I.V. Therapeutics Evidence Based Practice for Infusion Therapy 6th Edition by Lynn Dianne Phillips, Lisa Gorski Test Bank

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I.V. Therapeutics Evidence Based Practice for Infusion Therapy 6th Edition by Lynn Dianne Phillips, Lisa Gorski Test Bank

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Chapter 4: Parenteral Solutions

Multiple Choice
Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

____ 1. A nurse administers a parenteral solution to a client that contains portions of electrolytes, similar to plasma, as well as bicarbonate. The nurse is administering a(n):
a. hypotonic solution.
b. isotonic solution.
c. balanced solution.
d. hypertonic solution.

____ 2. A client presents in an emergency department and is diagnosed with fluid volume deficit. A nurse begins I.V. therapy per a physicians order to replace the clients lost fluids. Which hypotonic I.V. solution should the nurse anticipate being ordered for this client?
a. 0.45% sodium chloride
b. 5% dextrose in water
c. 10% dextrose in water
d. 5% dextrose in 0.9% sodium chloride

____ 3. An emergency department nurse is administering a colloidal I.V. solution to a client diagnosed with hypovolemia. Which solution, administered by the nurse, is considered a colloid solution?
a. Lactated Ringers
b. Albumin
c. 5% dextrose in water
d. 5% dextrose in 0.45% sodium chloride

____ 4. A nurse is preparing to begin fluid replacement therapy on an older adult, dehydrated client. Before a client is started on replacement therapy, which physiological function should be assessed?
a. Respiratory function
b. Renal function
c. Endocrine function
d. Adrenal function

____ 5. A nurse prepares to administer a blood transfusion to a client. Which I.V. solution is the only acceptable solution for the nurse to use to prime the administration set before administering blood?
a. Lactated Ringers solution
b. 5% dextrose in water
c. 0.9% sodium chloride
d. 5% dextrose and 0.45% sodium chloride

____ 6. A pediatric nurse is preparing to administer a hypotonic I.V. solution to a child experiencing profound dehydration. Which solution would be considered a hydrating solution?
a. 5% dextrose in water
b. Lactated Ringers solution
c. 10% dextrose in water
d. 5% dextrose and 0.45% sodium chloride

Chapter 4: Parenteral Solutions
Answer Section

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. ANS: C
The nurse is administering a balanced solution. Hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions refer only to those solutions whose osmolarity is, respectively, less than, equal to, or greater than that of plasmanot to their electrolyte or ionic contents.

PTS: 1 KEY: Cognitive Level: Analysis

2. ANS: A
The solution of 0.45% sodium chloride is hypotonic and has an osmolarity of 155. It is one of the only hypotonic solutions used in clinical practice. The range for hypotonic solutions is below 250 mOsm. Five percent dextrose in water has an osmolarity of 252 mOsm and is isotonic; 10% dextrose in water has an osmolarity of 505 mOsm and is hypertonic; 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride combined has an osmolarity of 560 mOsm and is hypertonic.

PTS: 1 KEY: Cognitive Level: Application

3. ANS: B
Albumin is a natural plasma protein prepared from donor plasma. Colloid solutions contain protein or starch molecules that remain distributed in the extracellular space and do not form a true solution.

PTS: 1 KEY: Cognitive Level: Application

4. ANS: B
The first concern for a client requiring replacement is whether the kidneys are functioning well enough to permit the therapy.

PTS: 1 KEY: Cognitive Level: Application

5. ANS: C
Saline solutions are the only solution to be used with any blood product. Dextrose solutions cause hemolysis of cells. Lactated Ringers solutions contain calcium ions that can also hemolyze the blood cells.
Reference: Roback, J. D., Combs, M. R., & Grossman, B. et al. (2008). Technical manual (16th ed.). MD: American Association of Blood Banks.

PTS: 1 KEY: Cognitive Level: Application

6. ANS: D
Solutions that contain dextrose and hypotonic saline provide more water than is required for excretion of salt and are also useful as hydrating fluids.
Reference: Phillips, L. D., & Gorski, L. (2014). Parenteral solutions. In Manual of I.V. therapeutics: Evidence-based infusion therapy (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis.

PTS: 1 KEY: Cognitive Level: Application

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