Human Physiology From Cells To Systems 3rd Edition by Lauralee Sherwood Test Bank

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Human Physiology From Cells To Systems 3rd Edition by Lauralee Sherwood Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

Human Physiology From Cells To Systems 3rd Edition by Lauralee Sherwood Test Bank

chapter_2

 

 

 

Indicate whether the statement is true or false.

 

1. Secretory vesicles are about 200 times larger than transport vesicles.

  a. True
  b. False

 

2. Sheets of epithelial cells are joined by gap junctions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

3. The stronger the stimulus, the greater the frequency of action potentials generated in a neuron.

  a. True
  b. False

 

4. Temporal summation occurs when EPSPs from several different excitatory presynaptic inputs occur simultaneously.

  a. True
  b. False

 

5. When equilibrium is achieved and no net diffusion is taking place, there is no movement of molecules.

  a. True
  b. False

 

6. Action potentials can be summed.

  a. True
  b. False

 

7. Action potentials are initiated at the axon hillock region because it has the lowest threshold voltage.

  a. True
  b. False

 

8. The period of time following an action potential during which a membrane cannot be restimulated, no matter how strong the stimulus, is known as the subminimal response period.

  a. True
  b. False

 

9. If a concentration or electrical gradient is present for a given substance, the substance will always passively permeate the membrane.

  a. True
  b. False

 

10. A postsynaptic neuron can either excite or inhibit a presynaptic neuron.

  a. True
  b. False

 

11. Carrier molecules always require energy to accomplish transport of a substance across the membrane.

  a. True
  b. False

 

12. The cytosol is the gel-like mass of the cytoplasm.

  a. True
  b. False

 

13. Presynaptic neurons converging upon a postsynaptic cell will be either all excitatory or all inhibitory.

  a. True
  b. False

 

14. According to the Nernst equation, the equilibrium potential for a given ion decreases as the difference in concentration of the ion outside and inside the cell increases.

  a. True
  b. False

 

15. A given synapse may produce EPSPs at one time and IPSPs at another time.

  a. True
  b. False

 

16. The only means by which an extracellular chemical messenger can bring about a desired intracellular response is to activate a second messenger system.

  a. True
  b. False

 

17. Pinocytosis, or cell drinking, refers to the process of a cell engulfing a large, solid particle and bringing it into the contents of the cell.

  a. True
  b. False

 

18. According to the fluid mosaic model of membrane structure, the plasma membrane consists primarily of a bilayer of mobile phospholipid molecules studded with an ever-changing mosaic pattern of proteins.

  a. True
  b. False

 

19. Net sodium movement into the cell occurs passively, whereas net sodium movement out of the cell occurs actively.

  a. True
  b. False

 

20. All cell organelles are renewable.

  a. True
  b. False

 

21. The rough endoplasmic reticulum is most abundant in cells specialized for protein secretion, whereas smooth endoplasmic reticulum is abundant in cells that specialize in lipid metabolism.

  a. True
  b. False

 

22. Schwann cells promote axonal growth, while oligodendrocytes inhibit it.

  a. True
  b. False

 

23. The large protein anion does not leave the cell because there is no concentration or electrical gradient to drive it outward.

  a. True
  b. False

 

24. Phosphorylation of a carrier can alter the affinity of its binding sites, accompanied by a change in its conformation.

  a. True
  b. False

 

25. The equilibrium potential for K+ is less than the resting membrane potential.

  a. True
  b. False

 

26. Dynein is a mitochondrial enzyme.

  a. True
  b. False

 

27. The predominant cation in the intracellular fluid is calcium.

  a. True
  b. False

 

28. Coated vesicles enclose a representative mixture of proteins present in the Golgi sac before budding off.

  a. True
  b. False

 

29. Myelinated fibres in both the central and the peripheral nervous systems are capable of regenerating when cut.

  a. True
  b. False

 

30. The sodiumpotassium pump indirectly offers the energy source for glucose transport across intestinal cells.

  a. True
  b. False

 

31. Lack of aerobic exercise can have negative health implications, such as heart disease and high blood pressure.

  a. True
  b. False

 

32. The endoplasmic reticulum is one continuous organelle consisting of many tubules and cisternae.

  a. True
  b. False

 

33. During the relative refractory period, a neuron is completely refractory.

  a. True
  b. False

 

34. Endocytosis can be accomplished by phagocytosis and pinocytosis.

  a. True
  b. False

 

35. The nucleus indirectly governs most cellular activities by directing the kinds and amounts of various enzymes and other proteins that are produced by the cell.

  a. True
  b. False

 

36. Gap junctions play an important role in transmission of impulses for heart contraction.

  a. True
  b. False

 

37. A high percentage of sodium and potassium ions move during each action potential.

  a. True
  b. False

 

38. The grand postsynaptic potential depends on the sum of activity of the presynaptic inputs.

  a. True
  b. False

 

39. The refractory period limits the frequency of action potentials.

  a. True
  b. False

 

40. The axon hillock occurs between the cell body and the axon of a neuron.

  a. True
  b. False

 

41. Anions tend to move toward a negatively charged area.

  a. True
  b. False

 

42. The carrier molecule actually moves from side to side through the membrane as it transports material across.

  a. True
  b. False

 

43. In the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane, the hydrophobic tails of the phospholipids orient toward the centre of the membrane, away from water.

  a. True
  b. False

 

44. The lysosomes are one site of protein synthesis.

  a. True
  b. False

 

45. The myelin on a myelinated fibre in the peripheral nervous system consists of Schwann cells wrapped around the axon.

  a. True
  b. False

 

46. The passive current flow of a graded potential fades quickly.

  a. True
  b. False

 

47. Facilitated diffusion is passive and does not require energy.

  a. True
  b. False

 

48. Most of the membrane potential of the plasma membrane is established by the active transport of sodium and potassium ions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

49. Mitochondria are presumed to be descendants of primitive bacterial cells.

  a. True
  b. False

 

50. During the resting potential, many potassium channels are open in the plasma membrane.

  a. True
  b. False

 

51. Fibronectin is the extracellular matrix component that provides tensile strength.

  a. True
  b. False

 

52. The myelin covering the axon promotes the leakage of ions from the neuron.

  a. True
  b. False

 

53. In a graded potential, the direction of current flow is designated by the movement of positive charges.

  a. True
  b. False

 

54. Osmosis does not occur if the concentration gradients for water and solutes are absent in a system.

  a. True
  b. False

 

55. The only way in which a neurotransmitter-receptor combination can influence the postsynaptic cell is to directly alter its permeability to specific ions.

  a. True
  b. False

 

56. One chemical messenger molecule can ultimately induce the production of millions of molecules of a secretory product by a cell.

  a. True
  b. False

 

57. During conduction by local current flow, current flows locally between the active and the adjacent inactive area of the cell membrane, thereby decreasing the potential in the inactive area to threshold.

  a. True
  b. False

 

58. At resting potential, the outside of the cell is negative compared to the intracellular fluid.

  a. True
  b. False

 

59. The Na+ and K+ channels that open and close during an action potential are voltage-gated channels.

  a. True
  b. False

 

60. At resting membrane potential, no ionic fluxes are taking place across the membrane.

  a. True
  b. False

 

61. Rough ER is most abundant in cells specialized for steroid production.

  a. True
  b. False

 

62. The nerve fibre is another name for the nucleus of a neuron.

  a. True
  b. False

 

63. Glycolysis generates ATP from glucose with high efficiency.

  a. True
  b. False

 

64. Cations are attracted to a more positively charged area along an electrical gradient.

  a. True
  b. False

 

65. The synapse is a specialized part of a neuron.

  a. True
  b. False

 

66. Neuropeptides are mainly neuromodulators.

  a. True
  b. False

 

67. Spatial summation involves only one neuron influencing one other neuron.

  a. True
  b. False

 

68. Under an electron microscope, the plasma membrane appears as a trilaminar structure consisting of two dark layers separated by a light middle layer.

  a. True
  b. False

 

69. Cilia in the respiratory tract beat in the same direction to sweep inspired particles up and out of the airways.

  a. True
  b. False

 

70. DNAs genetic code is transcribed into messenger RNA.

  a. True
  b. False

 

71. Increased permeability of the postsynaptic cell to Cl lessens the likelihood that the postsynaptic cell will undergo an action potential because the membrane potential is moved farther away from threshold.

  a. True
  b. False

 

72. The refractory period prevents action potentials from spreading back over the part of the membrane where the impulse has just passed.

  a. True
  b. False

 

73. At the equilibrium potential for K+, the concentration and electrical gradients for K+ are in opposition to each other and exactly balance each other so there is no net movement of K+.

  a. True
  b. False

 

74. After an action potential has occurred, there is more Na+ inside the cell than outside the cell (before any Na+K+ pump activity has taken place).

  a. True
  b. False

 

75. The protective, waterproof outer layer of skin is formed by the tough skeleton of the microtrabecular lattice that persists after the surface skin cells die.

  a. True
  b. False

 

76. A single neuron may be presynaptic to one group of neurons and postsynaptic to another group of neurons.

  a. True
  b. False

 

77. The smooth ER specializes in protein metabolism.

  a. True
  b. False

 

78. The surface carbohydrates within the plasma membrane serve as cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), which cells use to grip one another and surrounding connective tissue fibres.

  a. True
  b. False

 

79. Proteins synthesized by the endoplasmic reticulum become permanently separated from the cytosol as soon as they have been synthesized.

  a. True
  b. False

 

80. Along a neuron, an action potential normally travels from the dendrites to the cell body to the axon.

  a. True
  b. False

 

81. Action potentials may result from hyperpolarization or depolarization.

  a. True
  b. False

 

82. Oxygen enters the blood from the lungs by net diffusion.

  a. True
  b. False

 

83. In the plasma membrane, the polar ends of the phospholipid molecules are hydrophilic.

  a. True
  b. False

 

84. In secondary active transport, energy is required directly by the carrier to move a substance uphill against a concentration gradient.

  a. True
  b. False

 

85. Threshold potential is the peak potential achieved during an action potential.

  a. True
  b. False

 

86. Because a solution of lower solute concentration has a higher concentration of water, it exerts a lower osmotic pressure than does a solution with a higher solute concentration.

  a. True
  b. False

 

87. Secretory vesicles are released to the exterior of the cell by means of the process of phagocytosis.

  a. True
  b. False

 

88. One extracellular messenger molecule can ultimately influence the activity of only one protein molecule within the cell.

  a. True
  b. False

 

89. At resting membrane potential, passive and active forces exactly balance each other so there is no net movement of ions across the membrane.

  a. True
  b. False

 

90. Movement of K+ into the cell requires energy expenditure, whereas movement of Na+ into the cell does not.

  a. True
  b. False

 

91. Oligodendrocytes form a regeneration tube to guide a regenerating nerve fibre to its proper destination.

  a. True
  b. False

 

92. Oxidative phosphorylation generates the most ATP per glucose molecule.

  a. True
  b. False

 

93. A single synaptic knob contains two different transmittersone that produces EPSPs and one that produces IPSPs.

  a. True
  b. False

 

94. For graded potentials, the magnitude of triggering is coded for in frequency rather than amplitude of depolarizations.

  a. True
  b. False

 

95. The diffusion of potassium ions re-establishes the resting membrane potential in a neuron immediately after it develops an action potential.

  a. True
  b. False

 

96. The two dark lines in the trilaminar appearance of the plasma membrane are believed to be caused by the preferential staining of the hydrophilic polar regions of the membrane constituents.

  a. True
  b. False

 

97. If two similar molecules can both combine with the same carrier, the presence of one of these molecules decreases the rate of entry of the other.

  a. True
  b. False

 

98. All molecules greater than 0.8 nm in diameter are unable to penetrate the plasma membrane unless there is a carrier for the molecule.

  a. True
  b. False

 

99. Amoeboid movement is accomplished by transitions of the cytosol between a gel and a solid state as a result of alternate assembly and disassembly, respectively, of actin filaments.

  a. True
  b. False

 

100. Most intermediary metabolism is accomplished in the cytosol.

  a. True
  b. False

 

101. Neurotransmitters do not always bind to receptors attached to ion channels.

  a. True
  b. False

 

102. During the absolute refractory period, the Na+ gates are not capable of opening again in response to another triggering event.

  a. True
  b. False

 

103. The release of a chemical messenger at the synapse immediately stimulates potassium permeability in the postsynaptic neuron.

  a. True
  b. False

 

104. Movement of potassium into cells always requires energy expenditure.

  a. True
  b. False

 

105. A first messenger is an intracellular chemical messenger that triggers a preprogrammed series of biochemical events within a cell to bring about a desired response.

  a. True
  b. False

 

106. Nerve and muscle cells establish resting membrane potentials.

  a. True
  b. False

 

107. Because of the presence of tight junctions, passage of materials across an epithelial barrier must take place between the cells, not through them.

  a. True
  b. False

 

108. The peroxisomes mainly generate hydrogen peroxide.

  a. True
  b. False

 

109. In active transport, ATP energy is used in the phosphorylationdephosphorylation cycle of the carrier.

  a. True
  b. False

 

110. Hockey is a winter sport that uses only an aerobic energy supply.

  a. True
  b. False

 

111. Cytokinesis is the division of the nucleus during mitosis.

  a. True
  b. False

 

112. The conduction velocity of a nerve impulse is slower in myelinated fibres than in unmyelinated fibres because myelin acts as an insulator that slows the flow of current.

  a. True
  b. False

 

113. The Golgi complex is connected functionally to the ER.

  a. True
  b. False

 

114. Electron microscopes are about 100 times more powerful than light microscopes.

  a. True
  b. False

 

115. The summation of all IPSPs and EPSPs determines whether a postsynaptic neuron will fire.

  a. True
  b. False

 

116. ATP synthase is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane.

  a. True
  b. False

 

117. Gap junctions function as channels between cells.

  a. True
  b. False

 

118. The extracellular matrix and the local cells that secrete it are collectively known as connective tissue.

  a. True
  b. False

 

119. Divergence refers to the neuronal arrangement wherein the dendrites diverge to synapse with as many presynaptic inputs as possible.

  a. True
  b. False

 

120. The nodes of Ranvier are formed by Schwann cells or oligodendrocytes that wrap themselves jelly roll fashion around the axon.

  a. True
  b. False

 

121. An unmyelinated fibre with a large diameter can conduct action potentials more rapidly than an unmyelinated fibre with a smaller diameter.

  a. True
  b. False

 

122. DNA in the nucleus has the genetic instructions to make enzymatic proteins.

  a. True
  b. False

 

123. The dendrites of a presynaptic neuron directly signal the axon of a postsynaptic neuron.

  a. True
  b. False

 

124. The primary barrier to passage of water-soluble substances across the plasma membrane is the outer layer of carbohydrates.

  a. True
  b. False

 

125. A balance of IPSPs and EPSPs will negate each other so that the grand postsynaptic potential is essentially unaltered.

  a. True
  b. False

 

126. A spike is another name for the axon of a neuron.

  a. True
  b. False

 

127. A stronger stimulus above threshold produces a greater action potential in a neuron.

  a. True
  b. False

 

128. Pinocytosis refers to the process of a cell engulfing a large, multimolecular particle and bringing the particle into the contents of the cell.

  a. True
  b. False

 

129. Classical neurotransmitters and neuropeptides are sometimes cosecreted from the same axon terminal.

  a. True
  b. False

 

130. A stimulus that is too weak to depolarize the membrane to threshold produces an action potential smaller than normal.

  a. True
  b. False

 

131. The carbohydrate found in plasma membranes is believed to be involved in the aggregation of cells to form tissue.

  a. True
  b. False

 

132. Sodium and potassium ions are highly soluble in lipids.

  a. True
  b. False

 

133. The hydrophobic interior of the lipid bilayer of the plasma membrane blocks the passage of water-soluble substances.

  a. True
  b. False

 

134. Anions are attracted toward a more positively charged area along an electrical gradient.

  a. True
  b. False

 

135. Phagocytosis is a specialized form of endocytosis used for bringing in extracellular fluids.

  a. True
  b. False

 

Indicate the answer choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

 

136. Select the substance that promotes cell adhesion.

  a. calmodulin
  b. collagen
  c. elastin
  d. fibronectin

 

137. Which of the following statements correctly describes carrier-mediated transport?

  a. It involves a specific membrane protein that serves as a carrier molecule.
  b. It always moves substances against a concentration gradient.
  c. It always requires energy expenditure.
  d. It always moves substances along a concentration gradient.

 

138. Which of these statements is correct for NADH?

  a. It is an energy carrier.
  b. It plays a role in cellular respiration.
  c. It is used in glycolysis.
  d. It is used in the citric acid cycle.

 

139. Which of the following is NOT a neuropeptide?

  a. acetylcholine
  b. dopamine
  c. epinephrine
  d. glucagon

 

140. Which of the following correctly describes graded potentials?

  a. They are local changes in membrane potential that occur as all or none.
  b. They serve as short-distance signals.
  c. They serve as long-distance signals.
  d. They are generated after action potential.

 

141. Where is the trigger zone of a neuron?

  a. in the terminal ganglion
  b. in the hillock
  c. in the chemically gated channels
  d. in dendrites

 

142. The falling phase of the action potential is due to which of the following conditions?

  a. calcium equilibrium
  b. potassium efflux
  c. potassium influx
  d. sodium efflux

 

143. Which of the following statements concerning cells is correct?

  a. Not every cell can perform certain basic functions essential to its own survival.
  b. The average human cell is about 100 times smaller than the smallest particle visible by the unaided eye.
  c. The cells of all organisms are fundamentally different in structure and function.
  d. Every muscle cell contains a single nucleus.

 

144. Which of these statements is correct for neuromodulators?

  a. They bind to receptors at nonsynaptic sites.
  b. They do contribute directly to EPSP and IPSP formation.
  c. They may influence neurotransmitter production.
  d. They directly alter membrane permeability.

 

145. Which of the following compounds is the carbon-based end product (chain) of glycolysis?

  a. NADH
  b. ATP
  c. pyruvic acid
  d. FADH2

 

146. Which of these substances is most likely to passively diffuse across the plasma membrane by dissolving in the membrane?

  a. a cation
  b. an anion
  c. a nonpolar or nonionized molecule
  d. a polar molecule

 

147. Which of the following is the last step for synaptic signalling when the action potential arrives at the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron?

  a. A neurotransmitter is released by exocytosis.
  b. Calcium flows in the synaptic knob.
  c. The neurotransmitter combines with protein receptor sites on the subsynaptic membrane.
  d. The permeability is altered in a postsynaptic neuron.

 

148. Which of the following triggers the exocytosis of secretory products by entering a cell in response to a specific neural or hormonal stimulus?

  a. K+
  b. Na+
  c. Ca2+
  d. ATP

 

149. What is the purpose of glycolysis?

  a. to produce citric acid
  b. to liberate energy from glucose
  c. to produce large numbers of ATP
  d. to trap energy in FADH2

 

150. Which of the following statements concerning gap junctions is NOT correct?

  a. Gap junctions are communicating junctions.
  b. At a gap junction, filaments of unknown composition extend between the plasma membranes of two closely adjacent but not touching cells, acting as spot rivets to anchor the cells together.
  c. Gap junctions are formed by small connecting tunnels that link two adjacent cells and permit exchange of small water-soluble particles between the cells.
  d. Gap junctions play an important role in transmission of electrical activity throughout an entire muscle mass.

 

151. Which of the following descriptions of movement of molecules across the plasma membrane is correct?

  a. If two similar molecules can both combine with the same carrier, the presence of one of these molecules increases the rate of entry of the other.
  b. In simple diffusion, the rate of transport of a molecule is inversely proportional to the molecules extracellular concentration.
  c. When a carrier becomes saturated, the maximum rate of transport is reached.
  d. Large molecules can cross the plasma membrane through nonselective, receptor-mediated endocytosis.

 

152. Which of these terms best describes an excitable condition when a resting membrane potential is present?

  a. polarized
  b. depolarized
  c. hyperpolarized
  d. repolarized

 

153. Which of the following refers to the form of endocytosis in which whole cells such as bacteria are brought in?

  a. exocytosis
  b. pinocytosis
  c. receptor-mediated endocytosis
  d. phagocytosis

 

154. What is the universal energy currency in cells?

  a. ATP
  b. glucose
  c. glycogen
  d. insulin

 

155. What is the correct sequence at a synapse?
(1) neurotransmitter diffuses across cleft
(2) calcium induces exocytosis of neurotransmitter
(3) permeability of postsynaptic membrane altered
(4) ion channels open
(5) neurotransmitter binds to receptor on chemically gated channel

  a. 1, 2, 3, 5, 4
  b. 1, 4, 3, 2, 5
  c. 2, 1, 5, 4, 3
  d. 3, 1, 4, 5, 2

 

156. The cellular component that, once activated by the binding of an extracellular messenger to a surface receptor, in turn activates cyclic AMP is _________________.

  a. phospholipase C
  b. adenylate cyclase
  c. calmodulin
  d. calcium

 

157. What accounts for the most ATP production?

  a. Krebs cycle
  b. citric acid cycle
  c. NADH
  d. electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation

 

158. What might happen if niacin is deficient in your diet?

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  a. Glucose might not be able to be cleaved.
  b. Available FAD might decrease.