similar to their parents than to other adults.
Answer: C
Page: 263
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

48. In socializing children, parents generally
A. treat boys and girls about the same until age 2 or 3.
B. give girls more latitude than boys with regard to gender roles.
C. show less tolerance for tomboys than for sissies.
D. have little influence on gender-role development.
Answer: B
Page: 263
Guidepost: 2
Type: Comprehension

49. ____________ are most likely to encourage ____________ to engage in gender-typed activities appropriate for their sex.
A. Mothers; sons
B. Fathers; sons
C. Mothers; daughters
D. Fathers; daughters
Answer: B
Page: 263
Guidepost: 2
Type: Comprehension

50. Which of the following preschool children is most likely to show strong gender-typing?
A. Leila, whose mother works full time outside the home
B. Jim, who lives with his divorced mother
C. Jacob, whose father becomes upset when he plays with dolls
D. Marla, whose father lets his wife make all major decisions
Answer: C
Page: 263
Guidepost: 2
Type: Application

51. In egalitarian households, the _____________ role in gender socialization seems especially important.
A. fathers
B. mothers
C. neighbors
D. None of these.
Answer: A
Page: 263
Guidepost: 2
Type: Comprehension

52. Which of the following statements about the images of males and females on television is true?
A. More females are shown than males.
B. Gender stereotypes are more pronounced on television than in real life.
C. Gender-typing on television approximates real-life gender roles.
D. Gender stereotyping on television has been largely eliminated in recent years.
Answer: B
Page: 263-264
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

53. Frankie is a second-born sibling in a family of four. Frankies gender development will likely
A. become more like his mothers.
B. become more like his fathers.
C. become more like that of his older sibling.
D. be a combination of all family members.
Answer: C
Page: 263
Guidepost: 2
Type: Application

54. Social learning theory would predict that watching current television programs will ______ gender-typing.
A. increase
B. decrease
C. eliminate
D. have no impact on
Answer: A
Page: 263
Guidepost: 2
Type: Application

55. Social learning theory would predict that a boys peers will provide
A. reinforcement for gender-typed behavior.
B. inconsistency in gender behavior.
C. approval of opposite sex gender-typed behavior.
D. no impact on gender-typing.
Answer: A
Page: 263
Guidepost: 2
Type: Knowledge

56. According to social cognitive theory,
A. parents are the reinforcers of childrens behavior.
B. parents and peers in combination influence socialization.
C. children only learn socialization after they begin school.
D. socialization is a complex system involving parents, peers, and other agents.
Answer: D
Page: 262-263
Guidepost: 2
Type: Comprehension

57. While engaged in play, young children do all of the following EXCEPT
A. stimulate their senses.
B. coordinate sight with movement.
C. practice being quiet.
D. acquire new skills.
Answer: C
Page: 265
Guidepost: 3
Type: Knowledge

58. Play that involves repetitive muscular movements involving gross motor skills is called ______ play.
A. functional
B. constructive
C. pretend
D. generic
Answer: A
Page: 265
Guidepost: 3
Type: Knowledge

59. Rich spends a considerable amount of his play time making things out of blocks, coloring and painting, and making art projects. Rich is engaged in ______ play.
A. functional
B. constructive
C. pretend
D. generic
Answer: B
Page: 265
Guidepost: 3
Type: Application

60. Stacy and Mindy enjoy organized games, play hours of Monopoly, and have become champions at marbles. The girls are engaged in ______ play.
A. functional
B. constructive
C. pretend
D. formal
Answer: D
Page: 265
Guidepost: 3
Type: Application

61. A high level of solitary play may indicate that a child has
A. high levels of maturity.
B. a physical disability.
C. experienced child abuse.
D. high levels of passivity.
Answer: A
Page: 267
Guidepost: 3
Type: Comprehension

62. According to the text, which of the following statements regarding solitary play is TRUE?
A. Children in the 1920s exhibited more solitary play than children do today.
B. Solitary play seems associated with independence and maturity.
C. Children who engage in solitary play are at high risk for social problems.
D. Children who engage in solitary play are less mature than children who engage only in social play.
Answer: B
Page: 267
Guidepost: 3
Type: Knowledge

63. Several children are playing in the same area. Each child plays with blocks in a different way, without any attempt to alter the others play. They are engaged in which kind of play?
A. associative
B. parallel
C. solitary
D. cooperative
Answer: B
Page: 267
Guidepost: 3
Type: Application

64. Stacy has an imaginary friend, Mindy. Stacy can be expected to be a ______ child.
A. happy
B. imaginative
C. cooperative
D. All of these.
Answer: D
Page: 268
Guidepost: 3
Type: Application

65. The tendency toward sex segregation in play seems to be
A. cultural.
B. universal.
C. uncommon.
D. decreasing.
Answer: B
Page: 269
Guidepost: 3
Type: Knowledge

66. In research described in your textbook, which of the following was NOT encouraged in Anglo-American preschools?
A. independent thinking
B. problem solving
C. active involvement in learning
D. academic skills development
Answer: D
Page: 269
Guidepost: 3
Type: Knowledge

67. A method of molding character, teaching self-control, and encouraging acceptable behavior is called
A. development.
B. discipline.
C. distrust.
D. description.
Answer: B
Page: 270
Guidepost: 4
Type: Knowledge

68. If punishment is used, it is best administered
A. as soon as the unacceptable behavior begins.
B. only after an unacceptable behavior has been completed.
C. only after the behavior has been repeated several times.
D. by someone with whom the child has little contact.
Answer: A
Page: 270
Guidepost: 4
Type: Knowledge

69. If punishment is used, it is most effective when combined with
A. no explanation.
B. a full explanation.
C. a short explanation.
D. a postponed explanation, so that the child will have time to think about it.
Answer: C
Page: 270
Guidepost: 4
Type: Knowledge

70. Linda has been caught throwing rocks at a neighbors house. Her parents wish to stop this behavior through punishment. To be most effective, it would be best to have which of the following people administer the punishment?
A. Her mother, who is usually nurturing and affectionate toward Linda.
B. Her father, who is usually cold and distant toward Linda.
C. A relative who is kind, but whom Linda does not know very well.
D. Punishment would be equally effective from any of these three people.
Answer: A
Page: 270
Guidepost: 4
Type: Application

71. Punishment that is consistent, immediate, and related to the offense is called ____________ punishment.
A. prudent
B. imprudent
C. appropriate
D. effective
Answer: D
Page: 270
Guidepost: 4
Type: Knowledge

72. Ellen has just run across the street against her parents wishes. Her parents firmly explain to her that she must not do that again because she could get hurt. Ellens parents are using _______________ as a form of discipline.
A. inductive techniques
B. power assertion
C. withdrawal of love
D. external reinforcement
Answer: A
Page: 271
Guidepost: 4
Type: Application

73. Demands, threats, denial of privileges, and spanking are considered ______________ forms of discipline.
A. withdrawal of love
B. power assertive
C. inductive
D. negatively reinforced
Answer: B
Page: 271
Guidepost: 4
Type: Knowledge

74. An important goal of parental discipline is to help the child develop self-discipline. The most effective disciplinary strategy to achieve this goal is
A. induction.
B. power assertion.
C. withdrawal of love.
D. physical punishment.
Answer: A
Page: 271
Guidepost: 4
Type: Knowledge

75. Which kind of parental style emphasizes control and unquestioning obedience?
A. authoritarian
B. permissive
C. authoritative
D. egalitarian
Answer: A
Page: 272
Guidepost: 4
Type: Knowledge

76. When Barbara asks her father why she is not allowed to play in the street, he says, Because I say so, and if you dont do what I say, you will get a spanking. This illustrates the ______________ style of parenting.
A. permissive
B. authoritarian
C. authoritative
D. longitudinal
Answer: B
Page: 272
Guidepost: 4
Type: Application

77. Which kind of parent tends not to set rules, but allows children to monitor their own behavior?
A. authoritarian
B. permissive
C. authoritative
D. egalitarian
Answer: B
Page: 272
Guidepost: 4
Type: Knowledge

78. Five-year-old Chads parents let him go to bed whenever he chooses. He can explore the neighborhood and go to anyones house anytime he wishes. Which style of parenting is this?
A. authoritarian
B. permissive
C. authoritative
D. egalitarian
Answer: B
Page: 272
Guidepost: 4
Type: Application

79. Which of the following describes the behavior of authoritative parents?
A. They allow children to make judgments about proper behavior.
B. They rely on strict rules.
C. They never impose punishment.
D. They rely on childrens fear of losing their love.
Answer: A
Page: 272
Guidepost: 4
Type: Knowledge

80. Research suggests that the most self-reliant, self-controlled, and contented children have parents who are
A. authoritarian.
B. permissive.
C. authoritative.
D. egalitarian.
Answer: C
Page: 272
Guidepost: 4
Type: Knowledge

81. Prosocial behavior is
A. motivated by concern for another person.
B. motivated by reward and punishment.
C. a form of social learning.
D. the main goal of socialization.
Answer: A
Page: 274
Guidepost: 5
Type: Knowledge

82. Factors that have consistently been related to prosocial behavior include
A. gender of the child.
B. parents income.
C. age of the child.
D. social status of the family.
Answer: C
Page: 274
Guidepost: 5
Type: Knowledge

83. Jenny offered to share her peanut butter and jelly sandwich (her favorite kind) with another child who has no lunch. Jenny is most likely to be
A. at least 6 years old.
B. from a high-income family.
C. advanced in moral reasoning.
D. in an Electra complex.
Answer: C
Page: 274
Guidepost: 5
Type: Application

84. A cognitive capability that is related to the occurrence of prosocial behavior is
A. obedience.
B. detachment.
C. empathy.
D. gender identity.
Answer: C
Page: 274
Guidepost: 5
Type: Comprehension

85. Parents of prosocial children tend to do all of the following EXCEPT
A. encourage reflection on actions.
B. emphasize ethical principles.
C. emphasize obedience.
D. set high standards.
Answer: C
Page: 274
Guidepost: 5
Type: Knowledge

86. Parents of prosocial children tend to discipline them by
A. reasoning.
B. scolding.
C. spanking.
D. withdrawing affection.
Answer: A
Page: 274
Guidepost: 5
Type: Knowledge

87. Which method of discipline seems to promote prosocial behavior in children?
A. power assertion
B. withdrawal of love
C. proactive
D. inductive
Answer: D
Page: 274
Guidepost: 5
Type: Comprehension

88. Tommy Jon knocks over another child while running to the street to see a circus parade. Tommy Jon is displaying
A. instrumental aggression.
B. classical aggression.
C. displaced aggression.
D. hostile aggression.
Answer: A
Page: 274-275
Guidepost: 5
Type: Application

89. Nias little sister has repeatedly knocked down a tower of blocks Nia has carefully constructed. Finally, Nia teases her little sister until she cries. Nia is displaying
A. regressive aggression.
B. relational aggression.
C. displaced aggression.
D. operational aggression.
Answer: B
Page: 275
Guidepost: 5
Type: Application

90. Relational aggression among girls
A. becomes more frequent with age.
B. is seldom seen in early childhood.
C. is used as an instrument to attain a goal.
D. is hard to provoke.
Answer: A
Page: 275
Guidepost: 5
Type: Knowledge

91. Which of the following statements about aggression in early childhood is NOT true?
A. It usually centers on disputes about toys and control of space.
B. It surfaces mostly during social play.
C. It increases between the ages of 2 and 5.
D. It gradually shifts from physical to verbal conflict.
Answer: C
Page: 275-276
Guidepost: 5
Type: Knowledge

92. Two-year-olds who show the most aggression are
A. the least sociable.
B. the least competent.
C. the most empathetic.
D. likely to be the most aggressive at age 5.
Answer: D
Page: 275
Guidepost: 5
Type: Knowledge

93. John and Mary are the parents of a normally aggressive 2-year-old. What can John and Mary expect over the next 3 years regarding future levels of aggression in their child?
A. A steady increase in the level of aggression until about 5, then a rapid decline in aggression.
B. The level of aggression will remain constant over the next 3 years.
C. The level of aggression will gradually decline.
D. The level of aggression will decline rapidly at 3 years, but then abruptly increase between 4 and 5 years.
Answer: C
Page: 275
Guidepost: 5
Type: Application

94. All of the following are examples of relational aggression, also called indirect or psychological aggression, EXCEPT
A. spreading rumors.
B. name-calling.
C. withholding friendship.
D. hair-pulling.
Answer: D
Page: 275
Guidepost: 5
Type: Knowledge

95. Fears in early childhood are
A. abnormal.
B. more common in boys than girls.
C. likely to eventually disappear.
D. symptoms of a deeper psychological problem.
Answer: C
Page: 276-277
Guidepost: 5
Type: Knowledge

96. Fears develop during early childhood because young children
A. are developing inner conflicts and anxieties.
B. have trouble separating reality from fantasy.
C. are learning that there are many things to be afraid of.
D. All of these.
Answer: D
Page: 277
Guidepost: 5
Type: Comprehension

97. Which of the following helps children deal with their fears?
A. instilling a sense of trust and normal caution
B. ridicule
C. coercion
D. logical persuasion
Answer: A
Page: 277
Guidepost: 5
Type: Knowledge

98. The earliest, most frequent, and most intense disputes among siblings are over
A. relationships with parents.
B. bedtime rituals.
C. territoriality.
D. property rights.
Answer: D
Page: 277
Guidepost: 6
Type: Knowledge

99. The main pattern of relationships between brothers and sisters early in life is one of
A. conflict and rivalry.
B. affection, interest, and companionship.
C. each tending to their own self-interests.
D. constant squabbling.
Answer: B
Page: 277
Guidepost: 6
Type: Knowledge

100. As younger children reach their ____________ birthday, siblings become less physical and verbal in their relationships.
A. fourth
B. fifth
C. sixth
D. seventh
Answer: B
Page: 278
Guidepost: 6
Type: Knowledge

101. A statistical analysis of studies of only children shows that they tend to be
A. spoiled.
B. lonely.
C. weaker academically than students with siblings.
D. better students than children with siblings.
Answer: D
Page: 278
Guidepost: 6
Type: Knowledge

102. Which of the following does NOT describe only children?
A. They are more mature.
B. They are more motivated to achieve.
C. They are better adjusted socially.
D. They have higher self-esteem.
Answer: C
Page: 278
Guidepost: 6
Type: Knowledge

103. Which country has mandated that families have only one child?
A. Japan
B. China
C. Korea
D. India
Answer: B
Page: 278
Guidepost: 6
Type: Knowledge

104. Children begin to have friends at about age
A. 2.
B. 3.
C. 5.
D. 7.
Answer: B
Page: 279
Guidepost: 6
Type: Knowledge

105. In a study cited in the text, young children rated all of the following as important features of friendship EXCEPT
A. doing things together.
B. sharing or helping.
C. living in the same neighborhood.
D. getting to play with the friends toy.
Answer: D
Page: 279
Guidepost: 6
Type: Knowledge

106. Generalizing from the text, an important characteristic of young children who are popular with their peers is their
A. tendency to stay on the sidelines and watch other children socialize.
B. ability to control the expression of anger.
C. possession of more toys and other material goods than less popular children.
D. tendency to report the misdeeds of others to an adult.
Answer: B
Page: 279
Guidepost: 6
Type: Comprehension

Essay Questions

107. Identify the differences between the terms self-concept and self-esteem. Give three examples to illustrate how caregivers can facilitate childrens development of each of these areas. Include in your answer the ideal self versus the real self and the concept of representational mapping in early childhood.

108. Sara likes dressing like her brother and plays more often with his toys instead of her own gender-specific toys. Describe how children develop gender roles and give two reasons why Sara may behave as she does.

109. Identify each of the four major perspectives on gender identity and describe the various viewpoints. Explain how the more recent theoriescognitive-developmental theory and gender-schema theoryadd to the information we already have about gender development.

110. List each of Baumrinds parenting styles. Describe each of these parenting styles and the child-development outcomes to which each has been linked, and explain how each style provides a different outcome.

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