Human Development 11th Edition by Diane Papalia Test bank

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Human Development 11th Edition by Diane Papalia Test bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Human Development 11th Edition by Diane Papalia Test bank

 

 

2 THEORY AND RESEARCH

 

 

Guideposts

 

  1. What purpose do theories serve and what are two basic theoretical issues on which developmental scientists differ?
  2. What are five theoretical perspectives on human development, and what are some theories representative of each?
  3. How do developmental scientists study people, and what are some advantages and disadvantages of each research method?
  4. What ethical problems may arise in research on humans?

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

1. Which of the following statements about theories is true?

  1. Theories change to incorporate new findings.
  2. Theories are based on certain assumptions.
  3. Theories and research are interwoven.
  4. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 22

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In the study of human development, a theory is a set of
  2. logically related statements seeking to describe, explain, and predict development.
  3. facts derived from research.
  4. predictions about future outcomes.
  5. opinions of a well-known authority in a field.

Answer: A

Page: 22

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A good theory suggests __________ be tested by research.
  2. data
  3. hypotheses
  4. findings
  5. conclusions

Answer: B

Page: 22

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Tentative explanations or predictions that can be scientifically tested are called
  2. theories.
  3. hypotheses.
  4. research findings.
  5. conclusions.

Answer: B

Page: 22

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. If children learn aggression from models, then children who watch violent television shows should be more aggressive than children who watch nonviolent shows. This is an example of a
  2. theory.
  3. finding.
  4. hypothesis.
  5. conclusion.

Answer: C

Page: 22

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. Which early philosopher described children as a tabula rasa on which society writes?
  2. John Locke
  3. Jean Piaget
  4. Jean Jacques Rosseau
  5. Erik Erikson

Answer: A

Page: 23

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. If Bills behavior is viewed as passive and reactive, he would be perceived as demonstrating the __________ model of behavior.
  2. naturalistic
  3. mechanistic
  4. organismic
  5. maturationistic

Answer: B

Page: 23

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. If Troys behavior is viewed as active and self-determining, he would be perceived as demonstrating the __________ model of behavior.
  2. naturalistic
  3. mechanistic
  4. organismic
  5. maturationistic

Answer: C

Page: 23

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. Organismic theorists emphasize __________ change, while mechanistic theorists emphasize __________ change.
  2. quantitative; qualitative
  3. behavioral; developmental
  4. qualitative; quantitative
  5. mechanistic; organismic

Answer: C

Page: 23

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The quantitative changes of sitting up, crawling, and walking, which are predicted by earlier behaviors, support which theory?
  2. mechanistic
  3. developmental
  4. qualitative
  5. organismic

Answer: A

Page: 24

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Most of the early pioneers in psychology, such as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson, and Jean Piaget, favored the __________ perspective on human development.
  2. organismic
  3. quantitative
  4. mechanistic
  5. behavioristic

Answer: A

Page: 24

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Psychoanalytic theory was developed by
  2. Sigmund Freud.
  3. Ivan Pavlov.
  4. Albert Bandura.
  5. Erik Erikson.

Answer: A

Page: 25

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Stacys mother believes that most of Stacys acting out lately has been caused by unconscious forces within her that motivate her behavior. Stacys perspective is called
  2. humanistic.
  3. ethological.
  4. psychoanalytic.
  5. learning.

Answer: C

Page: 25

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. A therapeutic approach aimed at giving patients insight into their unconscious conflicts is called
  2. repression analysis.
  3. psychoanalysis.
  4. psychosexual analysis.
  5. psychoconsciousness.

Answer: B

Page: 25

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Freuds theory on human development states that people develop in an unvarying sequence of maturationally determined stages of __________ development.
  2. psychosocial
  3. psychoanalytic
  4. psychounconscious
  5. psychosexual

Answer: D

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The proper order of Freuds psychosexual stages of development is
  2. anal, phallic, oral, latency, genital.
  3. oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital.
  4. anal, oral, genital, latency, phallic.
  5. oral, latency, genital, anal, phallic.

Answer: B

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to psychosexual theory, 4-year-old Austin would be in which stage?
  2. oral
  3. anal
  4. phallic
  5. latency

Answer: C

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. As an adult, Mary spends considerable time each day cleaning her apartment, arranging her socks in a drawer until they are just so, and making schedules on a calendar. According to Freud, Mary is probably fixated in the __________ stage.
  2. oral
  3. anal
  4. genital
  5. phallic

Answer: B

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to Freud, during early childhood boys develop sexual attachment to their mothers. Freud called this development ______________.
  2. the Electra complex
  3. the unconscious complex
  4. the Oedipus complex
  5. regressing

Answer: A

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

 

  1. The stage of psychosexual development that occurs during middle childhood and is characterized by relative calm is called the __________ stage.
  2. oral
  3. childhood
  4. latency
  5. anal

Answer: C

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT part of the personality as proposed by Freud?
  2. superego
  3. libido
  4. id
  5. ego

Answer: B

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Freud, the part of the personality that operates on the pleasure principle, seeking the immediate gratification of desires, is the
  2. id.
  3. ego.
  4. superego.
  5. ego ideal.

Answer: A

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Freud, the part of the personality that operates on the reality principle, realistically finding ways to obtain gratification, is the
  2. id.
  3. ego.
  4. superego.
  5. conscience.

Answer: B

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Christa, a rather demonstrative 7-year-old, hits her brother for laughing at her, and feels guilty about it afterward. According to Freud, Christs guilty feelings reflect the operation of the
  2. id.
  3. ego.
  4. superego.
  5. defense mechanism.

Answer: C

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which one of the following personality entities would be most similar to what is called conscience?
  2. id
  3. ego
  4. superego
  5. libido

Answer: C

Page: 26

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. One of the criticisms of Freuds work is that he _____________________.
  2. did not make us aware of the importance of unconscious thoughts
  3. did not acknowledge childhood feelings and experiences in motivation
  4. did not scientifically test concepts of id and superego
  5. None of these.

Answer: C

Page: 26-27

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Unlike Freuds theory, Eriksons theory of psychosocial development
  2. sees society as a positive force.
  3. focuses on biological instincts.
  4. covers infancy and childhood but not adulthood.
  5. has much in common with behaviorism.

Answer: A

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Each of Eriksons stages involved a major developmental issue that is particularly important at that time. Erikson referred to these issues as __________ in personality.
  2. traumas
  3. crises
  4. maturationals
  5. phases

Answer: B

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Erikson, the resolution of the crisis at each stage of psychosocial development must include a _______ between positive and negative traits.
  2. balance
  3. skewing toward the positive
  4. skewing toward the negative
  5. synthesis

Answer: A

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Pauline is in her fourth stage of development according to the developmental stage theory that Erikson put forth. Under normal conditions, if Pauline lives into old age, in how many stages will she ultimately participate?
  2. 3
  3. 5
  4. 8
  5. 12

Answer: C

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. According to Eriksons psychosocial theory, the first stage of development, which occurs during infancy, is
  2. trust versus mistrust.
  3. autonomy versus state of doubt.
  4. initiative versus guilt.
  5. industry versus inferiority.

Answer: A

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Eriksons psychosocial theory, a teenage girl would be facing the crisis of
  2. intimacy versus isolation.
  3. integrity versus despair.
  4. industry versus inferiority.
  5. identity versus identity confusion.

Answer: D

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. An example of Eriksons stage of initiative versus guilt would be
  2. an infant learning that she can depend on being fed.
  3. a 3-year-old trying to fill a cup with water and cheerfully wiping up the water when it spills.
  4. a 10-year-old learning to read fluently.
  5. a teenager conforming to peer pressure.

Answer: B

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Freuds research stressed the importance of
  2. conscious behavior.
  3. the role of heredity in parenting.
  4. ways in which early relationships affect later ones.
  5. the uselessness of recalling childhood experiences.

Answer: C

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In contrast with Freud, Erikson placed more emphasis on
  2. physical development.
  3. intellectual development.
  4. the role of parents.
  5. social and cultural influences.

Answer: D

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A long-lasting change in behavior as a result of experience or adaptation to its environment is called
  2. modification.
  3. cognition.
  4. learning.
  5. behaviorism.

Answer: C

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Two important learning theories are____________ and_______________.
  2. behaviorism; cognitive therapy
  3. social learning theory; behaviorism
  4. social learning theory; psychoanalytic theory
  5. psychoanalytic theory; cognitive theory

Answer: B

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Learning theorists are most concerned with
  2. measurable, observable behaviors.
  3. unconscious determination of behaviors.
  4. development of intelligence.
  5. personality conflicts between parents and children.

Answer: A

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to the _________ perspective, peoples actions are reactions to aspects of their environment that they find pleasing, painful, or threatening.
  2. organismic
  3. behaviorism
  4. psychoanalytic
  5. humanistic

Answer: B

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The ________ perspective emphasizes the influence of the environment rather than thought processes or unconscious fantasies.
  2. psychoanalytic
  3. learning
  4. organismic
  5. humanistic

Answer: B

Page: 28

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Behaviorists maintain that human behavior is determined by
  2. defense mechanisms.
  3. self-actualization.
  4. unconscious conflicts.
  5. conditioning.

Answer: D

Page: 28-29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which one of the following is NOT a type of associative learning?
  2. learning conditioning
  3. classical conditioning
  4. behavior conditioning
  5. operant conditioning

Answer: A

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. In classical conditioning, an association is learned between
  2. an unconditioned stimulus and a conditioned stimulus.
  3. an operant response and a reinforcer.
  4. a conditioned stimulus and an operant response.
  5. an internal stimulus and an external stimulus.

Answer: A

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following researchers worked with Little Albert in one of the earliest and most famous examples of classical conditioning in human development?
  2. John B. Watson
  3. Ivan Pavlov
  4. B. F. Skinner
  5. Edward Thorndike

Answer: A

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The principles of classical conditioning were developed by
  2. John B. Watson.
  3. Ivan Pavlov.
  4. B. F. Skinner.
  5. Edward Thorndike.

Answer: B

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A girl receives an injection and cries. Each time she receives an injection again, the same nurse gives it. Her mother notices that the child now cries when she sees this nurse even if no injection is given. This is an example of
  2. classical conditioning.
  3. operant conditioning.
  4. fixation.
  5. negative reinforcement.

Answer: A

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. The psychologist who formulated the principles of operant conditioning was
  2. John B. Watson.
  3. Sidney Pressey.
  4. B. F. Skinner.
  5. Ivan Pavlov.

Answer: C

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. __________ is the principle that an organism will repeat behaviors when these behaviors are reinforced.
  2. Classical conditioning
  3. Operant conditioning
  4. Pleasure principle
  5. Reality principle

Answer: B

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Any consequence of a behavior that INCREASES the likelihood of that behavior being repeated is called
  2. punishment.
  3. reinforcement.
  4. an aversive event.
  5. classical conditioning.

Answer: B

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Punishment __________ a behavior by bringing on a(n)__________event.
  2. increases; aversive
  3. suppresses; aversive
  4. suppresses; positive
  5. increases; negative

Answer: B

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Reinforcement is most effective when it is __________ after the behavior it is designed to reinforce.
  2. delayed
  3. immediately
  4. constant
  5. aversive

Answer: B

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Anns mother has stopped reinforcing Ann to make her bed. Anns bed making behavior is likely to be ___________.
  2. increased
  3. extinguished
  4. punished
  5. None of these.

Answer: B

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Edwin is learning to ride his bike. Each time that he rides onto the gravel driveway, he loses control of the bike and falls. Eventually Edwin will no longer ride in the driveway. This example represents the learning process of
  2. negative reinforcement.
  3. intermittent reinforcement.
  4. punishment.
  5. conditioning.

Answer: C

Page: 29

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. The use of operant conditioning to modify or shape human behavior is called
  2. classical conditioning.
  3. punishment.
  4. behavior modification.
  5. reinforcement.

Answer: C

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The principles of social learning theory were developed by
  2. B. F. Skinner.
  3. Carl Rogers.
  4. John B. Watson.
  5. Albert Bandura.

Answer: D

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to social learning theory, the most important element in how children learn a language, deal with aggression, develop a sense of morality, and learn gender-appropriate behavior is
  2. classical conditioning.
  3. observation and imitation.
  4. punishment of inappropriate behavior.
  5. shaping of appropriate behavior.

Answer: B

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The process of modeling, or observing and imitating others, is referred to as
  2. social learning theory.
  3. observational learning.
  4. self-efficacy.
  5. social cognitive theory.

Answer: B

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. ____________develops as children gradually establish guidelines for judging their own actions and select models who exemplify these guidelines.
  2. Social cognitive theory
  3. Applied behavioral analysis
  4. Social learning theory
  5. Self-efficacy

Answer: A

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Stacy feels confident in knowing she has what it takes to succeed. Stacy has developed
  2. cognition.
  3. behavioral analysis.
  4. social learning.
  5. self-efficacy.

Answer: D

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The perspective on human behavior that is concerned with thought processes and the behavior that reflects those processes is called the __________ perspective.
  2. cognitive
  3. thinking
  4. behavioral
  5. intellectual

Answer: A

Page: 30

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. __________ is the researcher best known for his theory of cognitive development.
  2. Abraham Maslow
  3. Sigmund Freud
  4. Erik Erikson
  5. Jean Piaget

Answer: D

Page: 30-31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The two major points of Jean Piagets cognitive perspective are that people are ______ and behavior develops ______.
  2. controlled by the environment; in a specific order
  3. active in their development; randomly at any developmental stage
  4. active in their development; in a specific order
  5. controlled by the environment; randomly at any developmental stage

Answer: C

Page: 30-31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the cognitive stages through which a child progresses, as theorized by Jean Piaget?
  2. post-conceptual
  3. sensorimotor
  4. preoperational
  5. concrete operations

Answer: A

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Piagets use of questions and flexible exploration of a childs responses is known as the __________ method.
  2. Socratic
  3. clinical
  4. field observation
  5. interview

Answer: B

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A structure of organized patterns of behavior that a person uses to think about and act in a situation is that persons
  2. scheme.
  3. situation.
  4. adaptation.
  5. assimilation.

Answer: A

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT one of the interrelated principles developed by Piaget to explain the gradual development of a childs mental processes?
  2. organization
  3. adaptation
  4. equilibration
  5. cognition

Answer: D

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Piagets term for the process of taking information and incorporating it into EXISTING ways of thinking is
  2. schematization.
  3. shaping.
  4. accommodation.
  5. assimilation.

Answer: D

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When a child first sucks on a Sippy cup the same way the child sucked from a bottle the child is trying to learn to drink from the cup using the process of
  2. assimilation.
  3. modification.
  4. acculturation.
  5. adaptation.

Answer: A

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. From Jean Piagets perspective, a child who alters her behavior to more effectively deal with a new situation is exhibiting
  2. accommodation.
  3. primary process thinking.
  4. assimilation.
  5. generalization.

Answer: A

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Jean Piaget, what is the primary goal or need that leads children to change their ways of thinking to adapt to new experiences?
  2. satisfaction of id impulses
  3. equilibrium
  4. stable sense of identity
  5. approval from parents

Answer: B

Page: 31

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. It is important for parents and teachers to understand how children think so they can more effectively _________ them.
  2. discipline
  3. teach
  4. organize
  5. manage

Answer: B

Page: 32

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Jean Piagets formal operations stage does not account for the capacity to
  2. develop practical problem-solving skills.
  3. deal with ambiguous situations.
  4. deal with competing truths.
  5. All of these.

Answer: B

Page: 32

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a criticism of Piagets theory of development?
  2. It pays little attention to emotional development.
  3. It pays little attention to the influence of education on intellectual development.
  4. It overestimates the cognitive abilities of young children.
  5. It does not say much about individual differences in ability.

Answer: C

Page: 32

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Psychologist Lev Vygotsky saw cognitive growth as a collaborative process in which children learn through social
  2. cognition.
  3. status.
  4. learning.
  5. interaction.

Answer: D

Page: 32

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A teacher is helping to direct and organize Jays learning with blocks to help him master and internalize his skills. This reflects Vygotskys notion of
  2. structured application.
  3. zone of proximal development.
  4. distal learning.
  5. zone of distal development.

Answer: B

Page: 32

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. ____________ refers to the temporary support that parents, teachers, and others give a child in doing a task until the child can do it alone.
  2. Laddering
  3. Constructing
  4. Scaffolding
  5. Supporting

Answer: C

Page: 32-33

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A major distinction between Piagets developmental theory and the information-processing approach is that
  2. Piaget sees development as continuous, whereas the information-processing approach views development as occurring in distinct stages.
  3. Piaget sees development as an active process, whereas the information-processing view sees the organism as passive.
  4. Piaget focused on perception, whereas the information-processing approach focuses on thinking and memory.
  5. Piaget sees development as occurring in stages, whereas the information-processing approach sees development as continuous.

Answer: D

Page: 32-33

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The information-processing approach to explaining cognitive development compares the brain to a __________; sensory impressions go in and behavior comes out.
  2. calculator
  3. computer
  4. modem
  5. telephone

Answer: B

Page: 33

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following best explains the neo-Piagetian perspective on cognitive development?
  2. It emphasizes the efficiency with which information is processed.
  3. It explains individual differences in cognitive ability.
  4. It explains how qualitative changes in cognition take place.
  5. All of these are part of the neo-Piagetian perspective.

Answer: D

Page: 33

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which perspective emphasizes the idea that species-specific behaviors enhance the survival of that species?
  2. behavioral
  3. social cognitive
  4. contextual
  5. ethological

Answer: D

Page: 35

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In the 1950s, the British psychologist, __________, extended ethological principles to the study of human development, focusing attention on the mother-infant bond and the bonding process that produces attachment.
  2. Mary Ainsworth
  3. John Bowlby
  4. Konrad Lorenz
  5. Niko Tinbergen

Answer: B

Page: 35

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The leader of a mother and baby workshop tells new mothers that attachment between an infant and caregiver must occur during a critical period to ensure normal development. Which developmental perspective does this workshop leader support with this statement?
  2. behavioral
  3. ethological
  4. psychoanalytic
  5. informative-processing

Answer: B

Page: 35

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. According to the __________ perspective, development can be understood only when individual behavior is observed in interaction with the environment.
  2. environmental
  3. contextual
  4. interactive
  5. behavioral

Answer: B

Page: 34

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which American psychologist developed the bioecological perspective, which involves five interlocking contextual systems ranging from the most intimate to the most distant?
  2. Lev Vygotsky
  3. Ivan Pavlov
  4. Urie Bronfenbrenner
  5. Jean Piaget

Answer: C

Page: 34

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Dr. Willard is studying the way in which infant siblings interact with one another in the home. According to the ecological approach, Dr. Willard is studying the children in their
  2. microsystem.
  3. mesosystem.
  4. exosystem.
  5. macrosystem.

Answer: A

Page: 34

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Dr. Berry, who employs the ecological approach to human development, is studying the relationship between the quality of parent-child interactions in the home and the success of children in school. Dr. Berry is studying development at the __________ level of environmental influence.
  2. microsystem
  3. mesosystem
  4. exosystem
  5. macrosystem

Answer: B

Page: 34

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. The collapse of communism in Eastern Europe has significantly altered most government institutions there. According to the ecological approach, the government changes are changes in peoples
  2. microsystem.
  3. mesosystem.
  4. endosystem.
  5. macrosystem.

Answer: D

Page: 34

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Professor Powers studies how frequent moves from one town to another can influence childrens emotional development over time. According to the ecological approach, Professor Powers is studying the __________ of children.
  2. exosystem
  3. chronosystem
  4. macrosystem
  5. minisystem

Answer: B

Page: 34

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Sociocultural theory, developed by __________, stresses childrens active involvement with their environment as the process by which they acquire cognitive skills.
  2. Urie Bronfenbrenner
  3. Jean Piaget
  4. Lev Vygotsky
  5. Margaret Mead

Answer: C

Page: 32

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The approach that views human development as the outcome of a dynamic process of bidirectional interaction between person and environment is a(n)
  2. developmental system.
  3. interpersonal system.
  4. cognitive system.
  5. None of these.

Answer: A

Page: 36

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which theory of human development is universally accepted as the theory that best explains all facets of development?
  2. psychoanalytic
  3. behavioristic
  4. sociocultural
  5. No one theory is able to do this.

Answer: D

Page: 36

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Instead of looking for broad stages, developmental scientists seek to discover what specific kinds of behavior show_________ and what ___________ are involved in each.
  2. abrupt changes; behaviors
  3. continuity; processes
  4. discontinuity; stages
  5. None of these.

Answer: B

Page: 36

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Daniel is doing research that involves gathering detailed descriptions from people about their beliefs. Daniel is doing which kind of research?
  2. qualitative
  3. quantitative
  4. theoretical
  5. hypothetical

Answer: A

Page: 37

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When research deals with objectively measurable data, this is a description of
  2. qualitative research.
  3. quantitative research.
  4. theories.
  5. hypotheses.

Answer: B

Page: 37

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When conducting research, scientists will typically measure a __________ and generalize the results to a _____________.
  2. cohort; sample
  3. non-normative group; normative group
  4. population; sample
  5. sample; population

Answer: D

Page: 37

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. One of the most reliable sampling methods is the use of __________, which increases the likelihood that the sample is representative of the population.
  2. representative selection
  3. random assignment
  4. random selection
  5. random sample

Answer: C

Page: 37

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of a self-report technique?
  2. questionnaire
  3. diary or log
  4. interview
  5. observation

Answer: D

Page: 38

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A problem associated with the interview method is that
  2. a single interview may give only a partial picture.
  3. people are not always accurate or honest in answering questions.
  4. interview reports may need to be confirmed by more objective research.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 39

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. One commonly used type of written interview is a
  2. diary.
  3. case study.
  4. questionnaire.
  5. journal.

Answer: C

Page: 38

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When a researcher decides to travel with the circus in order to observe the performers, without altering the environment they live and work in, the research is
  2. a laboratory observation.
  3. a naturalistic observation.
  4. quantitative research.
  5. a natural experiment.

Answer: B

Page: 38-39

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The primary difference between a naturalistic observation and a laboratory observation is the degree of
  2. manipulation.
  3. control.
  4. involvement.
  5. There is no difference.

Answer: B

Page: 39

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Professor Bailey watches Tehra closely through a one-way mirror as she participates in her social studies class. This is an example of what research method?
  2. clinical study
  3. case study
  4. naturalistic observation
  5. laboratory observation

Answer: C

Page: 39

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. A disadvantage of the use of naturalistic observation techniques is that they
  2. can be used to study only infancy.
  3. omit emotional development.
  4. record only cognitive development.
  5. are prone to observer bias.

Answer: D

Page: 39

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a problem associated with observational studies?
  2. They cannot determine cause and effect relationships.
  3. The subjects may behave differently when they know they are being observed.
  4. It is not possible to gain information regarding relationships between variables.
  5. Laboratory studies may not generalize to real life.

Answer: C

Page: 39

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. When test results are reasonably consistent from one time to another they are said to be
  2. valid.
  3. reliable.
  4. operational.
  5. standardized.

Answer: B

Page: 40

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A plan for conducting a scientific investigation is a
  2. research design.
  3. hypothetical study.
  4. scientific project.
  5. research grant.

Answer: A

Page: 40

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. An in-depth study of an individual is a(n)
  2. naturalistic observation.
  3. case study.
  4. interview.
  5. experiment.

Answer: B

Page: 40

Guidepost:  3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In developing his psychoanalytic theory, Freud studied several individuals in great detail for an extended period of time. This technique is referred to as the __________ approach.
  2. laboratory observation
  3. interview
  4. experimental
  5. case study

Answer: D

Page: 40

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. An in-depth case study of a culture or subculture is an __________ study.
  2. enculturation
  3. ethnographic
  4. acculturation
  5. ethnic

Answer: B

Page: 41

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A researcher who wants to find out if a statistical relationship exists between variables should use a(n)
  2. questionnaire.
  3. correlation.
  4. experiment.
  5. case study.

Answer: B

Page: 41

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A researcher studies the relationship between family income and achievement motivation. A correlation of +1.20 is found. From this, the researcher can conclude that
  2. other variables must be negatively correlated with family income.
  3. high income causes high achievement motivation.
  4. increases in income predict higher achievement motivation.
  5. an error was made in calculating the correlation.

Answer: D

Page: 41-42

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Dr. Liefeld has studied the relationship between the amount of time children spend playing video games and their academic performance in school. She finds that as time spent playing video games increases, grades in school decrease. This finding represents a
  2. a positive correlation.
  3. a negative correlation.
  4. a variable interaction.
  5. a case study approach.

Answer: B

Page: 41-42

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. Suppose you asked the following two questions of a group of 100 children: How much time do your parents spend reading to you each day? and What are your grades in school? You find that children whose parents read to them for more than one hour each day have better grades than children whose parents read to them for only a few minutes each day. What could you conclude from this pattern of data?
  2. Reading by parents causes children to do better in school.
  3. Parental reading time and grades are positively correlated.
  4. Parental reading time and grades are uncorrelated.
  5. Better students cause their parents to spend more time reading to them.

Answer: B

Page: 41

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. A strong correlation between variables does not necessarily mean that one variable __________ the other.
  2. determines
  3. causes
  4. results from
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 41-42

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The subjects who receive the treatment or independent variable in an experimental study are called the
  2. experimental group.
  3. control group.
  4. dependent group.
  5. independent group.

Answer: A

Page: 43

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A controlled procedure in which the experimenter manipulates variables to learn how one affects another is a(n)
  2. manipulation.
  3. experiment.
  4. observation
  5. correlation.

Answer: B

Page: 42-43

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The word manipulation is most strongly associated with the __________ technique.
  2. experimental
  3. correlational
  4. case study
  5. interview

Answer: A

Page: 43

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The subjects who do NOT receive the treatment or independent variable in an experimental study are called the
  2. experimental group.
  3. control group.
  4. dependent group.
  5. independent group.

Answer: B

Page: 43

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. The treatment in an experiment is called the
  2. experimental group.
  3. control group.
  4. independent variable.
  5. dependent variable.

Answer: C

Page: 44

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. In an experiment, Professor Daley manipulates the __________ variable and then looks for an effect of that manipulation by measuring the ___________variable.
  2. dependent; independent
  3. control; experimental
  4. experimental; control
  5. independent; dependent

Answer: D

Page: 44

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. In an experiment, one group of children is given a drink each day with a special vitamin supplement. A second group of children is given the same drink but without the vitamin. Later, all children are given an IQ test to see if the vitamin had an effect on intelligence. In this experiment, the childrens scores on the IQ test would be the
  2. independent variable.
  3. cross-sequential variable.
  4. dependent variable.
  5. control variable.

Answer: C

Page: 44

Guidepost: 3

Type: Application

 

  1. In a study of the effects of behavior modeling, one group of children observes role models who share toys; another group observes role models whose behavior is neutral (neither initiating sharing nor refusing to share). What is the independent variable?
  2. observing role models who share or dont share
  3. observing negative role models
  4. the group with neutral role models
  5. the group with sharing role models

Answer: A

Page: 44

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. A group of children is given special training on how to handle their anger. A second group is treated the same as the first group except for the fact that these subjects do not receive the special training. The group given the training is the __________ group and the group given no training is the __________group.
  2. experimental; control
  3. control; experimental
  4. dependent; independent
  5. independent; dependent

Answer: A

Page: 43

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The chief advantage of experimental methods is that they are
  2. more flexible than other methods.
  3. more generalized than other methods.
  4. more descriptive of real-life events.
  5. better able to determine cause and effect.

Answer: D

Page: 43-44

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Experimenters can ensure results that are representative of a given population through
  2. random selection.
  3. random assignment.
  4. controlling for all relevant variables.
  5. convenience sampling.

Answer: B

Page: 44

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A researcher who studies twins accidentally separated at birth and reared in different environments is using a
  2. laboratory experiment.
  3. field experiment.
  4. natural experiment.
  5. correlation experiment.

Answer: C

Page: 45

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Dr. Gearhart is hopeful that her research results will be verified by others through replication. If she wishes her work to be replicated most accurately, what research technique should she use?
  2. natural experiment
  3. interview
  4. case study
  5. cross-sectional naturalistic observation

Answer: A

Page: 45

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The greatest difference between a laboratory experiment and a field experiment is the degree of
  2. control.
  3. manipulation.
  4. random assignment.
  5. correlation.

Answer: A

Page: 45

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which of the following is a shortcoming of the laboratory experimental approach to understanding human development?
  2. It is often difficult to randomly assign subjects to different treatment conditions.
  3. Experiments rarely inform us about cause-and-effect relationships.
  4. This technique does not work well for the study of aggression.
  5. The results may not be applicable outside the experimental situation.

Answer: D

Page: 45

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Dr. Ellie Cheetham follows the same group of children over a 10-year period, measuring their performance twice a year. This is which method of data collection?
  2. cross-sectional
  3. longitudinal
  4. sequential
  5. clinical

Answer: B

Page: 45-46

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Professor Bingham measures the cognitive skills of 100 30-year-olds and compares them with 100 50-year-olds. This is an example of which method?
  2. cross-sectional
  3. longitudinal
  4. sequential
  5. clinical

Answer: A

Page: 46

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which type of study is time-consuming, expensive, and has problems associated with attrition?
  2. longitudinal
  3. cross-sectional
  4. interview
  5. clinical

Answer: A

Page: 46

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Suppose your psychology professor asks you to do a study examining how emotional reactions change in children between the ages of 3 and 12 years. Given that the study needs to be completed in less then two weeks, which type of data collection method should you employ?
  2. cross-sectional
  3. longitudinal
  4. sequential
  5. ethological

Answer: A

Page: 46

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Which studies have the greatest difficulty with the loss of subjects?
  2. longitudinal
  3. cross-sectional
  4. clinical
  5. case history

Answer: A

Page: 46

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Cohort differences are a problem for which kind of studies?
  2. time-sampling
  3. cross-sectional
  4. sequential
  5. longitudinal

Answer: B

Page: 46

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following methods was designed to deal with the disadvantages of both the longitudinal and cross-sectional designs?
  2. life-span sampling
  3. clinical
  4. sequential study
  5. behavior-sampling

Answer: C

Page: 47

Guidepost: 3

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Professor Watt studies the behavior of children whose parents divorced 6 months before the children started school and children whose parents divorced 2 years before the children started school. Both groups of children are then followed and measured over the course of several years. This is which kind of design?
  2. cross-sectional
  3. sequential
  4. longitudinal
  5. life-span sampling

Answer: B

Page: 47

Guidepost: 3

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Objections to Watson and Rayners study of __________ stimulated the American Psychological Association to establish more stringent ethical guidelines for research studies that involved human subjects.
  2. Fat Albert
  3. Little Albert
  4. Prince Albert
  5. Baby Albert

Answer: B

Page: 48

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to the American Psychological Association, participants in psychological research have all of the following rights EXCEPT the right to
  2. privacy and confidentiality.
  3. informed consent.
  4. financial remuneration.
  5. self-esteem.

Answer: C

Page: 48

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. In Guidepost 4, the resolution of ethical problems in research is discussed. Which of the following is an ethical principle?
  2. beneficence
  3. justice
  4. respect
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 48

Guidepost: 4

Type: Comprehension

 

Essay Questions

 

  1. Professor Carney is interested in family factors that influence the development of children who commit violent and illegal acts in their early lives. He is also interested in the influences in a childs environment that may play a part in their violent behavior. List three research methods available to Professor Carney and identify the kinds of information he would be able to obtain by using each of these methods. Compare both the advantages and the disadvantages of using each of these methods in the investigation of this particular topic.

 

  1. List and describe each of the five theoretical perspectives discussed in your text. Select any developmental issue and explain how a person might look at the issue from each of the theoretical perspectives. (Some suggested issues are: eating disorders, family violence, sibling rivalry, drug abuse, gifted children, and children with ADHD.)

 

8                  PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT

IN EARLY CHILDHOOD

 

 

Guideposts

 

  1. How does the self-concept develop during early childhood, and do children show self-esteem, emotional growth, and initiative?
  2. How do boys and girls become aware of the meaning of gender, and what explains differences in behavior between the sexes?
  3. How do preschoolers play, and how does play contribute to and reflect development?
  4. How do parenting practices influence development?
  5. Why do young children help or hurt others, and why do they develop fears?
  6. How do young children get along withor withoutsiblings, playmates, and friends?

 

 

Multiple-Choice Questions

 

  1. A system of descriptive and evaluative representations about the self is called
  2. self-concept.
  3. self-awareness.
  4. self-definition.
  5. ideal self.

Answer: A

Page: 252

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When children talk about their own concrete, observable behaviors, they are defining
  2. cognition.
  3. self.
  4. others.
  5. None of these.

Answer: B

Page: 252

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. When a 4-year-old boy is asked to describe himself, he will typically tell you about his
  2. relational self.
  3. real self.
  4. descriptive self.
  5. ideal self.

Answer: D

Page: 253

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. In neo-Piagetian terminology, the first stage in development of self-definition, in which children describe themselves in terms of individual unconnected characteristics and in all-or-nothing terms, is called
  2. deductive.
  3. single representations.
  4. representational mappings.
  5. ideal self.

Answer: B

Page: 253

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Which of the following is a part of self-definition?
  2. recognizing oneself
  3. parental values
  4. developing a concept of the ideal self
  5. developing a concept of self-centeredness

Answer: C

Page: 252

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. The judgment children make about their overall worth is their
  2. self-worth.
  3. self-concept.
  4. self-esteem.
  5. self-description.

Answer: C

Page: 253

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When Austin says, I am Spiderman, he is demonstrating a perception of his _______ self.
  2. conception
  3. real
  4. ideal
  5. perceived

Answer: C

Page: 253

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. A child is motivated to achieve when his or her personal self-esteem is
  2. high.
  3. low.
  4. medium.
  5. absent.

Answer: A

Page: 254

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. When children with high self-esteem experience failure, they
  2. attribute failure to themselves.
  3. attribute disappointments to their own choices.
  4. move on and do something different.
  5. persevere and develop strategies that will provide success.

Answer: D

Page: 254-255

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Understanding their emotions helps children to do all of the following EXCEPT
  2. guide their behavior in social situations.
  3. control the way they show their feelings.
  4. talk about their feelings.
  5. control all social situations.

Answer: D

Page: 255

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. According to research on childrens understanding of emotions, when 4-year-olds do something that has been forbidden by their parents, they feel shame
  2. whether or not their parents see them perform the forbidden act.
  3. only if their parents see them perform the forbidden act.
  4. only if their parents punish them for performing the forbidden act.
  5. never, even if their parents saw them perform the forbidden act.

Answer: D

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. At what age do children first begin to take pride in their accomplishments, even when no one is around to see them doing something well?
  2. 4 to 5 years
  3. 7 to 8 years
  4. 10 to 12 years
  5. 13 to 15 years

Answer: B

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to the text, which of the following is a reason for the difficulty that 3-year-olds have in understanding their own emotions?
  2. They do not recognize that they can experience different emotions at the same time.
  3. They only experience strong emotions when others around them show emotions.
  4. They dont realize that anyone besides them actually has emotions.
  5. They do not understand that emotions depend on innate, temperamental factors.

Answer: A

Page: 255

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Erikson, which of the following is the central issue of early childhood?
  2. trust versus mistrust
  3. autonomy versus shame and doubt
  4. initiative versus guilt
  5. identity versus role confusion

Answer: C

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Erikson, the conflict between young childrens urge to pursue goals and their moral judgments about those urges is
  2. initiative versus guilt.
  3. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
  4. industry versus inferiority.
  5. identity versus role confusion.

Answer: A

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Four-year-old Marcie would like to hide her little brothers toys in the basement. However, she realizes this will make her brother cry, and she wonders if she will feel bad about this. According to Erikson, Marcie is experiencing the conflict of
  2. identity versus role confusion.
  3. initiative versus guilt.
  4. purpose versus will.
  5. industry versus inferiority.

Answer: B

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Application

 

  1. The virtue acquired through successful resolution of Eriksons developmental crisis of initiative versus guilt is
  2. hope.
  3. purpose.
  4. trust.
  5. will.

Answer: B

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. According to Erikson, a child who feels comfortable trying new things, without excessive guilt or fear, is said to have acquired the virtue of
  2. will.
  3. hope.
  4. trust.
  5. purpose.

Answer: D

Page: 256

Guidepost: 1

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Gender refers to
  2. role-learning.
  3. what it means to be male or female.
  4. identification with parents.
  5. friendship patterns between males and females.

Answer: B

Page: 256

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Psychological or behavioral differences between males and females are called
  2. sex differences.
  3. gender differences.
  4. gender stereotypes.
  5. gender constancy.

Answer: B

Page: 256

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. One of the measurable differences between males and females is that females
  2. have a biological advantage for survival.
  3. are more physically vulnerable.
  4. are more reactive to stress.
  5. are more active in utero than males.

Answer: A

Page: 257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Research has found that the genders differ in that
  2. boys are more physically aggressive.
  3. girls are more empathetic.
  4. boys are more cooperative.
  5. girls know more about taking care of babies.

Answer: A

Page: 257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Mike is becoming aware that he is a boy and that boys play with trucks and trains. He is developing a gender
  2. need.
  3. role.
  4. desire.
  5. All of these.

Answer: B

Page: 257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. Learning ones gender role is called
  2. achieving gender identity.
  3. gender conservation.
  4. gender-typing.
  5. gender stereotyping.

Answer: C

Page: 257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Melissa is 4 years old, and now wants to avoid dressing like a boy. She talks about being a wife and mommy when she grows up. Melissa is engaged in the process of
  2. sex-typing.
  3. gender-typing.
  4. sexism-generalizing.
  5. conflict-resolution.

Answer: B

Page: 257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Application

 

  1. At preschool, Tommy plays with trucks and Mary plays with dolls. They are
  2. undergoing gender-typing.
  3. acquiring gender stereotypes.
  4. learning the sexism schema.
  5. becoming androgynous.

Answer: A

Page: 257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Comprehension

 

  1. Gender stereotypes are
  2. preconceived generalizations about male and female behavior.
  3. often a result of gender conservation and identity.
  4. based on myths about sex differences.
  5. All of these.

Answer: A

Page: 258

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Gender differences are believed to be influenced by
  2. hormones.
  3. parents.
  4. the media.
  5. All of these.

Answer: D

Page: 256-257

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. Research has linked aggressive behavior in certain animals to prenatal exposure to the hormone
  2. estrogen.
  3. progesterone.
  4. testosterone.
  5. adrenaline.

Answer: C

Page: 259

Guidepost: 2

Type: Knowledge

 

  1. A male rat has been given an injection of testosterone. Which of the following behaviors is likely to INCREASE as a consequence?
  2. aggressive behavior
  3. maternal behavior
  4. nonspecific gender behavior
  5. All of these.

Answer: A

Page: 259

Guidepost: 2<

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