Human Resource Information Systems Basics Applications and Future Directions 3rd Edition by Michael J. Kavanagh -Test Bank

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Human Resource Information Systems Basics Applications and Future Directions 3rd Edition by Michael J. Kavanagh -Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

Human Resource Information Systems Basics Applications and Future Directions 3rd Edition by Michael J. Kavanagh -Test Bank

Chapter 2: Database Concepts and Applications in Human Resource Information Systems

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. One of the benefits of a relational database systems is that:

*A. end users who generally had limited programming experience can still utilize the query functionality.

  1. organizations can easily implement them.
  2. they are easy to maintain.
  3. they are a strategic HRM resource

 

  1. The employees name is an example of:
  2. an entity

*B. an attribute

  1. an object
  2. a primary key

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a shortcoming of early file-oriented database structures?
  2. data redundancy
  3. poor data control
  4. inadequate data manipulation capabilities

*D. inability to resemble manual record keeping

 

  1. When a(n) ________ from one table is stored as an attribute of another table, that attribute is called a _______.

*A. primary key, foreign key

  1. object, entity
  2. foreign key, primary key
  3. entity, attribution

 

  1. HR metrics are:
  2. various measures of organizational performance
  3. derived from organizational data
  4. improve organizational efficiency and effectiveness

*D. All of the above

 

  1. _________________ is a broad category of business applications and technologies for creating data warehouses and for analyzing and providing access to these specialized data to help enterprise users make better business decisions.
  2. Strategic planning

*B. Business intelligence

  1. Enterprise solution
  2. Data intelligence

 

  1. Queries are important because:
  2. they are a way to store data
  3. they provide direction for strategic HR

*C. they provide answers to questions about the data stored in a database

  1. allow you to manipulate information

 

  1. The database design process:

*A. begins with determining what the users want

  1. is a task that only upper management should manage
  2. begins with a budget estimate
  3. requires outside consultant services

 

  1. Information is the ________ of data while knowledge is information that has been given ________.
  2. accumulation, structure
  3. meaning, structure

*C. interpretation, meaning

  1. understanding, definitions

 

  1. Functional units, management levels, and geographically dispersed locations may all have the need to:

*A. share data

  1. limit attributes in the database
  2. reduce database needs
  3. limit query functionality

 

  1. The advent of the Internet and a standardized communication protocol have contributed to:
  2. easier database programming

*B. data sharing across geographically dispersed locations

  1. the maximization of query functionality
  2. the elimination of a centralized database

 

  1. MS Access would be appropriate for an organization that:

*A. had a small database and limited knowledge of database programming

  1. had a small database and extensive knowledge of database programming
  2. had a large database and limited knowledge of database programming
  3. had a large database and extensive knowledge of database programming

 

  1. Data processing systems that performed record-keeping functions that mimicked existing manual procedures were called:

*A. file-oriented data structures

  1. small database structures
  2. data warehouses
  3. electronic data storage

 

  1. Patterns in large data sets are identified through:
  2. the creation of tables
  3. data gathering

*C. data mining

  1. electronic data storage

 

  1. Business intelligence (BI) applications include:
  2. the activities of decision support systems
  3. query and reporting
  4. forecasting

*D. all of the above

 

  1. A ________ allows you to ask a question based on one or more tables in a database.
  2. action query
  3. question query
  4. cross-tab query

*D. select query

 

  1. A shortcoming of hierarchical and network database systems was that:

*A. only very knowledgeable technical staff members could interact with the database effectively

  1. relationships between records were explicitly maintained
  2. it replaced file-oriented structures
  3. it was electronically stored data

 

 

True/False

 

  1. An attribute is a characteristic of the entity in a relational database.

*A. True

  1. False

 

  1. Data mining involves visually analyzing large data sets to identify recurring relationships.
  2. True

*B. False

 

  1. A data warehouse is a special type of database that is optimized for reporting and analysis and is the raw material for managements decision support system.

*A. True

  1. False

 

  1. A database is a permanent, self-descriptive store of interrelated data items that can be processed by only one business application.
  2. True

*B. False

 

  1. Entities include only physical but not conceptual items.
  2. True

*B. False

 

 

  1. A field is an attribute of a entity that is stored in a table.

*A. True

  1. False

 

  1. A foreign key represents the primary key from another table that is stored as an attribute in another table.

*A. True

  1. False

 

  1. Relational database data is stored in tables where each table represents one entity in the real world and the information associated with that entity is stored only in that table. Tables are related to each other through a common attribute or key.

*A. True

  1. False

 

  1. Tables are used to store information about entities. Multiple tables are created for each entity.
  2. True

*B. False

 

  1. Transaction processing systems are business applications that focus on processing operational data.

*A. True

  1. False

 

  1. One of the benefits of a relational database systems is that end users who generally had limited programming experience can still utilize the query functionality.

*A. True

  1. False

 

  1. The employees name is an example of an object.
  2. True

*B. False

 

  1. MS Access would be appropriate for an organization that had a small database and limited knowledge of database programming.

*A. True

  1. False

 

  1. The advent of the Internet and a standardized communication protocol have contributed to easier database programming.
  2. True

*B. False

 

  1. The database design process begins with determining what the users want.

*A. True

  1. False

 

 

Short Answer

 

  1. What are some examples how an organization might use the data sharing ability of a relational database system?

*Answer: Examples can come from: (1) data sharing between functional units, (2) data sharing between management levels, and (3) data sharing across geographically dispersed locations.

 

  1. Provide some examples of actions that might be performed as a result of an action query.

*Answer: Actions include updating data in the table (e.g., increasing the base salary of all employees who were rated above average in the latest performance rating), deleting records from the table (e.g., removing employees from the employees table if they no longer work at the company), or inserting records (e.g., the query may add a new set of benefits to the benefits table).

 

  1. What is meant by a cross-tab query?

*Answer: A cross-tab query performs calculations on the values in a field and displays the results in a datasheet. The reason it is called cross-tab is that it tabulates the data for a set of descriptor attributes, contrasting them or crossing them in a table format

 

  1. Compare the typical users of an action query with those of a cross-tab query.

*Answer: Action queries improve the operational efficiency of managing and maintaining database and are important to the operational staff but of less interest to HR managers and executives. Cross-tab queries provide the information that managers and executives expect.

 

  1. What are the implications for databases and information sharing in todays global environment?

*Answer: In todays global environment, access to data from any physical location in the world is increasingly important. Computer networks are created that provide instant access to these operational data, allowing real-time managerial decision capability regardless of physical location.

A centralized database allows a company to confine its data to a single location and, therefore, more easily control data integrity, updating, backup, query, and control access to the database. A company with many locations and telecommuters, however, must develop a communications infrastructure to facilitate data sharing over a wide geographical area. The advent of the Internet and a standardized communication protocol made the centralized database structures and geographically dispersed data sharing feasible.

 

  1. What were the benefits of relational database systems versus traditional file-oriented data structures?

*Answer: Relational database systems eliminated the shortcomings of traditional file-oriented structures including (1) data redundancyan employees name and address could be stored in many different files; (2) poor data controlif you had access to the file you had access to all the data in the file, which may not be desirable because you may want to restrict the data viewed by a particular user; (3) inadequate data manipulation capabilitiesit was very difficult to combine the data across files and to easily update and to add new data; and (4) excessive programming effortany change in the data required extensive changes in the programming that accessed the data.  Perhaps, the most significant difference between a file-based system and a relational database system is that data are easily shared.

 

  1. What is meant by business intelligence?

*Answer: Business intelligence is a broad category of business applications and technologies for creating data warehouses and for analyzing and providing access to these specialized data to help enterprise users make better business decisions. BI applications include the activities of decision support systems, query and reporting, statistical analysis, forecasting, and data mining.

 

  1. What are decision support systems and what role do they play?

*Answer: Decision Support Systems are software applications that use databases, primarily data warehouses to assist senior managers and business professionals in making business decisions.

 

  1. What is meant by a hierarchical database?

*Answer: Hierarchical database is a database where the relationships among the data are created between sets of data based on where the data are stored in a record.

 

  1. What critical role does N-tier architecture provide to large, multinational companies?

*Answer: N-tier architectures represent the software and hardware configuration in which databases and applications are distributed among many different computers around the world.

 

 

Chapter 4:  The Systems Development Life Cycle and HRIS Needs Analysis

 

Multiple Choice

 

  1. The process of thoroughly gathering, prioritizing, and documenting an organizations HR information requirements is a:

*A. needs analysis.

  1. business case requirement.
  2. planning analysis.
  3. workflow chart.

 

  1. Planning and needs analysis can best be described as:
  2. linear processes

*B. iterative processes

  1. single events
  2. unrelated processes

 

  1. Which of the following is not an outcome of a Needs Analysis process?:
  2. Current system performance issues;
  3. The introduction of a new system, application, task, or technology; or
  4. Any opportunities perceived to benefit the organization.

*D. Staff levels within the HR department

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a Stage of the Needs Analysis process?
  2. OBSERVATION

*B. PLANNING

  1. EVALUATION
  2. REPORTING

 

  1. Data collection methods for the needs analysis include:
  2. Interviews
  3. Surveys and online tools
  4. Organizational archives

*D. All of the above

 

  1. The process of documenting and comparing the current state of the HRIS with the desired future state based on needs that are not being met with the current system is called a
  2. needs analysis

*B. gap analysis

  1. system design

D.HRIS plan

 

  1. During the __________ phase of the System Development Life Cycle an organizations current capabilities are documented, new needs are identified, and the scope of an HRIS is determined.
  2. Planning

*B. Analysis

  1. Implementation
  2. Maintenance

 

 

  1. When gathering data for the analysis phase it can be beneficial to talk with:,
  2. employees who have worked in the firm for a long period of time
  3. new employees
  4. consultants outside the firm

*D. all of the above

 

 

True/False

 

  1. The business requirements definition is the process when analyzing an HR system where an organization determines and documents its current and future needs.

*A. True

  1. False

 

  1. The gap analysis is a process of comparing an organizations needs against its current capabilities.

*A. True

  1. False

 

  1. SDLC refers to the process of System Documentation for a new system.
  2. True

*B. False

 

  1. The ongoing maintenance of a new HRIS is NOT included within an SDLC project. es.
  2. True

*B. False

 

  1. Senior Management maintains a hands off position when others are implementing a new HRIS
  2. True

*B. False

 

  1. The needs analysis is synonymous with business requirements definition.

*A. True

  1. False

 

 

Short Answer

 

  1. Why is it important for Senior Management to be involved in a new Implementation project?

*Answer: Senior management sponsorship and a visible presence are critical to the success of the project, and mutual respect and honesty will allow the team to acquire the information needed to perform the analysis and make suitable recommendations.  This group acts as a steering committee that will guide the team, resolve issues, and set priorities

 

  1. Why are person to person interviews more effective than handing out Questionnaires?

*Answer: Compared to interviews, questionnaires have much lower response rates, and lack personal interaction and body cues

 

  1. What are a few different ways to conduct a Needs Analysis interview?

*Answer: Interviews can be completely unstructured or very scripted. Unstructured interviews is when a general topic is introduced for discussion and the interview lets the interview progress naturally. In a Structured interview, the interviewer asks specific questions in a predetermined order and respondents select from a set of alternative answers.

 

  1. When this information is organized, it can then be prioritized according to the immediacy of need, and the level of importance of the functionality the data represents.

*Answer: Priority Description

  1. Must be present at implementation
  2. Must be present within six months of implementation
  3. Nice to have, but not essential
  4. Not need in the near future, but may be needed due to environmental changes

Importance Description

  1. Mandatory
  2. Strongly desired
  3. Nice to have

 

  1. When gathering data for the analysis phase, discuss the pros and cons of speaking with people experienced with the firm (i.e., employees who have been with the firm for a long time).

*Answer: People with specific knowledge of the firm who have been with it for a long period of time can contribute useful insights. However, employees with longer organizational tenure can be some of the more difficult people to accept the change to a new HRIS.

 

  1. When gathering data for the analysis phase, discuss the pros and cons of speaking with people who are not experienced with the firm (i.e., new employees or consultants).

*Answer: New employees or people who are not experienced with the firm (e.g., consultants), may not have any strong interest or bias in a particular system and, thus, are not protective of the current system.  People from different jobs or backgrounds may ensure that the system that is developed and implemented will serve everyones needs. Finally, consultants can bring an objective, independent perspective on a firms needs that is based on the knowledge of other firms who were undergoing similar processes.

 

  1. What are three phases of the typical System Development Life Cycle (SDLC)?

*Answer: There are five phases in the SDLC: Planning, Analysis, Design, Implementation, and Maintenance. Students will only need to mention three of these five.

 

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