Human Physiology 6th Edition Test Bank Dee Silverthorn

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Human Physiology 6th Edition Test Bank Dee Silverthorn

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Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach, 6e (Silverthorn)
Chapter 13 Integrative Physiology I: Control of Body Movement

1) The effector in a reflex is the
A) control center.
B) afferent neuron.
C) efferent neuron.
D) sensory receptor.
E) muscle or gland.
Answer: E
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge)

2) A polysynaptic reflex has at least ________ in the reflex pathway.
A) one synapse
B) two synapses
C) two neurons
D) three neurons
E) two synapses and three neurons
Answer: E
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge)

3) Identify the FALSE statement.
A) Adipose tissue is controlled by autonomic efferents.
B) All reflexes require input from the brain.
C) Some reflexes are genetically determined.
D) Muscle spindles are stretch receptors.
E) Proprioceptors detect limb position and movement.
Answer: B
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge)
4) Which reflex is NOT controlled by the brain stem?
A) urination
B) vomiting
C) sneezing
D) swallowing
E) salivating
Answer: A
Section Title: Autonomic Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.2
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge)

5) Which is NOT true regarding autonomic reflexes?
A) Vomiting, sneezing, and coughing are all examples of autonomic reflexes.
B) Integrating centers for autonomic reflexes in the brain include the hypothalamus, brain stem, and limbic system.
C) Autonomic reflexes are all monosynaptic, with their synapse in the central nervous system.
D) Many autonomic reflexes are characterized by tonic activity, a continuous stream of action potentials.
Answer: C
Section Title: Autonomic Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.2
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge)

6) The sensory fibers of the muscle spindle organs synapse onto
A) Golgi tendon organs.
B) gamma motor neurons.
C) alpha motor neurons.
D) joint receptors.
Answer: C
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.5
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge)

7) The reflex that prevents a muscle from exerting too much tension is the
A) stretch reflex.
B) tendon reflex.
C) flexor reflex.
D) crossed extensor reflex.
E) reciprocal reflex.
Answer: B
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.7
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)
8) The flexion reflex
A) prevents a muscle from overstretching.
B) prevents a muscle from generating damaging tension.
C) moves a limb away from a painful stimulus.
D) makes adjustments in other parts of the body in response to a particular stimulus.
E) is an example of a monosynaptic reflex.
Answer: C
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.5
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

9) The reflex that complements a withdrawal reflex by making compensatory adjustments on the opposite side of the body receiving the stimulus is the
A) stretch reflex.
B) tendon reflex.
C) flexor reflex.
D) crossed extensor reflex.
E) reciprocal reflex.
Answer: D
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.10
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

10) It is the middle of winter and you walk over an icy patch and lose your balance. As you begin to fall, you react by extending your arms to catch yourself. In this instance, what type of reflex is occurring?
A) stretch reflex
B) tendon reflex
C) flexor reflex
D) crossed extensor reflex
E) reciprocal reflex
Answer: D
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.10
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)
11) Spinal interneurons prevent muscle antagonists from interfering with an intended movement by
A) initiating a crossed extensor reflex.
B) initiating a stretch reflex.
C) initiating a tendon reflex.
D) the process of reciprocal inhibition.
E) activating reverberating circuits.
Answer: D
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.10
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

12) The normal contractile fibers of the muscle are also called the
A) extrafusal fibers.
B) intrafusal fibers.
C) muscle spindle fibers.
Answer: A
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.5
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

13) Motor neurons are sometimes inhibited by
A) Golgi tendon organs.
B) muscle spindle organs.
C) joint receptors.
Answer: A
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.7
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

14) Most reflex movements are integrated by
A) the brain.
B) the spinal cord.
C) central pattern generators.
D) proprioceptors.
E) effectors.
Answer: B
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)
15) Which class of movement can be considered a combination of the other two?
A) reflex
B) voluntary
C) rhythmic
Answer: C
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.11
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

16) Most reflexes are regulated by
A) the brain.
B) the spinal cord.
C) ganglia.
D) positive feedback.
E) negative feedback.
Answer: E
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.12
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

17) Interneurons of the corticospinal tract synapse onto
A) visceral efferents.
B) somatic efferents.
C) interneurons of central pattern generators.
Answer: B
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

18) The structure whose abnormal function is associated with Parkinsons disease is the
A) spinal cord.
B) basal ganglia.
C) cerebellum.
D) primary motor cortex.
E) skeletal muscle.
Answer: B
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.12
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)
Match the type of reflex to its description.

A. somatic
B. autonomic
C. spinal
D. cranial
E. innate
F. acquired
G. polysynaptic

19) integrated in the brain
Answer: D
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

20) several neurons involved in a pathway; can be complex
Answer: G
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

21) involves skeletal muscles
Answer: A
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.13
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

22) reflexes that one is born with; genetically determined
Answer: E
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

23) integrated in the spinal cord, often modulated by the brain
Answer: C
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)
24) an example would be slowing or speeding the heart and other internal organs that are not consciously controlled
Answer: B
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

25) our experiences tell us how to behave; bracing yourself in anticipation would be an example
Answer: F
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

Match the structure to its description.

A. muscle spindles
B. Golgi tendon organs
C. both

26) maintain muscle tone at rest through tonic activity
Answer: A
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.4
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

27) have afferent neurons that bring information to the CNS
Answer: C
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.4
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

28) excite both alpha and gamma motor neurons
Answer: A
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.4
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

29) found at the junction of tendons and muscle fibers
Answer: B
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.4
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)
30) have gamma motor neurons that innervate internal fibers
Answer: A
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.4
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

31) eventually synapses with alpha motor neurons that innervate extrafusal muscle fibers
Answer: A
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.4
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

32) The motor neurons that innervate the normal contractile fibers of the muscle are the ________.
Answer: alpha motor neurons
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.6
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

33) The motor neurons associated with intrafusal muscle fibers are referred to as ________ motor neurons.
Answer: gamma
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.5
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

34) The tension maintained in a muscle at rest is known as ________.
Answer: muscle tone
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.5
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

35) In order to flex a limb, the extensors must first be relaxed and vice versa. This is done by a process called ________.
Answer: reciprocal innervation
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.5
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

36) Relaxation of skeletal muscle results from ________ input by the somatic motor neuron.
Answer: the absence of excitatory
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.6
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

37) Rhythmic reflexive motor activities, such as breathing or walking, are controlled by networks of neurons in the central nervous system called ________.
Answer: central pattern generators
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.11
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

38) ________ monitor the position of skeletal muscles and joints.
Answer: Proprioceptors
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.8
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

39) Autonomic reflexes are also called ________ reflexes.
Answer: visceral
Section Title: Autonomic Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.2
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

40) ________ reflexes involve skeletal muscles.
Answer: Somatic
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.13
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

41) In a ________ reflex, a sensory neuron synapses directly on a motor neuron.
Answer: monosynaptic
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

42) A ________ reflex has at least one interneuron placed between the sensory and motor neuron.
Answer: polysynaptic
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

43) Most reflexes are regulated by ________.
Answer: negative feedback
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.12
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)
44) The ________ is essentially a group of interneurons that run from the motor cortex to the spinal cord.
Answer: corticospinal tract
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.12
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

45) ________ allows the body to anticipate a stimulus and begin the response, whereas negative feedback results in the ________ of a response.
Answer: Feedforward, cessation
Section Title: Control of Movement in Visceral Muscles
Learning Outcome: 13.2
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

46) The control of voluntary movement can be divided into what three steps?
Answer:
1. decision-making and planning
2. initiating the movement
3. executing the movement
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.12
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

47) A muscle at rest exerts no tension. Is this statement true or false? Explain your answer.
Answer: False. Normal muscles maintain a resting tension known as muscle tone.
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.4
Skill: Level I: Reviewing Facts and Terms (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

48) After stretching an intrafusal fiber, the next event is
A) an increase in action potentials along the associated sensory neuron.
B) a decrease in muscle tension.
C) a decrease in muscle tone.
D) decreased sensitivity to stretching.
E) All of the answers are correct.
Answer: A
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.6
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)
49) When there is a resistance to the movement produced by a given limb muscle,
A) gamma motor neurons are inhibited by higher brain centers.
B) there is a decrease in the amount of force generated by extrafusal muscle fibers.
C) the muscle involved in the movement immediately shortens when stimulated.
D) intrafusal fibers receive fewer action potentials from the gamma motor neurons.
E) muscle tone is increased and more motor units are recruited to the contraction.
Answer: E
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.4
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

50) Ten-year-old Tina falls while climbing a tree and lands on her back. Her frightened parents take her to the local emergency room where she is examined. Her knee jerk reflex is normal and she exhibits a negative Babinski reflex. These results suggest that
A) Tina has injured one of her descending nerve tracts.
B) Tina has injured one of her ascending nerve tracts.
C) Tina has a spinal injury in the lumbar region.
D) Tina has a spinal injury in the cervical region.
E) Tina suffered no damage to her spinal cord.
Answer: E
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.12
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

51) Muscle spindles are ________ receptors and cause reflex ________, whereas Golgi tendon organs respond primarily to ________ and cause a ________ reflex.
Answer: stretch, contraction, tension, relaxation (Golgi tendon organs are relatively insensitive to muscle stretch.)
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.7
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

52) The collection of pathways controlling a single joint is known as ________. The simplest reflex in this collection of pathways is the ________, which involves only two neurons: ________ neuron from the ________ and the ________ neuron to the muscle.
Answer: myotatic unit; monosynaptic stretch reflex, sensory, muscle spindle, somatic
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.8
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)
53) Are relaxation of a muscle and inhibition of a muscle the same thing? Explain your answer.
Answer: No. Relaxation is a passive process that normally follows contraction and occurs in the absence of further activity in the motor neurons. Inhibition involves prevention of muscle stimulation and consequent contraction by activity in interneurons that inhibit motor neurons. While in both cases the motor neuron is not producing signals, the reason is lack of stimulation in one case, inhibition in the other.
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.12
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

54) What are the three levels of nervous system that control movement? Briefly describe their roles.
Answer:
1. the spinal cord, which integrates spinal reflexes and contains the central pattern generators
2. the brain stem and cerebellum, which control postural reflexes and hand and eye movements
3. the cerebral cortex and basal ganglia, which are responsible for voluntary movements
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.13
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension)

55) List three ways that neural reflex pathways can be classified. Name one of the reflexes in each category. What additional information may be gained from the name of the reflex? Name a specific reflex and identify its classification in all of the categories you listed.
Answer: Any three of the following four answers are correct classifications. Further, the effector or action is sometimes evident by the reflex name, e.g., flexor reflex. Answers to specific reflexes will vary, e.g., knee jerk reflex is somatic, spinal, innate, and monosynaptic.
1. by the efferent division of the nervous system that controls the response: somatic reflexes and autonomic reflexes
2. by the CNS location where the reflex is integrated: spinal reflexes and cranial reflexes
3. by whether the reflex is innate or learned: innate reflexes and learned or conditioned reflexes
4. by the number of neurons in the reflex pathway: monosynaptic reflexes and polysynaptic reflexes
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)
56) Design a concept map that shows the types of reflexes, the basis for their classification, and their functions.
Answer: See Table 13.1 and Figure 13.1 in the chapter.
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

57) How does the stretch reflex protect a muscle?
Answer: Stretching activates the stretch reflex, which in turn contracts the muscle, thereby preventing overstretching.
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.5
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

58) Name the components of a reflex pathway, and describe generally how a reflex works.
Answer: See Figure 13.1 in the chapter.
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

59) Compare and contrast the structures and functions of the Golgi tendon organ and the muscle spindle.
Answer: See Figure 13.5 in the chapter.
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.7
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

60) You are studying for your physiology test with your lab partner. She insists that the purpose of the knee jerk reflex is to test for neural or muscular damage. State whether or not you agree with her, and why.
Answer: While reflexes can be exploited by medical personnel as a means to assess neural and muscular function, that is not their purpose in the sense of why they occur. Each reflex has a function; for example, the knee jerk reflex helps control movement at the knee joint.
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.1
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)
61) Explain alpha-gamma coactivation.
Answer: Alpha motor neurons control the contraction of skeletal muscle fibers. Gamma motor neurons adjust the stretch sensitivity of the muscle spindle, so that the spindle is active even when the muscle shortens. Coactivation of both sets of fibers causes the tension on the muscle spindles to be maintained as the muscle shortens; thus sensitivity to stretch is maintained.
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.6
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

62) Compare and contrast the three categories of movement described in the text and give an example of each.
Answer: See Table 13.2 in the chapter.
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.11
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

63) Make a map of the integration of muscle reflexes. Include the following terms: brain stem, cerebellum, cerebral cortex, feedback, muscle contraction and movement, sensory receptors, signal, spinal cord, and thalamus.
Answer: See Figure 13.8 in the chapter.
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.12
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

64) Make a map of the following terms: alpha motor neurons, CNS, contractile fibers, extrafusual muscle fibers, Golgi tendon organs, integrating center, joint receptors, muscle spindles, proprioreceptors, sensory neurons, sensory receptors and somatic motor neurons.
Answer: Skeletal muscle reflexes have the following components: Sensory receptors known as proprioreceptorsthe three types are: muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and joint receptors. Sensory neurons carry input from proprioreceptors to the CNS, the integrating center. Somatic motor neurons carry the output signal from the CNS; alpha motor neurons are somatic motor neurons that innervate skeletal muscle contractile fibers, known as extrafusual muscle fibers.
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.12
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

65) Draw a monosynaptic reflex and a polysynaptic reflex. Label each part of the reflex pathway. Briefly explain how the two reflexes differ.
Answer: See Figure 13.1 in the chapter. The answer should include each component of the reflex pathway as in Figure 13.1. Monosynaptic reflex has a single synapse between the afferent and efferent neurons; polysynaptic reflexes have two or more synapses.
Section Title: Neural Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.9
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

66) List and describe the three categories of movement. Explain why these categories are NOT always distinct.
Answer: The three categories are reflex, voluntary, and rhythmic. Reflex movements are initiated by sensory input and are integrated primarily in the spinal cord. Voluntary movements are integrated in the cerebral cortex and require no external stimuli. Rhythmic movements are a combination of reflex and voluntary. Voluntary movements improve with practice as do reflexive, voluntary movements can become reflexive once learned, and voluntary movements depend upon input from postural reflexes.
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.11
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

67) Explain how an animal with a paralyzing spinal injury can be induced to walk, though it cant walk on its own. Diagram and label the structures involved. (Hint: Keep it simple; for example, you could draw a rectangle and label it right leg muscle and another for the left, and dont worry about drawing all neurons involved, just enough to show you understand the basics. You may wish to start with a simple sketch of a muscle reflex then add on to it as necessary.)
Answer: If the animal is supported on a moving treadmill, the central pattern generators involved in walking will become active and will produce coordinated contraction and relaxation of limb muscles. Diagram should include a cross section of the spinal cord with an area labeled central pattern generator, a sensory afferent, and a motor efferent as in any sketch of a reflex.
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.11
Skill: Level II: Reviewing Concepts (Blooms Taxonomy: Application)

68) Diagram and label the knee jerk reflex. What is the physiological function of this reflex? Explain how this reflex may be important during walking, if you didnt notice a dip in the sidewalk and stepped into it. What is the role of reciprocal inhibition? How would the reflex be affected if reciprocal inhibition failed? Describe the effects on the reflex of severing each structure involved in the reflex, considering one structure at a time. Describe the effects of damaging the opposite side of the spinal cord, or areas higher or lower on the spinal cord.
Answer: The diagram should resemble Figure 13.6 in the chapter. The function of the reflex is to control movement at the knee joint. If you stepped down farther than you expected, your opposite knee may bend more than it would have, activating the reflex and straightening that leg to prevent you from falling. Reciprocal inhibition allows muscles opposing extension of the leg to be inhibited. If this inhibition failed, leg extension would not occur; instead, the knee would be locked. Severing the afferent or efferent nerve, the spinal cord at the level of the reflex, or the muscle would all prevent the reflex from occurring. Damage to the opposite side of the spinal cord or areas above or below the cells involved in the reflex should have no effect on the basic reflex. (Note to instructor: In reality, it is not so simple, but the point is to get the students to consider the basic mechanics of the reflex.)
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.9
Skill: Level III: Problem Solving (Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis)

69) Draw a diagram of the cerebral motor cortex and descending input to spinal motor neurons. Voluntary suppression of the knee jerk reflex originates in the motor cortex, which can send inhibitory signals to the motor neurons. If the left motor cortex is active, is the left or right knee jerk reflex suppressed or are both suppressed? Explain your answer. If the left side of the spinal cord at the level of leg muscle control is damaged, is it the left or right knee jerk reflex that is suppressed or are both suppressed?
Answer: The diagram should resemble Figure 13.11 in the chapter. The left motor cortex controls the right spinal motor neurons and therefore the right knee reflex. The left side of the spinal cord controls the reflex on the left side.
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.12
Skill: Level III: Problem Solving (Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis)
70) While watching Olympic weight lifters on television, Carl notices that on several occasions an athlete would lift the weight to his chest and then suddenly drop it. Can you offer an explanation for what might be happening?
Answer: What Carl is observing is an example of the stretch reflex in action. As the weight lifter lifts the weight, he is contracting the biceps brachii and brachialis muscles and at the same time stretching the triceps brachii muscle. If the mass is great, the amount of flexion necessary to move the mass could begin to overstretch the triceps that is being relaxed so as not to interfere with flexion. Stimulation of the muscle spindles in the triceps produces a reflex arc that brings about the relaxation of some of the motor units in the muscles involved in flexion, like the biceps. When the tension produced by the flexing muscles decreases to a point where they can no longer work against the resistance of the mass, the weight lifter will drop the weights involuntarily.
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.7
Skill: Level III: Problem Solving (Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis)

71) Bowel and bladder control involve spinal reflex pathways that are located in the sacral region of the spinal cord. In both instances, two sphincter muscles, an inner sphincter of smooth muscle and an outer sphincter of skeletal muscle, control the passage of waste out of the body. How would completely severing the spinal cord at the lumbar level affect an individuals bowel and bladder control?
Answer: The person would still exhibit a defecation (bowel) and micturition (bladder) reflex because the spinal reflex is processed at the local sacral level of the spinal cord, which is intact at that level. Efferent impulses from the organs would stimulate specific interneurons in the sacral region that would synapse with the motor neurons controlling the sphincters, thus bringing about emptying when organs began to fill. This is the same situation that exists in a newborn infant who has not yet fully developed the descending tracts necessary for conscious control. The individual with the spinal cord transection would lose voluntary control of the bowel and bladder because these functions rely on impulses carried by motor neurons in the brain that must travel down the cord and synapse with the interneurons and motor neurons that are involved in the reflex. With a lumbar transection, these impulses no longer reach the reflex control center.
Section Title: Control of Movement in Visceral Muscles
Learning Outcome: 13.13
Skill: Level III: Problem Solving (Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis)
72) A. Ernie, an experienced batter, steps up to the plate, looks off into the distance, and plans where to hit the baseball. He then swings the bat, connects with the ball, sends it into the air, and follows through the swing with his arms, hips, and knees, and shifts his weight from one leg to the other. He watches the ball fly away, and takes off for first base. Explain what areas of the central nervous system are working during each phase of the action outlined, and which step is controlled by each part.
B. Continue to integrate this with information from other topics as the action continues: Ernie hears the umpire yell Infield fly! Batters out! He remembers the rules of the game, slows his pace, and leaves the baseline before arriving at first base.
Answer: For part A, see The Integrated Control of Body Movement section of the chapter. For part B, students can include information learned in Chapters 9 and 10.
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.12
Skill: Level III: Problem Solving (Blooms Taxonomy: Synthesis)

73) Upon testing the knee jerk reflex during a routine physical, a nurse notices that the reflex is hyperactive. What could be the explanation for this? If instead the reflex was hypoactive, what may the nurse conclude?
Answer: A hyperactive knee jerk reflex suggests a lack of descending inhibition. This could indicate injury or disease in the spinal cord above the reflex arc, or in a brain area involved in motor control. A hypoactive reflex could indicate damage to any of the components of the local reflex arc, including the muscle, the spinal nerve, or that level of the spinal cord. Alternatively it is possible the patient is deliberately inhibiting the reflex by descending inhibition. Reflexes can also be adversely affected by metabolic disorders.
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.12
Skill: Level III: Problem Solving (Blooms Taxonomy: Synthesis)

74) You are a technician in a neuroanatomy lab, and its your first day of training to learn a technique of labeling neurons. Your boss tells you that you will fill individual motor neurons, by injecting horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugated to tetanus toxin, into a skeletal muscle. How could this possibly label the neurons?
Answer: The process of labeling neurons by HRP was introduced in Chapter 9; this enzyme is taken up by axon terminals and transported retrogradely, filling most or perhaps all dendrites, as well as the axon and soma. When the substrate of the enzyme is added to tissue slices, a dark reaction product is formed, and this is how the details of the cell are visualized. Toxins such as tetanus and cholera toxin, which are also taken up and transported by axon terminals, enhance the uptake of HRP, if they are attached (conjugated) to the HRP.
Section Title: Control of Movement in Visceral Muscles
Learning Outcome: 13.13
Skill: Level III: Problem Solving (Blooms Taxonomy: Synthesis)
75) Draw two graphs that represent the alpha-gamma coactivation:
1. muscle length as a function of time
2. action potentials of spindle sensory neuron as a function of time
Answer: See Figure 13.4 in the chapter.
Section Title: Skeletal Muscle Reflexes
Learning Outcome: 13.6
Skill: Level IV: Quantitative Problems (Blooms Taxonomy: Evaluation)

76) Two of your physiology classmates are trying to figure out if cross country skiing is a voluntary activity or a rhythmic activity. They come to you to determine who is correct. What do you tell them?
Answer: You explain that they are, to some degree, both correct. While learning to cross country ski, you would set up central pattern generators that would help you repeat predictable orders of movement. Since those movements would be automatic with your brain being responsible for starting and stopping the central pattern generators, it would be a rhythmic activity. However if there is a change in terrain or slope where you are skiing, your brain would have to alter the patterns and adapt to the changing terrain, requiring voluntary motions. Most athletic endeavors would involve a combination of voluntary and rhythmic movements.
Section Title: The Integrated Control of Body Movement
Learning Outcome: 13.11
Skill: Level III: Problem Solving (Blooms Taxonomy: Evaluation)

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