Human Development A Life Span View 6th Edition By Kail -Test Bank

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Human Development A Life Span View 6th Edition By Kail -Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS
Human Development A Life Span View 6th Edition By Kail -Test Bank

Chapter 2Biological Foundations: Heredity, Prenatal Development, and Birth

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. You are currently experiencing severe pain in your leg and go to your physician for a checkup. During the examination, your physician says, The pain you are experiencing appears to be due to misshapen blood cells that are blocking the flow of oxygen to your leg. This would indicate that the most accurate diagnosis of your condition would be
a. cerebral palsy.
b. Huntingtons disease.
c. sickle-cell disease.
d. hemophilia.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. The threadlike structures in the nucleus of a cell that contain genetic material are called
a. chromosomes. c. ectoderms.
b. germ discs. d. phenotypes.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. If you were looking through a microscope at a normal sperm cell, you should see ____ chromosomes.
a. 2 c. 23
b. 22 d. 46

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. The first ____ pairs of chromosomes are called autosomes.
a. 2 c. 22
b. 10 d. 46

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Igor is approached by a mad scientist who says he will pay Igor either $100 for each pair of his autosomes or $500 for each pair of his sex chromosomes. Assuming Igor wants to make as much money as possible, which offer should he take?
a. $100 for each pair of autosomes
b. $500 for each pair of sex chromosomes
c. Either one, because Igor will make the same amount with both offers
d. Neither one, because humans have neither autosomes nor sex chromosomes

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. When looking through a microscope at an entire set of human male chromosomes, how would you be able to differentiate an autosome pair from a sex chromosome pair?
a. The sex chromosome pair would be about 10 times larger than the autosome pair.
b. The circular-shaped cells would be the autosomes and the square shapes would be the sex chromosomes.
c. There would be three cells in the autosome pair and two cells in the sex chromosome pair.
d. The shape of the sex chromosomes would differ, whereas each autosome pair would look identical.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. A sperm cell contains a total of 22
a. genes. c. autosomes.
b. chromosomes. d. sex cells.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. What combination would result in a boy?
a. A 17th pair of chromosomes with one X and one Y
b. A 23rd pair of chromosomes with one X and one Y
c. A17th  pair of chromosomes with two Xs
d. A 23rd pair of chromosomes with two Xs

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. How many DNA molecules are typically contained in each human chromosome?
a. 1 c. 468
b. 46 d. 100,000

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Thymine and cytosine are types of
a. genes.
b. neurotransmitters produced in the brain.
c. autosomes.
d. basic chemical compounds that form the double helix of a DNA molecule.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Human DNA is composed of a total of _____ different nucleotide bases.
a. 4 c. 444
b. 23 d. 30,000

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Genes provide the cell with a specific set of _________ instructions.
a. hormonal c. in vitro
b. biochemical d. bioelectric

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Within a typical human cell, which number is the greatest?
a. The number of chromosomes
b. The number of autosomes
c. The number of genes
d. The number of different types of nucleotide bases

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Who has created a gene?
a. Tom, who has strung together four adenine beads
b. Dick, who has just removed the sex chromosome from a cell
c. Harry, who has just generated a single bead of guanine
d. Sally, who has added an extra chromosome to a fertilized egg

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. The average child has approximately ____ genes.
a. 25 c. 25,000,000
b. 25,000 d. 25,000,000,000

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Kyoko is 5 feet, 11 inches tall, plays tennis, and is an all-around nice person. This is a description of Kyokos
a. allele. c. homozygosity.
b. genotype. d. phenotype.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Genotype is to phenotype as
a. homozygous is to heterozygous.
b. nurture is to nature.
c. DNA is to RNA.
d. chromosome pattern is to physical features.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Which is an example of only your genotype?
a. Your complete set of genes
b. Your physical appearance
c. Your behaviors
d. Your personality

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Which process can best be explained by alleles?
a. The fact that phenotypes produce genotypes
b. The formation of  identical twins through the splitting of a fertilized egg
c. The instructions for hair color come from two sources on the chromosome
d. The teratogenic effects associated with fetal alcohol syndrome

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Homozygous is to heterozygous as
a. same is to different.
b. recessive is to dominant.
c. genotype is to phenotype.
d. many is to few.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Linda has one allele for curly hair and another for straight hair. Lindas alleles are
a. polyzygotic. c. homozygous.
b. dizygotic. d. heterozygous.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Joseph is homozygous for normal blood cells. This means that he
a. is an identical twin.
b. has matching alleles.
c. has recessive alleles.
d. is likely to develop sickle-cell anemia.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. How would you create an individual who will definitely have blue eyes?
a. Make sure he has a pair of homozygous chromosomes for blue eyes.
b. Make sure he has a pair of heterozygous chromosomes for eye color.
c. Make sure he has a pair of alleles for eye color.
d. Make sure he has one recessive gene for blue eyes.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Kirk is heterozygous for cheek dimples but is born with big dimples in both cheeks. Apparently, the allele for cheek dimples is
a. dominant. c. recessive.
b. sex-linked. d. polygenetic.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. If a person had a dominant allele for blonde hair and a recessive allele for red hair, the probability of that person having red hair would be closest to ____ percent.
a. 0 c. 50
b. 25 d. 100

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. If tallness is dominant and designated as T, and shortness is recessive and designated as s, who would likely be short?
a. Bing, who is sT c. Danny, who is ss
b. Crosby, who is Ts d. Kay, who is TT

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. If obesity is dominant and designated as O and thinness is recessive and designated as t, how many of the following individuals would likely be obese:  Ginger who is OO, Mary Ann who is Ot, Thurston who is tO, and Gilligan who is tt?
a. 1 c. 3
b. 2 d. 4

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which best exemplifies the concept of incomplete dominance?
a. An individual with two alleles for baldness who has long hair
b. An individual with two alleles for shyness who is shy
c. An individual with one allele for obesity and another for thinness who is of average weight
d. An individual with a single allele for aggression who is violent

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which statement concerning the sickle-cell trait is true?
a. Individuals with the trait have the dominant phenotype but possess the recessive genotype.
b. Individuals with the trait have both a dominant and recessive allele for the disorder.
c. Individuals with the trait are genetically predisposed to the disorder but cannot display any symptoms.
d. Individuals with the trait tend to have the most severe form of the disease.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Dr. Fry has just been informed that his son has sickle-cell trait. As a knowledgeable physician, Dr. Fry would realize that his sons body is most likely to experience
a. excess levels of body fat.
b. serious oxygen deprivation.
c. decreased lung capacity.
d. blindness.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. What should Danko do when he is informed that his newborn son has PKU (phenylketonuria)?
a. Panic, since PKU is an incurable genetic disorder that results in severe mental retardation
b. Dont panic, since PKU can be cured with drug treatments
c. Dont panic, since PKU is a sex-linked disorder that affects only females
d. Dont panic, since despite being a genetic disorder, it can be controlled through proper diet

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Janakas two-year-old daughter is mentally retarded due, in part, to a diet that included fish, bread, and dairy products. The most likely diagnosis for Janakas daughter is that she has
a. Turners syndrome.
b. Huntingtons disease.
c. Tay Sachs disease.
d. Phenylketonuria (PKU).

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Huntingtons disease is an unusual genetic disorder in that it is a fatal disease caused by dominant alleles that
a. impact late enough in life so that the individual can reproduce.
b. are controllable through diet.
c. both must come from the mother.
d. strike only males.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. _____ is characterized by progressive degeneration of the nervous system.
a. Huntingtons disease
b. Down syndrome
c. Phenylketonuria
d. Sickle-cell disease

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which physical characteristic is most indicative of an individual with Down syndrome?
a. Enlarged head
b. A fold of skin over each eyelid
c. Small tongue
d. Taller than same-age peers

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Following a prenatal exam, your physician remarks, It appears as if your fetus has 47 chromosomes. What would be the most likely response to this information?
a. Concern, as this may indicate that your child has Down syndrome
b. Concern, as this may indicate that your child has sickle-cell anemia
c. Concern, as this may indicate that your child has phenylketonuria (PKU)
d. Relief, since this is a normal number of chromosomes

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which maternal characteristic is most strongly associated with giving birth to a baby with Down syndrome?
a. Low levels of intelligence (i.e., mental retardation)
b. Consumption of alcohol
c. Higher maternal age
d. Exposure to lead or mercury

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Trisomy  21 (three 21st chromosomes) best describes
a. Huntingtons disease. c. Phenylketonuria (PKU).
b. Down syndrome. d. sickle-cell trait.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Because of his accurate knowledge of genetics and disorders, Benson knows that his newborn son has no chance of having
a. Turners syndrome.
b. Kleinfelters syndrome.
c. Huntingtons disease.
d. Down syndrome.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which combination of sex chromosomes is not possible in a living human being?
a. A single X chromosome
b. XXY
c. XYY
d. A single Y chromosome

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

MSC:   Factual

 

  1. As a behavioral geneticist, Juan would most likely be studying
a. the maze-learning behavior of rats.
b. the evolution of intelligence.
c. a gene that is believed to cause shyness.
d. the physiological structure of a gene.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which statement best exemplifies the basic premise of behavioral genetics?
a. Your personality is all in your genes
b. Your personality is all in your environment
c. People are either very open to new experiences or avoid new experiences at all costs
d. Openness to new experience is not an either/or proposition but represents a wide range of reactions

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. If a physician informed you that your speech disorder was the result of problems on chromosomes 4, 7, and 15, you would rightly conclude that the disorder is always classifiable as
a. recessive. c. dominant.
b. polygenetic. d. sex-linked.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. If the four dominant alleles for intelligence are WXYZ and the recessive alleles for intelligence are wxyz, which of the following would be the most common inheritance pattern?
a. WWwwYYyy c. WWXXYYZZ
b. WWxXyYZZ d. WwxxYYzZ

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. John and Wayne have the exact same genes. This indicates that they must be
a. dizygotic twins. c. heterozygous.
b. monozygotic twins. d. co-dominant.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. As dizygotic twins, Jewel and Bjork
a. are genetically identical.
b. must have come from the same fertilized egg.
c. share all phenotypes.
d. share about half of their genes.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Monozygotic is to dizygotic as
a. one mother is to two mothers.
b. one egg is to two eggs.
c. dominant is to recessive.
d. heterozygous is to homozygous.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Jos, who was adopted at birth, is found to have personality characteristics more similar to his biological mom than to his adoptive mom. How should you interpret this data?
a. Personality appears to be a polygenetic characteristic.
b. Personality characteristics are learned.
c. Personality characteristics are influenced by genes.
d. Personality characteristics appear to be recessive.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which result would not support the idea that genes play a significant role in behavior?
a. Finding dizygotic twins to be more similar than monozygotic twins
b. Finding children to be more similar to their biological parents than to their adoptive parents
c. Finding similarities between biological siblings
d. Finding monozygotic twins to be more similar than pairs of unrelated individuals

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. The concept that genotypes are not the only things that control traits involves the fact that
a. dizygotic twins are virtually genetically identical.
b. each genotype can produce a variety of phenotypes.
c. recessive genes are more commonly expressed than dominant genes.
d. the environment has little impact on behavior.

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Despite being raised in two very different environments, identical twins Tina and Gina receive a similar score on a shyness scale. These results suggest that correlation between genetics and shyness is
a. small. c. inverse.
b. large. d. polygenetic.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Difficult          REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Genes and environments
a. interact dynamically throughout development.
b. act independently throughout development.
c. interact dynamically in childhood and independently in adulthood.
d. act independently in childhood and interact dynamically in adulthood.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. As a behavioral geneticist, Professor Klink is most likely to calculate the extent to which depression is inherited using a _____ coefficient.
a. nonshared c. polygenetic
b. DNA d. heritability

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. A heritability coefficient of _____ means about 50 percent of the difference between people on a specific characteristic is the result of heredity.
a. .5 c. 50
b. 5 d. 500

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. A heritability coefficient is a derivation of a(n)
a. t-test. c. correlation.
b. analysis of variance. d. chi-square.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. _________ occurs when an individual intentionally seeks out an environment that matches characteristics driven by his or her genes.
a. Passive gene-environment interactions
b. Incomplete dominance
c. Niche-picking
d. Polygenetic inheritance

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Which individual with a genetic predisposition toward being extroverted is demonstrating successful niche-picking?
a. Wink, who is a game-show host
b. Wilbur, who is a horse trainer
c. Sebastian, who is a hermit who lives in a cave by himself
d. Dexter, who spends a lot of time studying in the library

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Nonshared environmental influences involve forces that make siblings
a. act in virtually identical ways.
b. homozygous.
c. dizygotic twins.
d. different from one another.

 

 

ANS:   D                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Jack and Jill are twins. Because he is a boy, Jacks parents encourage him to run. However, they discourage Jill from engaging in athletic activity. As a result, Jack is much faster at running up a hill than Jill. The difference in Jack and Jills behavior is best explained by
a. nonshared environmental influences.
b. active gene-environment relations.
c. polygenetic effects.
d. niche-picking.

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Application

 

  1. Which statement is true?
a. Environmental influences within a family typically make children within a family different
b. Genes cannot influence the kind of environment to which a person is exposed
c. Behavioral consequences of genetic instructions are independent from environmental factors
d. The impact of environment on heredity wanes with age

 

 

ANS:   A                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.1                   OBJ:    2.1

MSC:   Conceptual

 

  1. Which is not considered part of prenatal development?
a. Period of the fetus c. Period of the neonate
b. Period of the zygote d. Period of the embryo

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.2                   OBJ:    2.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. Prenatal development begins
a. with sperm production.
b. with ovulation.
c. at conception.
d. at implantation into the uterus.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.2                   OBJ:    2.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. The period of the _______ lasts for approximately two weeks.
a. Embryo c. Fetus
b. Zygote d. Neonate

 

 

ANS:   B                     DIF:    Moderate        REF:    2.2                   OBJ:    2.2

KEY:   Key Term        MSC:   Factual

 

  1. The uniting of the egg and sperm (conception) typically takes place in the
a. uterus. c. fallopian tube.
b. testes. d. ovary.

 

 

ANS:   C                     DIF:    Easy                REF:    2.2            &nb

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