Human Learning 7th Edition by Jeanne Ellis Ormrod test bank

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Human Learning 7th Edition by Jeanne Ellis Ormrod test bank

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CHAPTER 1
PERSPECTIVES ON LEARNING

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Human beings undoubtedly learn more during the course of a lifetime than any other species on earth. The major result of this capacity to learn is that:
a. New instincts begin to emerge.
b. Human thought becomes less logical with each generation.
c. Humans can benefit from their experiences.
d. Humans are the only species whose behavior cannot be analyzed in terms of stimuli and responses.

2. Three of the following are examples of learning. Which one is not?
a. Abigail cries when she steps on a sharp pebble.
b. After many hours of heated debate, Brian begins to advocate political practices he has previously opposed.
c. Cara suddenly recognizes how the division fact 24 4 = 6 is related to the multiplication fact 6 x 4 = 24.
d. David has been running away from German shepherds ever since he was bitten by a German shepherd two years ago.

3. Reynelda has trouble tracing a complex shape with a pencil when she is in kindergarten, but she can do it quite well by the time she is in second grade. Is this an instance of learning?
a. Yes, because her behavior has changed.
b. No, because the circumstances are too dissimilar.
c. Maybe, although the change may simply be due to physiological maturation.
d. Maybe, but only if she is being reinforced for tracing accurately.

4. Three of the following illustrate various ways that learning might be reflected in a persons behavior. Which one of the following changes does not necessarily reflect learning?
a. Although its a school night, Dean plays video games until well past his usual bedtime. As he becomes more tired, he finds it increasingly difficult to concentrate on what hes doing.
b. Even as a young child, Jerry could tell you that his grandparents immigrated to the United States from Ireland. But after a conversation with his grandmother, he can now describe the circumstances of the familys immigration in considerable detail.
c. Day after day, Martin practices his basketball skills (shooting, dribbling, etc.) on a basketball court at a local park. With each practice session, his movements become faster and smoother.
d. Lewis occasionally asks for help when he has difficulty with his classwork, but most of the time he just struggles quietly on his own. After his teacher assures him that asking for help is not a sign of weakness or inability, he begins asking for help much more frequently.

5. _____________ research examines learning in tightly controlled settings and ___________ research examines learning in real-world settings.
a. Applied; Basic
b. Basic; Qualitative
c. Qualitative; Applied
d. Basic; Applied

6. A principle of learning can best be characterized as:
a. A description of the results of a particular research study
b. A statement that describes how a particular factor affects learning
c. The measurement of how much learning has occurred in a particular situation
d. An explanation of the underlying processes through which learning occurs

7. A theory of learning can best be characterized as:
a. A description of the results of a particular research study
b. A statement that describes how a particular factor affects learning
c. The measurement of how much learning has occurred in a particular situation
d. An explanation of the underlying processes through which learning occurs

8. Three of the following are principles of learning. Which one is a theory of learning rather than a principle?
a. A behavior that is followed by punishment decreases in frequency.
b. People learn by making mental associations between new information and their existing knowledge.
c. A response that is rewarded every time it occurs increases more rapidly than a response that is only occasionally rewarded.
d. Students tend to remember more of a lecture if they take notes on the lectures content.

9. Which one of the following common sayings best reflects the concept of introspection?
a. Where theres a will, theres a way.
b. Nothing ventured, nothing gained.
c. A penny for your thoughts.
d. Old habits die hard.

10. Which one of the following common sayings best reflects the basic premise underlying social learning theory?
a. Monkey see, monkey do.
b. Spare the rod and spoil the child.
c. A friend in need is a friend indeed.
d. A rolling stone gathers no moss.

11. Which one of the following statements provides the most credible explanation for the fact that human beings seem to surpass all other animal species in their thinking and learning capacities?
a. Only human beings have the capability to make tools.
b. Humans communicate regularly with one another and, in doing so, pass along what theyve learned to future generations.
c. Human beings have a huge repertoire of instinctual behaviors from which they can draw when they encounter new experiences.
d. Human brains are smaller than those of other intelligent species (e.g., elephants, dolphins) and therefore can transmit messages more quickly and efficiently.

12. Behaviorists and cognitivists tend to focus on different aspects of learning. Which one of the following statements best describes this difference?
a. Behaviorism focuses on temporary changes; cognitivism focuses on relatively permanent changes.
b. Behaviorism focuses on relatively permanent changes; cognitivism focuses on temporary changes.
c. Behaviorism focuses on internal mental changes; cognitivism focuses on external behavioral changes.
d. Behaviorism focuses on external behavioral changes; cognitivism focuses on internal mental changes.

13. Theories are advantageous in several ways. Three of the following describe advantages of learning theories. Which one does not?
a. Theories enable objective, unbiased reporting of research findings.
b. Theories help to condense large bodies of information.
c. Theories help practitioners design interventions that facilitate learning.
d. Theories provide an impetus for new research.

14. Which one of the following statements is most accurate statement regarding theories of learning?
a. They have been proven to be true.
b. They will eventually be replaced by physiological explanations of how learning occurs.
c. They are often modified as new data emerge.
d. Any theory can be used to explain virtually every instance of learning.

15. The textbooks perspective regarding various theories of learning is that:
a. Behaviorist theories are probably more accurate.
b. Cognitivist theories are probably more accurate.
c. There is currently no right theory, but one will eventually be developed.
d. Different theories may be applicable in different situations.

Essay Questions

1. Sometimes we know learning has occurred because the learner engages in a new behaviorone that he or she has never before exhibited. But other kinds of behavior changes may also indicate that learning has taken place. Describe three additional ways in which behavior might change as a result of learning. Give a concrete example to illustrate each one.

2. Distinguish between principles and theories of learning, and give a specific example of each.

3. Theories of learning have both advantages and disadvantages. Describe at least two advantages and one disadvantage; in each case, explain the particular effect that the advantage or disadvantage has on the advancement of our understanding of human learning.

CHAPTER 2
LEARNING AND THE BRAIN

Multiple Choice Questions

1. Which one of the following is the best example of the central nervous system (rather than peripheral nervous system) at work?
a. Parts of the hindbrain are involved in regulating heart rate.
b. Cells in the retina at the back of the eye transmit information about light.
c. Some cells in the nose respond to certain kinds of chemicals.
d. Some cells in the skin are sensitive to heat or cold.

2. Which one of the following statements most accurately describes a neurons threshold of excitation?
a. A neuron responds when it is stimulated by some of its neighboring neurons, but not when it is stimulated by other neighbors.
b. A neuron fires only when its electrical charge reaches a particular level.
c. A neuron is receptive to stimulation from other neurons only at points where there are gaps in its myelin sheath.
d. A neuron will fire at a maximum rate of no more than once every three seconds.

3. Which one of the following best describes how neurons transmit messages to one another?
a. By stimulating the growth of surrounding glial cells
b. By attaching themselves to the same terminal buttons
c. By fusing the axon of one with a dendrite of the other
d. By sending chemical substances across a tiny gap between them

4. Which one of the following is the best example of a reflex as psychologists define the term?
a. Going to sleep when you are tired
b. Feeling sad when a close relative dies
c. Pulling your foot away from a painful object
d. Jumping up and down for joy when you get a good grade

5. Three of the following describe methods what researchers commonly use to determine how the human brain probably functions. Which one is not a commonly used method to study the brain?
a. Documenting the behaviors of people with various kinds of brain injuries
b. Recording brain activity through PET scans, CAT scans, and similar technologies
c. Measuring the levels of various hormones and other substances in the blood
d. Removing a certain part of an animals brain and observing the animals subsequent behaviors

6. After a severe head injury, Mary has exceptional difficulty setting goals and in other ways planning her actions. Without knowing anything else about Marys injury, you might reasonably conclude that it affected her:
a. forebrain
b. midbrain
c. hindbrain
d. reticular formation

7. Given how the left and right hemispheres of the brain typically specialize, which one of the following activities would be most heavily dependent on the right hemisphere?
a. Writing a speech for a political campaign
b. Following the logic of a persuasive argument
c. Solving for x in a complex algebraic equation
d. Recognizing human forms in a Picasso painting

8. Given the roles that the right hemisphere typically plays in language comprehension, which one of the following tasks would rely most heavily on the right hemisphere?
a. Hearing the rhyme in the words hypocrisy and democracy
b. Writing precise definitions of abstract words such as hypocrisy and democracy
c. Realizing that That blonde is really hot has as least two possible meanings
d. Translating Leo Tolstoys novel War and Peace into English

9. Given what psychologists believe to be true about how information is typically stored in the brain, how is the concept dog probably represented in your brain?
a. As a single neuron located in the prefrontal cortex
b. As a network of neurons spread across multiple brain regions
c. As a cluster of interconnected neurons located in the left parietal lobe
d. As a cluster of interconnected neurons located in one of the occipital lobes

10. Which one of the following best describes the growth of neurons during the prenatal period?
a. An overabundance of neurons emerges early in prenatal development, but about half of the neurons die before birth.
b. Neurons continue to be generated at a rapid rate throughout the last six months of the prenatal period.
c. Neurons begin to develop in the fifth month of pregnancy, and they proliferate rapidly during the third trimester.
d. Neurons that will support basic physiological functioning appear in the first two months after conception; those that will be responsible for higher-level thinking processes dont appear until two or three months before birth.

11. In the human brain, a great deal of synaptic pruning occurs in early childhood. This pruning appears to be:
a. The unfortunate result of insufficiently stimulating home environments
b. An adaptive process that allows children to deal more efficiently with their environment
c. Due to an imbalance of important nutrients, and especially to low levels of the B vitamins in many childrens diets
d. Reflective of the fact that the forebrain is slowly taking over responsibility for functions that have previously been regulated by the hindbrain and midbrain

12. As children grow older, many of their neurons begin to transmit messages more rapidly than they did in the early years of life, thanks to:
a. synaptic pruning
b. synaptogenesis
c. myelination
d. maturation of the limbic system

13. During the elementary and secondary school years, much of the brains development occurs in regions of the brain that are largely responsible for
a. thinking and reasoning
b. generation of emotional responses
c. muscular strength and coordination
d. making discriminations among highly similar stimuli

14. John is an adolescent who makes impulsive decisions (e.g., ditching school) and engages in risky behavior (e.g., driving well over the speed limit). His behavior can best be explained by which of the following?
a. Adolescents have limited concepts of consequences and punishment.
b. Adolescents brain stems are still not fully developed, and will not be until middle adulthood.
c. Adolescents pre-frontal cortices are still not fully developed and will not be until their late teens and early twenties.
d. During adolescence, synaptic pruning has stopped.

15. According to the textbook, which one of the following conclusions is most true regarding factors that influence brain development?
a. Genetic factors have the strongest influence on brain development, particularly later in life.
b. Environmental factors and peoples experiences have the strongest influence on brain development in middle childhood.
c. Together, brain development is shaped by genetic and environmental factors throughout the life span.
d. Environmental factors are particularly influential in abnormal brain development.

16. Three of the following statements are consistent with research findings about factors that influence brain development. Which statement has not been supported by research?
a. Genetic factors predispose some people to learning difficulties or mental illness.
b. High levels of alcohol consumption during pregnancy can lead to mental retardation.
c. High levels of toxic substances (e.g., lead, pesticides) have their greatest negative impact after puberty.
d. Opportunities to learn certain skills may lead to detectable differences in brain structures or patterns of brain activation.

17. In which one of the following situations should we be most concerned about missing a critical period in a persons development?
a. Rachel is born with a cataract in her left eye that is surgically removed when she is 8 years old.
b. Phoebe doesnt learn how to write until she is 12 years old.
c. Although Ross knows how to count, he gets no formal instruction in mathematics until he is 15.
d. Joey has his first tennis lesson when he is 25.

18. Which one of the following best exemplifies experience-expectant plasticity?
a. Learning how to play the guitar
b. Mastering ones native language
c. Understanding abstract ideas in philosophy
d. Applying principles of psychology to real-world settings

19. Which one of the following best exemplifies experience-dependent plasticity?
a. Hearing subtle differences in similar-sounding words
b. Learning how to pronounce words like a native speaker
c. Learning syntactical structures of ones native language
d. Learning how to read

20. Which one of the following research findings is most consistent with the concept of core knowledge as described in the textbook?
a. Children must have basic knowledge of numbers and counting before they can master arithmetic operations such as addition and multiplication.
b. Some motor skills are prerequisites for others; for example, children must learn how to walk before they can learn how to run or skip.
c. Some linguistic knowledge is prerequisite to other knowledge; for example, children must know how to read before they can learn how to write.
d. Very young infants appear to have more knowledge of the physical world than they could have acquired from their own, limited experiences with objects.

21. Which one of the following best describes mirror neurons?
a. They are pairs of neurons that have identical functions on opposite sides of the cortex.
b. They are the primary reason why infants can recognize their own reflections as early as 3 months of age.
c. They fire when a person either makes a particular response or observes someone else make that response.
d. They are the only kinds of neurons that are consistently found in all primate species.

22. Which one of the following best describes psychologists current beliefs about the brain and learning?
a. Learning involves changes in synapses and possibly also involves the growth of new neurons and astrocytes.
b. Large doses of certain vitamins promote brain growth and lead to more rapid learning.
c. Left-hemisphere-dominant individuals are, on average, more effective learners than right-hemisphere-dominant individuals.
d. The brains of rapid learners are about 20% larger than the brains of slower learners.

23. Naomi wakes up several hours after a severe blow to her head has rendered her unconscious. She can remember nothing about events leading up to the incident, reflecting the importance of _____________ in learning and memory.
a. neurogenesis
b. consolidation
c. a critical period
d. the corpus callosum

24. According to the textbook, which one of the following conclusions is most warranted from research on brain development?
a. To become truly skilled in such domains as art and music, children should begin systematic instruction in these domains before the age of five.
b. The ability to think abstractly depends on the development of many synaptic connections during the first five years of life.
c. Children probably wont acquire the basic skills essential to succeed in the adult world (e.g., reading, writing, math) unless they begin developing those skills in the early elementary grades at the latest.
d. Classroom experiences can significantly enhance peoples cognitive development throughout the elementary, secondary, and post-secondary school years.

Essay Questions

1. The textbook describes five general research methods that scientists use to determine how the brain functions. In three short paragraphs, describe three of them.

2. Several teachers tell you that they are teaching to students right brains by spending a lot of time on painting, map interpretation, geometry, and other highly visual and/or spatial activities. Critique their claim using what you have learned about how the human brain functions.

3. Someone tries to convince you that parents should put their children in enriching preschool environments by their second birthday at the latest. How would you respond to this individual? In your response:
a. State whether you agree or disagree with the person.
b. Defend your position given recent findings about brain development. Include the following concepts in your discussion:
i. synaptogenesis
ii. synaptic pruning
iii. experience-expectant and experience-dependent plasticity

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