Human Sexuality 3rd Edition by Roger R. Hock Test Bank

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Human Sexuality 3rd Edition by Roger R. Hock Test Bank

Description

CHAPTER 5:
Contraception: Planning and Preventing Pregnancy
Total Assessment Guide (T.A.G.)

Topic Question
Type Factual Conceptual Application
Introduction to Chapter
Multiple Choice 1 2

True/False 1-2
Short Answer 1
Essay
Historical Perspectives Multiple Choice 3-4
True/False 3-4
Short Answer
Essay 1
Choosing a Method of Contraception Multiple Choice 5 6
True/False 7 5, 6
Short Answer
Essay 2
Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs Multiple Choice 9, 11, 14, 15, 19 10, 12, 16, 18 7, 8, 13, 17
True/False 8, 9, 11 10, 12
Short Answer 4, 5, 6 3
Essay 3
Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs) Multiple Choice 21, 23. 24, 27, 30, 31, 32, 33, 42, 45, 46, 53, 54, 55, 59, 61 20, 22, 29 , 34, 38, 39, 40, 44, 51, 56, 58, 60 25, 26, 28, 35, 36, 37, 41, 43, 47, 48, 49, 50, 52, 57
True/False 13, 14, 15, 18, 19, 20, 22, 23, 24 16, 17, 21, 25
Short Answer 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12
Essay 4
Abortion Is Not Contraception Multiple Choice 62
True/False 26
Short Answer
Essay
Experimental and Future Methods of
Contraception Multiple Choice

True/False

Short Answer

Essay 66

27

13, 14, 15

5
67 64, 65

Major Headings:

pp. 146-147 Introduction to Chapter
pp. 147-148 Historical Perspectives
pp. 148-151 Choosing a Method of Contraception
pp. 151-162 Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
pp. 162-181 Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
pp. 181-182 Abortion Is Not Contraception
pp. 182-183 Experimental and Future Methods of Birth Control

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. About _____ percent of all pregnancies in the United States are unplanned.
a. 33
b. 25
c. 50
d. 80

Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 146
Topic: Introduction
Skill: Factual

Rationale: Most heterosexual couples want to engage in sexual intercourse and most of the time they do, they want to prevent pregnancy. However, about half of all pregnancies in the United States are unplanned, which does not necessarily mean that they are unwanted.

2. What is the name of the process that is used to prevent conception?
a. contraception
b. abortion
c. sexual supplements
d. adoption

Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 146
Topic: Introduction
Skill: Factual

3. The Comstock Act was a bill that stated _____.
a. it was illegal to sell or distribute any birth control information or devices
b. sodomy was legal
c. abortion was illegal
d. homosexual marriages was illegal

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 147
Topic: Historical Perspectives
Skill: Factual

Rationale: Anthony Comstock was an anti-obscenity, right-wing radical who considered all contraceptive information and devices obscene and indecent. His act, the Comstock Act, made it illegal to sell or distribute contraceptive information or devices in any form.

4. Margaret Sanger was a widely recognized leader in the _____ movement in the United States.
a. Comstock
b. contraceptive
c. abstinence
d. abortion

Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 147-148
Topic: Historical Perspectives
Skill: Factual

Rationale: Margaret Sanger opened the first birth control clinic, located in Brooklyn, New York. She became a celebrated and widely recognized leader of the contraceptive movement in the United States, and in many countries throughout the world.

5. Research has shown that _____ percent of unplanned pregnancies occur in couples that are using contraceptives.
a. 23
b. 40
c. 53
d. 60

Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 148
Topic: Choosing a Method of Contraception
Skill: Factual

Rationale: Research has shown that 53 percent of unplanned pregnancies occur in couples that are using contraceptives. Most of these contraceptive failures are due either to incorrect use of the contraceptive method or to reliance on false information about pregnancy and contraception.

6. Why is douching ineffective in preventing pregnancy?
a. because seminal fluid sticks to the vaginal walls preventing sperm from being killed
b. the water or other solution used to wash out the vagina can actually push the remaining sperm through the cervix even faster
c. because semen is an acid-like substance which counteracts the effects of douching
d. because douching kills bacteria that helps sperm swim to the fallopian tubes

Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 151
Topic: Choosing a Method of Contraception
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: Many people still believe in certain myths about contraception; one such myth is that douching is an effective way to prevent pregnancy. The truth is that the stream of water or other solution used to wash out the vagina can actually push the remaining sperm through the cervix even faster. Not only is douching not recommended for contraception, but it could force bacteria higher into a womans reproductive system and increase the risk of infections.

7. Danielle would like to use a method of contraception that protects against sexually transmitted infections and prevents pregnancy. Which of the following would be the best choice for her?
a. cervical cap
b. birth control pills
c. diaphragm
d. selective abstinence

Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 155-156
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Application

Rationale: The only 100-percent effective way to prevent pregnancy and prevent contracting or transmitting STIs is avoiding all sexual behaviors that can result in pregnancy or spread infection; this strategy is called selective abstinence.

8. Ethan has chosen celibacy as his method of contraception. What does this mean?
a. Ethan cannot have intercourse but can masturbate.
b. Ethan can engage in deep kissing and mutual masturbation.
c. Ethan must avoid any activity where seminal fluids are secreted.
d. Ethan must avoid all sexual expression and activity.

Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 155
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STs
Skill: Application

Rationale: An individual who is celibate engages in so sexual activity whatsoever, and avoids all sexual expression and activity.

9. Outercourse is a form of _____.
a. abstinence were a couple avoids risky sexual behaviors such as intercourse
b. contraception where a couple avoids all sexual expression and activity
c. contraception where the man withdraws his penis prior to ejaculation
d. abstinence where a couple only engages in anal intercourse

Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 155
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Factual

Rationale: Outercourse (sometimes called selective abstinence) means engaging only in sexual behaviors that are safe and avoiding those that are risky, such as vaginal or anal intercourse and oral sex.

10. Behaviors available to a couple practicing outercourse include _____.
a. vaginal intercourse
b. anal intercourse
c. oral sex
d. intimate touching

Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 156
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: Behaviors that are available to a couple practicing outercourse include holding hands, kissing, intimate touching, and exploring each others bodies.

11. How do condoms work to prevent pregnancy?

a. They release a chemical that kills sperm.
b. They contain chemicals that combine with a womans natural lubrication to stop sperm from leaving the vagina.
c. They release a chemical that prevents eggs from being fertilized .
d. They provide a barrier to prevent semen from entering the vagina.

Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 158
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Factual

Rationale: Condoms function as contraceptives by providing a barrier to prevent semen from entering the vagina.

12. Why is it recommended that only polyurethane or latex condoms be used to protect against pregnancy and STIs?
a. Disease-causing viruses can pass through the pores in lambskin condoms.
b. Lambskin condoms are lubricated with Vaseline which causes them to break.
c. Latex and polyurethane condoms never expire.
d. Latex and polyurethane condoms always have a reservoir tip which limits breakage.

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 158
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: Only latex or polyurethane condoms should be used; natural membrane (lambskin) condoms have small pores that may allow disease-causing viruses to pass through.

13. Baron and Nettie are about to engage in intercourse together for the first time. They can best increase their confidence in their use of the male condom by using _____.
a. condoms with nonoxynol-9
b. condoms with a reservoir tip
c. lambskin condoms
d. natural membrane condoms

Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 158
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Application

14. Condoms have a _____ failure rate when used correctly and consistently.
a. 3%
b. 10%
c. 30%
d. 50%

Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 158
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Factual

Rationale: The 3% failure rate means that if 100 couples have intercourse an average of twice each week for a year and use condoms correctly each time, only three of the couples will become pregnant. The 3% failure rate is based on the couples using them, not the condom failure itself.

15. One reason for condom failure is _____.
a. using old condoms
b. manufacturing defects
c. wrong size
d. allergic reactions

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 159
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Factual

Rationale: Failures are not generally due to product failure, but are usually because of incorrect use. One of the common mistakes that people make when using condoms is using old or damaged condoms.

16. When used correctly, the male condom is placed over _____.
a. the penis right before ejaculation
b. the penis prior to erection
c. an erect penis prior to intercourse
d. an erect penis sometime during intercourse

Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 160
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: The condom should be placed on the erect penis before any contact between the penis and the partners genital area.

17. Harrisons sexuality class is learning to use male condoms correctly. His professor probably told the class to _____.
a. unroll the condom prior to placing it on the penis
b. withdraw the penis when the erection is lost after ejaculation
c. always use water-based lubricants
d. fill the condom with water prior to using to test for leakage

Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 160
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Application

If a couple decides to add lubrication, they should not use an oil-based product, as those can cause latex to break. Only water-based lubricants should be used, such as K-Y Jelly, spermicidal creams, or other lubricants made especially for sexual activity.

18. The female condom works by _____.
a. releasing a spermicide into the vagina
b. preventing an exchange of sexual fluids
c. changing the chemical balance within the vagina
d. creating a barrier between the cervix and fallopian tubes

Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 160-161
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: The female condom creates a lining on the inside of the vagina to prevent genital contact or the exchange of sexual fluids.

19.. An advantage of the female condom is it _____.
a. has a significantly higher success rate than the male condom
b. is cheaper than male condoms
c. allows women to be more in control of contraception
d. is not lubricated therefore eliminating allergic reactions

Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 162
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Factual

Rationale: The female condom has the advantage of allowing the woman to be in more control of contraception and preventing sexually transmitted infections. It also allows for greater spontaneity than the male condom because the female condom may be inserted up to eight hours before intercourse.

20. One thing all female hormonal contraceptives have in common is that they _____.
a. alter certain aspects of a womans ovulation cycle or reproductive tract
b. form a barrier between egg and sperm
c. prevent entry of the sperm into the fallopian tubes
d. kill and weaken sperm

Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 163
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: Female hormonal methods of contraception prevent pregnancy by altering certain characteristics of a womans ovulation cycle or reproductive tract. Hormonal contraception prevents ovulation, thickens the cervical mucus to create a barrier against sperm, or changes the lining of the uterus so that even if an egg is fertilized, it will not implant and create a pregnancy.

21. Oral contraceptives are also referred to as _____.
a. birth control pills
b. barrier methods
c. fertility awareness
d. sterilization

Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 163
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: In general, oral contraceptives, also referred to as birth control pills, are among the most popular reversible contraception methods used by women in the United States.

22. Oral contraceptives_____.
a. offer protection against sexually transmitted infections
b. are an effective method of preventing pregnancy
c. should be used with a spermicide
d. contain the hormone testosterone

Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 163
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: When used correctly, oral contraceptives provide a convenient and extremely effective method of preventing pregnancy, but they provide no protection against STIs.

23. Which two hormones are used in the combination pill?
a. estrogen and testosterone
b. nonoxynol-9 and estrogen
c. progestin and estrogen
d. nonoxynol-9 and progestin

Answer: C
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 163
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: Combination oral contraceptives contain both estrogen and progestin.

24. The minipill is a hormonal method that contains _____.
a. estrogen
b. progestin
c. progesterone
d. testosterone

Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 164
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: The progestin-only minipill has approximately the same low failure rate as the combination (progestin and estrogen) pill. The main advantage of the progestin-only oral contraceptive pill is that it avoids some of the potential negative side effects associated with estrogen in the combination pill.

25. Arianna is using a new oral contraceptive called Seasonale. How many days does she take the pills with hormones?
a. 28 days
b. 21 days
c. 78 days
d. 84 days

Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 164
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: Instead of the traditional 21-day regimen, Seasonale provides a daily dose or hormones for 84 consecutive days, after which she takes the usual placebo pills for 7 days.

26. Natalia is interested in using extended oral contraception such as Seasonale and Seasonique. What should she know about this method?
a. It must be taken for 50 consecutive days.
b. She may have bleeding or spotting between menstrual periods.
c. It provides protection from sexually transmitted infections.
d. She may never have a period again.

Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 165
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: In studies of extended oral contraceptives, the most serious side effect was an increase in bleeding or spotting between periods.

27. The most common incorrect use of oral contraceptives is _____.
a. taking them at different times each day
b. taking more than one per day
c. taking the wrong pill
d. forgetting to take them every day

Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 165
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: The most common incorrect use of oral contraceptives is forgetting to take them every day. Women using oral contraceptives must take one pill every day of the 21-day course, and should try to take a pill at approximately the same time each day.

28. Mary takes her progestin-only contraceptive pill at 8:00 every morning, but today she didnt remember to take it until 3:00 in the afternoon. What should she do?
a. throw away the rest of the pack and avoid intercourse for ten days
b. take two pills every morning for the rest of the month
c. take a pill as soon as she remembers, take the next pill at the usual time, and use a backup method for 48 hours after taking the late pill
d. ask her physician to prescribe a different oral contraceptive

Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 166
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: A woman could become pregnant if she forgets to take her progestin-only pill more than three hours past the regular time. If she does forget, she should take the missed pill as soon as she remembers. She should take the next one at the usual time.

29. Hormonal implants differ from traditional oral contraceptives (birth control pills) because hormonal implants _____.
a. have no negative side effects
b. have a much higher effectiveness rate than birth control pills
c. use a different method to release contraceptive hormones into a womans body
d. have to be replaced every six months

Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 167
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

Rational : The hormonal implant is a small tube containing a progestin-family hormone that is implanted under the skin of a womans upper arm. It releases a hormone similar to that found in many oral contraceptives. The contraceptive action of a contraceptive implant involves the slow release of hormones into the womans body, so that protection is provided without any action at all on the womans part.

30. An advantages of the hormonal implant is that it _____.
a. has near perfect effectiveness
b. offers protection from STIs
c. may reduce the length of a period
d. has no possible side effects

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 167
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: The advantages of the hormonal implant are its ease of use and near-perfect effectiveness.

31. An advantage of using oral contraception is that it _____.
a. is impossible to miss a dose
b. offers protection from STIs
c. may reduce the length of a period
d. has no possible side effects

Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 168
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: An advantage of using oral contraceptives is that they may reduce the length of menstrual periods; they may also reduce the amount of menstrual bleeding.

32. A disadvantage of using oral contraceptives is that they _____.
a. increase the length and severity of menstrual periods
b. are not very effective in preventing pregnancy
c. offer no protection against sexually transmitted infections
d. cause the growth of facial hair

Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 168
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: Oral contraceptives provide no protection against sexually transmitted infections.

33. Depo-Provera is a(n) _____.
a. injectable hormonal contraceptive
b. hormonal implant
c. contraceptive patch
d. emergency contraceptive pill

Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 169
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: Depo-Provera is a hormonal contraceptive that is administered through an injection in the arm or in the hip. Each injection gives a minimum of three months of highly effective contraception.

34. How is Depo-Provera administered?
a. It is injected every three months.
b. It is taken in pill form every day.
c. It is implanted under the arm.
d. It is inserted into a womans vagina.

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 169
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: Depo-Provera is a hormonal contraceptive that is administered through an injection (given by a physician or a nurse) in the arm or in the hip.

35. Victoria was told that a common side effect of Depo-Provera is amenorrhea. Which of the following would you use to explain the term amenorrhea to Victoria?
a. cessation of a womans period
b. very heavy and long periods
c. a type of depression
d. spotting between periods

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 169
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: A side effect common to Depo-Provera is amenorrhea, the cessation of a womans periods.

36. Yolanda is using a form of birth control called Ortho Evra. What type of contraception is Yolanda using?
a. IUD
b. implants
c. injection
d. patch

Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 169-170
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: The contraceptive patch was introduced into the U.S. market in 2002, under the name Ortho Evra.

37. Arielle is going to use the contraceptive patch. Her physician probably told her that each patch is worn for _____ consecutive weeks, then the _____ week is patch-free.
a. four; fifth
b. three; fourth
c. two; third
d. five; sixth

Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 170
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: Each patch is worn for one week, for three consecutive weeks, and then the fourth week is patch-free.

38.How does the contraceptive ring work?
a. It is inserted into the vagina and is left there for three weeks.
b. It is injected every three months and delivers one hormone.
c. It is attached to the abdomen and delivers two hormones.
d. It is implanted in the underarm and is left for three years.

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 170
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: The woman inserts the ring into her vagina and leaves it there for three weeks. At the end of the three weeks, she removes it for a week, when she will typically have her period.

39.What are emergency contraceptive pills?
a. pills used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse has occurred
b. pills taken when one birth control pill is missed
c. pills taken prior to sexual intercourse to prevent pregnancy
d. pills used to terminate an unplanned pregnancy

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 172
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: ECPs use various combinations of drugs to interrupt a womans normal hormonal pattern and prevent pregnancy after unprotected intercourse has already occurred.

40.Which of the following is a barrier method of contraception?
a. calendar
b. sterilization
c. diaphragm
d. ring

Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 173
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: The diaphragm is a thin latex membrane that is attached to a flexible ring, forming a shallow cup. Following ejaculation, sperm are blocked from reaching the cervix by the diaphragm.

41. Ed and Louisa would like to use the diaphragm as their method of contraception. What should they know about effective diaphragm use?
a. There is no need to use a spermicide with the diaphragm.
b. It may be inserted up to 24 hours prior to intercourse.
c. It must be left in place for at least 6 hours after intercourse.
d. Additional spermicide is not needed if intercourse is repeated within 6 hours.

Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 173
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: The diaphragm must always be used with a spermicide, and may be inserted up to six hours before intercourse. Following intercourse, it must be left in place for at least six hours, but not longer than 24 hours.

42. The cervical cap provides protection for up to _____ without the necessity of additional spermicide.
a. 6 hours
b. 8 hours
c. 24 hours
d. 48 hours

Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 174
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: The cervical cap provides continuous protection for up to 48 hours without the necessity of additional spermicide, so it can be placed in the vagina up to two days before intercourse.

43. Jessica is using a new type of contraceptive that is used like a diaphragm but does not need to be fitted by a health professional. What is the name of this contraceptive?
a. IUD
b. cervical cap
c. contraceptive ring
d. Leas Shield

Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 173
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: Leas Shield is used in much the same way as a traditional diaphragm, but due to its design, it does not need to be fitted by a health professional.

44. How does the contraceptive sponge work?
a. It releases spermicide when inserted into the vagina.
b. It blocks sperm from reaching the cervix.
c. It prevents the passage of the zygote into the uterus.
d. It prevents ovulation by secreting hormones.

Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 175
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: When the sponge is moistened with water and inserted into the vagina, it releases spermicide and sets up a barrier between the vagina and the cervix.

45. A disadvantage of the contraceptive sponge is it _____.
a. typically prevents ovulation
b. is less effective in preventing pregnancy than some other methods
c. reduces the length of a period
d. interferes with future fertility

Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 175
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: A main disadvantage is that the contraceptive sponges are not quite as effective in preventing pregnancy as some other methods.

46. Spermicides should be applied within _____ before intercourse.
a. 1 hour
b. 3 hours
c. 4 hours
d. 8 hours

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 175
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: A spermicide should be applied to the inside of the vagina within an hour before intercourse and must be deep enough in the vagina to reach the cervix.

47. Josh and Rashida are considering using spermicides as their form of contraception. What should they know about spermicides prior to using them?
a. They offer protection from sexually transmitted infections.
b. They have a very low failure rate.
c. They should be applied inside the vagina within two hours of intercourse.
d. A new application of spermicide must be used for each act of intercourse.

Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 175
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: A new application of spermicide must be used for each act of intercourse, and following intercourse it must be left in place for at least six hours.

48. Lloyd and Luna are using a method of birth control that is based on ovulation prediction. This couple is using a(n) _____ method.
a. barrier
b. hormonal
c. intrauterine
d. fertility awareness

Answer: D
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 175
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: Fertility awareness methods of contraception are based on the knowledge that a couples ability to become pregnant varies during the womans menstrual cycle. If a woman knows exactly when she ovulates, and she and her partner abstain from intercourse for about seven days prior and one day after ovulation, she would be at a low risk of pregnancy.

49. Caresa has a somewhat irregular menstrual cycle ranging from 21 to 35 days. Are Caresa and her partner good candidates for the Standard Days method of birth control?
a. No, because it is very difficult to accurately predict when she ovulates and therefore which days are safe from pregnancy.
b. No, because she may end up having intercourse near the beginning of her period, thereby increasing the likelihood of conception.
c. Yes, because not having to use any artificial means of birth control will greatly enhance their sexual satisfaction.
d. Yes, because an irregular menstrual cycle indicates that she is probably not fertile anyway.

Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 176
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: This method of ovulation prediction is based on the fact that most (80 percent) of womens fertility cycles are between 26 and 32 days long; this means that 80 percent of women ovulate between days 11 and 18 of their fertility cycles. To be safe, a woman should assume that her window of fertility is from five days before ovulation to a day after. Caresas cycle is too irregular to use this method with any degree of reliability.

50. Max and Mimi are using a method of birth control that requires Mimi to carefully observe changes in the secretions from her cervix to predict ovulation. This couple is using the _____ method.
a. standard days
b. Two-Day
c. symptothermal
d. basal body temperature

Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 177
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: The Two-Day Method of fertility awareness allows a woman to tell when she is ovulating by carefully observing changes in the mucus that is secreted from the cervix into the vagina.

51. According to the Two-Day method of birth control _____.
a. a woman should check for changes in her vaginal walls every week
b. it is okay to use hormonal contraceptives while learning to use this method
c. it is safe to have unprotected sex during a womans period
d. unprotected intercourse should be avoided when mucus is present for two days

Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 177
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: If a woman notices the presence of clear, slick mucus for two days, she should abstain from unprotected intercourse because she is likely to be ovulating, or will soon.

52. Rena is using the basal body temperature method. She needs to check her temperature _____.
a. every day
b. every other day
c. only when she thinks she is ovulating
d. the week after ovulation has ended

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 177
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: Basal body temperature refers to the internal temperature immediately upon awakening the morning. If a woman takes her temperature every morning, she will usually notice a slight drop the day before she ovulates.

53.For increased accuracy when using fertility awareness, it is recommended to _____.
a. also use an IUD
b. only check cervical mucus
c. monitor changes in cervical mucus and changes in basal body temperature
d. also take birth control pills

Answer: C
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 177
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: The combination of these two methods, called the symptothermal method of fertility awareness, is best used to determine when ovulation has ended, at which time unprotected intercourse will most likely be free of the risk of pregnancy.

54. An advantage of fertility awareness is that these methods_____.
a. protect against sexually transmitted infections
b. do not require cooperation from both partners
c. have a low failure rate if used incorrectly
d. have no negative side effects

Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 178
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: Fertility awareness methods involve no hormones, chemicals, or devices, so there are not negative side effects to worry about.

55.The intrauterine device is inserted into the _____.
a. fallopian tubes
b. ovaries
c. uterus
d. labia

Answer: C
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 178
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: The IUD is a small plastic device in the shape of a T that a doctor inserts into the uterus through the cervix via the vagina.

56. What is one way in which the IUD works?
a. It releases spermicide when inserted into the vagina.
b. It prevents the ovum from reaching the fallopian tube.
c. It prevents the passage of the zygote into the uterus.
d. It contains a progesterone-like hormone that thickens the cervical mucus so sperm cannot pass through.

Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 179
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: One type of IUD, Mirena, contains a small amount of progesterone-like hormone (levonorgestrel) that is released into the uterus and contributes to pregnancy prevention by thickening the cervical mucus so that sperm cells cannot pass through from the vagina.

57. Lena is interested in using the intrauterine device (IUD) as her form of contraception. What should she know about it?
a. Spermicides must be used with an IUD
b. There are many negative side effects
c. It has a low effectiveness rate
d. It is an effective method of contraception that does not require the user to remember to take a pill every day.

Answer: D
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 179
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Application

Rationale: A main advantage of the IUD is that it is a hassle-free, effective method of contraception that does not require the user to remember to take a daily pill or have a method of contraception readily available prior to intercourse.

58. Sterilization procedures for both men and women involve _____.
a. surgery
b. abstaining
c. oral contraception
d. insertion of a vaginal ring

Answer: A
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 179
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: Sterilization is defined as any surgical alteration that prevents the emission of sperm or eggs; it is also referred to as voluntary surgical contraception.

59. Laparoscopy is a form of female sterilization that involves _____ incisions.
a. two
b. three
c. four
d. five

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 180
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: Surgical sterilization is typically done by means of labaroscopy or minilaparascopy; both of these procedures require two very small incisions in the abdomen, through which a viewing scope and a surgical instrument are inserted.

60. A _____ involves cutting and tying off the vas deferens so that sperm produced by the testicles can no longer mix with semen in the ejaculate.
a. vasectomy
b. tubal ligation
c. Essure PBC
d. laparoscopy

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 180
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: A vasectomy involves making a small incision with a scalpel on each side of the scrotum to remove a small section of the vas deferens and closing the ends either by tying or cauterizing them. This makes it impossible for sperm to travel into the mans body from the testicles.

61. After a vasectomy, a man is not considered to be infertile until he has submitted two semen samples after three months. This is to make sure that _____.
a. no sperm cells are left over in his reproductive tract following surgery
b. his scars have healed
c. he is ejaculating properly
d. a sufficient cut was made in his urethra

Answer: A
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 181
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

Rationale: The small failure rate of vasectomies could be due to several factors, one of which is because sperm cells are left over in the male reproductive tract following surgery. To avoid this, a man is not considered to be infertile until he has submitted two semen samples after three months.

62. Abortion is _____.
a. a method used to prevent pregnancy
b. the termination of a pregnancy
c. an easy decision for most people
d. a fertility awareness method

Answer: B
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 182
Topic: Abortion Is Not Contraception
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy, not the prevention of fertilization of an ovum by a sperm.

63. How many types of contraceptive methods are available for men?
a. one
b. three
c. five
d. seven

Answer: B
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 182
Topic: Experimental and Future Methods of Contraception
Skill: Factual

Rationale: For men, there are three methods of contraception: abstinence, condoms, and vasectomy.

64. Larry is a participant in a research study that is exploring a male hormonal contraceptive. How does this type of contraception work?
a. It changes the electrical charge of sperm cells, making them incapable of fertilization.
b. It plugs the vasa deferenita.
c. It deforms the heads of the sperm, making it difficult to penetrate the ovum.
d. It alters male hormones so that sperm production decreases to the point of infertility.

Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 182
Topic: Experimental and Future Methods of Contraception
Skill: Application

Rationale: In 2008, a pharmaceutical company in China developed at type of injectable testosterone that suppresses the production of sperm to infertile levels within 6 months.

65. Chuck is a participant in a research study that is exploring a contraceptive technique for men called RISUG. How does RISUG work?
a. It changes the acidity and electrical charge of sperm cells, making them incapable of fertilization.
b. It plugs the vasa deferenita.
c. It interferes with the calcium in the heads of sperm, making it difficult to dissolve the outside of the ovum.
d. It alters male hormones so that sperm production decreases to the point of infertility.

Answer: A
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 183
Topic: Experimental and Future Methods of Contraception
Skill: Application

Rationale: In the technique called RISUG, a plastic-like compound is injected into each vas deferens using a very tiny needle and a local anesthetic. As sperm pass through the material, it changes the acidity and electrical charge of the sperm cells, rendering them incapable of fertilization.

66. What are immunocontraceptives?
a. a hormonal contraceptive for men
b. a gel that kills sperm cells
c. a method to plug the vas deferentia
d. a injection that vaccinates men against fertility

Answer: D
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 183
Topic: Experimental and Future Methods of Contraception
Skill: Factual

Rationale: Immunocontraceptives are vaccines that may cause a mans immune system to develop antibodies against specific hormones necessary for sperm cells to mature, or to effect genetic changes in sperm to render them unable to fertilize an ovum.

67. Antimicrobial and spermicidal gels that are applied vaginally, like BufferGel, are designed to kill _____.
a. sperm cells and increase sexual pleasure
b. only viruses, but not bacteria
c bacteria and prevent a fertilized egg from reaching the uterus
d. sperm cells and block most of the pathogens that cause many STIs

Answer: D
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 183
Topic: Experimental and Future Methods of Birth Control
Skill: Conceptual

Rationale: Antimicrobial, spermicidal gels applied vaginally are designed to stop sperm dead in their tracks and block most of the pathogens that cause sexually-transmitted infections such as HIV, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, and syphilis. The leading candidates in this line of research are known by the brand names BufferGel and Pro 2000.

TRUE-FALSE

1. Research shows that college students who are using contraception tend to use it inconsistently.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 146
Topic: Introduction
Skill: Factual

2. Research shows that most male and female college students are using reliable contraception.

Answer: False
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 146
Topic: Introduction
Skill: Factual

3. In the late 1800s, the only form of birth control available to most people was the rhythm method.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 1
Page Ref: 147
Topic: Historical Perspectives
Skill: Factual

4. Margaret Sangers later work for contraceptive research funding resulted in the development of the first hormonal birth control pill.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 148
Topic: Historical Perspectives
Skill: Factual

5. Couples who are able to communicate effectively about contraception are more likely to use it consistently.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 149
Topic: Choosing a Method of Contraception
Skill: Conceptual

6. Douching is an effective means of contraception.

Answer: False
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 151
Topic: Choosing a Method of Contraception
Skill: Conceptual

7. Having sexual intercourse standing up will prevent conception.

Answer: False
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 151
Topic: Choosing a Method of Contraception
Skill: Factual

8. The only 100-percent effective way to prevent pregnancy and contracting STIs is selective abstinence.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 155
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Factual

9. Recent research reveals that the use of condoms lubricated with nonoxynol-9 may decrease the possibility of HIV transmission.

Answer: False
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 158
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Factual

10. Inadequate lubrication during intercourse may cause a condom to break.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 159
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Conceptual

11. Removal of male condoms should occur after the loss of erection.

Answer: False
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 160
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Factual

12. The female condom should be used at the same time as a male condom.

Answer: False
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 162
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Conceptual

13. Withdrawal prior to ejaculation provides protection from sexually-transmitted infections.

Answer: False
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 162-163
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

14. Oral contraceptives should be taken at approximately the same time each day.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 165-166
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

15. Amenorrhea is a common side effect of Depo-Provera.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 169
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs))
Skill: Factual

16. The contraceptive patch may expose women to much lower levels of hormones than are found in most oral contraceptives
Answer: False
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 170
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

17. The vaginal ring is left in the vagina for three weeks.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 170
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

18. Emergency contraception should be taken as soon as possible after unprotected intercourse.
Answer: True
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 172
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

19. The diaphragm can be placed in the vagina up to two days before intercourse.

Answer: False
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 173
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

20. With proper care and storage, barrier devices like the diaphragm and the cervical cap can last from six months to two years.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 173
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

21. The contraceptive sponge cannot be used with male or female condoms.

Answer: False
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 175
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

22. Fertility awareness provides protection from sexually-transmitted infections.

Answer: False
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 176
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

23. The Standard Days Method requires a woman to predict the time period in which she ovulates.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 176
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

24. One of the main advantages of the IUD is that it does not require the user to remember to take a pill each day.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 179
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

25. A vasectomy is a sterilization procedure in which a section of a mans urethra is removed.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 180
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

26. Abortion is the prevention of fertilization of an ovum by a sperm.

Answer: False
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 182
Topic: Abortion Is Not Contraception
Skill: Factual

27. Research on immunocontraceptives for men focuses on developing vaccines that may cause a mans immune system to develop antibodies against specific hormones necessary for sperm cells to mature.

Answer: True
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 183
Topic: Experimental and Future Methods of Contraception
Skill: Factual

SHORT ANSWER

1. _____ is any process or means of preventing sperm cells from fertilizing an ovum.

Answer: Contraception
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 146
Topic: Introduction
Skill: Factual

2. _____ opened the first birth control clinic in Brooklyn, New York.

Answer: Margaret Sanger
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 148
Topic: Historical Perspectives
Skill: Factual

3. Couples practicing _____ avoid all sexual expression and activity.

Answer: celibacy
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 155
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Conceptual

4. The _____ is a thin sheath of latex or polyurethane that is placed over an erect penis prior to intercourse.

Answer: male condom
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 156
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Factual

5. The female condom is made of _____.

Answer: polyurethane
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 160-161
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Factual

6. The female condom may be inserted up to _____ hours before intercourse.

Answer: eight
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 162
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Factual

7. Another name for the withdrawal method is _____.

Answer: coitus interruptus
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 162
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

8. The _____ is an oral contraceptive containing only progestin.

Answer: minipill
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 164
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

9. A pad that delivers a precise dose of two hormones into a womans body through the skin is called the _____.

Answer: contraceptive patch
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 169-170
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

10. A birth control method in which unprotected sexual intercourse is avoided on the days a woman is assumed to be ovulating is called the _____.

Answer: Standard Days Method
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 172
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

11. The _____ is a small plastic device in the shape of a T that a doctor inserts into the uterus.

Answer: intrauterine device
Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 178
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

12. Another name for voluntary surgical contraception is _____.

Answer: sterilization
Difficulty: 1
Page ref: 179
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Factual

13. _____ change the acidity and electrical charge of sperm cells, rendering them incapable of fertilization.
Answer: Vas injection techniques
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 183
Topic: Experimental and Future Methods of Contraception
Skill: Factual

14. Researchers are looking into injectable _____ for men, which could cause a mans immune system to develop antibodies against specific hormones necessary for sperm cells to mature.
Answer: immunocontraceptives
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 183
Topic: Experimental and Future Methods of Contraception
Skill: Factual

15. One effect of _____ that are applied vaginally is to block most of the pathogens that cause sexually transmitted infections.
Answer: antimicrobial gels
Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 183
Topic: Experimental and Future Methods of Contraception
Skill: Factual

ESSAY

1. Discuss the politics of contraception during the early twentieth century. Explain the Comstock Act. What was Margaret Sangers contribution?

Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 147-148
Topic: Historical Perspectives
Skill: Factual

Responses should consider:
Prior to 1930, federal laws prohibited nearly everything related to contraception, including providing information about it.
These laws were contained in a bill referred to as the Comstock Act, named after its primary supporter, Anthony Comstock.
The act made it illegal to sell or distribute contraceptive information or devices in any form.
It made it a crime for any mention of sexually transmitted diseases to appear in print.
Doctors and nurses were prohibited from discussing these issues with their patients.
The only method available at the time was the rhythm method.
Margaret was a nurse and mother of three children, and the one given credit for overcoming the Comstock Act and making contraception widely available.
In 1912, she began to write and publish articles on female sexuality and on a womans right to control her own reproductive body.
After visiting a birth control clinic in the Netherlands where women were given the diaphragm, she returned to the U.S. and opened the first birth control clinic in Brooklyn, N.Y.
The clinic was raided by the police, and she spent 30 days in jail.
She became a celebrity, and by 1916, 100,000 copies of her booklet Family Limitation had been distributed, and birth control clinics had begun to operate. Her later work for contraceptive research funding resulted in the development of the first hormonal contraceptive pill in the late 1950s.
She is considered one of the founders of Planned Parenthood.

2. Discuss some of the lifestyle issues that need to be taken into consideration when choosing a method of contraception.

Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 148-150
Topic: Choosing a Method of Contraception
Skill: Conceptual

Responses should consider:
Contraception refers to preventing conception, which occurs at the moment the ovum and sperm cell join in the fallopian tube.
Contraception is also about choice, allowing individuals to plan, when, or if, to conceive and bear children.
Not all contraception methods are equally appropriate for all sexual lifestyles and life stages.
Individuals should ask themselves some of the following questions:
Am I engaging in sexual activities that involve any risk of pregnancy or the transmission of STIs?
Am I confident that I am in a one-on-one, exclusive relationship in which both of us are free of diseases that may be sexually transmitted?
How often do I engage in potentially risky sexual activities?
Do I have (or am I likely to have) more than one concurrent sexual partner?
How seriously would an accidental pregnancy disrupt my life?
Will the method I choose conflict with my religious beliefs?
Do I need to be in charge of contraception, or can I trust my partner to take care of it?
Do I feel comfortable with using this method of contraception?
Answering the above questions will help an individual to determine exactly what features he/she needs in a method of contraception.

3. What are male and female condoms? Discuss how both types of condoms work, how to use them, and their advantages and disadvantages.

Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 156-162
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy and STIs
Skill: Conceptual

Responses should consider:
A male condom is a think sheath of latex (rubber) or polyurethane (plastic) that is placed over an erect penis prior to intercourse.
Male condoms offer protection against pregnancy and STIs.
They work by acting as a barrier to prevent semen from entering the vagina.
They also prevent contact of skin with mucous membranes and the exchange of genital fluids that can transmit STIs.
There are four rules for their use:
1. Use latex or polyurethane condoms only.
2. Use lubricated condoms.
3. Use condoms with a reservoir tip (or nipple).
4. Dont use condoms that have expired.
To use a male condom correctly:
Open the package carefully.
Dont test the condom by filling it with air or water.
The condom should be placed on the erect penis before any contact between the penis the partners genital area.
To be sure which way the condom unrolls, place it over a finger and unroll it slightly.
Pinch the end of the condom as you unroll it to leave a small amount of empty space at the tip.
Unroll the condom all the way to the base of the penis.
Be sure there is adequate lubrication.
If you are adding lubrication, do not use oil-based products; use only water-based products.
If it feels as if the condom has broken off or slipped during intercourse, stop and check.
Advantages of male condoms include:
They are highly effective way of preventing conception and reducing STIs.
They are widely available.
They come with and without lubrication, with and without spermicide.
They come in sizes, colors, textures.
Disadvantages include:
The Catholic Church doesnt approve of their use, except in the case specific circumstances for the prevention of HIV.
Failure rates are typically due to incorrect use.
Some say they interrupt or interfere with the flow and romance of making love.
Some men claim that condoms significantly reduce sensitivity during intercourse or interfere with erection.
The female condom consists of a tube of thin polyurethane with a flexible ring at each end.
During intercourse, the female condom stays inside the vagina and the penis moves within it.
After ejaculation, the condom must be removed by twisting the outside ring to trap semen inside and gently pulling the condom out of the vagina.
This should be done before the woman stands up to be sure none of the semen spills out of the condom into or around the vaginal area.
Each female condom should be used only once.
Advantages include:
Female condoms allow the woman to be in more control of contraception and preventing STIs.
They allow for greater spontaneity than male condoms because the female condom may be inserted up to eight hours before intercourse.
If used correctly, it may provide slightly greater protection from STIs than male condoms. This is because the polyurethane material does not degrade with the use of oil-based lubricants, and the shape of the external ring of the condom protects a wider area of skin between the base of the penis and the vulva or anus during intercourse.
If used correctly and consistently, female condoms are nearly as effective as male condoms.
Disadvantages include:
Female condoms cost somewhat more than male condoms, approximately $1 to $2 each.
The typical-use conception failure rate is slighter higher for female condoms than for male condoms. Errors in use include removing the condom incorrectly, allowing semen to spill out in or near the vagina, or the penis may sometimes be inserted by mistake next to rather than inside of the condom.

4. What are oral contraceptives? Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this method of contraception. Describe two types of oral contraceptives, how they work, and their effectiveness.

Difficulty: 2
Page ref: 163-168
Topic: Methods for Preventing Pregnancy (But Not STIs)
Skill: Conceptual

Responses should consider:
Oral contraceptives are also called birth control pills.
Combination oral contraceptives contain both estrogen and progestin.
The contraceptive effect on a woman taking these hormones is that her bodys normal hormonal cycle is altered, and ovulation is prevented.
Advantages include:
They are very effective.
There is no interruption of lovemaking.
They are generally very safe.
They often make menstrual cycles more regular and reduce or relieve symptoms of PMS and menstrual cramps.
They may reduce the length of the menstrual period, and the amount of bleeding.
Disadvantages include:
They do not protect against STIs.
Its easy to miss doses.
Depending on where they are purchased, they can be relatively expensive.
There is the possibility of spotting.
There is the possibility of nausea.
There are possible side effects; if experiencing any of the following, call a physician immediately: ACHES
A abdominal pain
C chest pain (severe) with a cough or shortness of breath
H headache (severe), dizziness, weakness, numbness
E eye problems, vision, loss, blurring, slurred speech
S severe leg pain
One type is the minipill.
It is a progestin-only pill, and has approximately the same low failure rate as the combination (progestin and estrogen) pill.
The main advantage is that it avoids some of the potentially negative side effects associated with estrogen.
A disadvantage is that many of the health benefits associated with the estrogen in the combined pill are not present in the progestin-only pill.
It interferes with ovulation.
It also causes a thickening of the mucus secreted by the cervix, which sets up a barrier that is very difficult for sperm to penetrate.
If some sperm do get through, the lining of the uterus that develops to support a fertilized egg is thinner in a woman taking the minipill, and is therefore less receptive to implantation and pregnancy.
Another type is the extended-dosage contraceptive pill, such as Seasonale.
These pills provide a daily dose or hormones for 84 consecutive days, during which a woman is protected against pregnancy and does not menstruate.
After the 84 pills are taken, a woman then takes a placebo for 7 days, during which she will typically have her period.
A woman will only have four menstrual periods a year.
Research has shown no dangers from menstrual suppression.
Advantages include:
These can be recommended by doctors for women with menstruation-related health problems, and have been used by women themselves to delay or skip a period.
Women who have especially painful period, heavy bleeding, cycle-related migraine headaches, or other serious menstruation-related conditions may benefit from reducing the annual number of periods.
Disadvantages include:
The most serious side effect was an increase in bleeding or spotting between periods.
These extended-dosage contraceptive pills carry the same health risks as other combination pills with similar formulations.

5. Discuss one future method of birth control for men and one future method of birth control for women. Explain how these methods could work to prevent pregnancy.

Difficulty: 3
Page ref: 182-183
Topic: Experimental and Future Methods of Contraception
Skill: Conceptual

Responses should consider:
A future method of birth control for men is:
A male hormonal contraceptive.
This is under investigation in many countries worldwide.
If its brought to the marketplace, it will probably be in the form of an injection, an implant, or a patch.
In 2008, a pharmaceutical company in China developed a type of injectable testosterone that was 99% effective in preventing pregnancy by suppressing the production of sperm to infertile levels within six months.
Upon discontinuation of the treatment, nearly all the mens sperm levels returned to normal fertility levels within four months.
Some researchers say that a male hormonal method of contraception could become widely available by 2020.
A future method of birth control for women is:
Antimicrobial, spermicidal gels that are applied vaginally.
They are designed to stop sperm dead in their tracks and block most of the pathogens that cause STIs such as HIV, genital herpes, genital warts, gonorrhea, and syphilis.
One brand name is BufferGel, which did not offer significant protection from HIV
BufferGel has been shown to be an effective spermicide for use with the diaphragm.

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