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<< International Financial Management 8th Edition by Cheol Eun Test Bank | Introduction Critical Care Nursing 7th Edition Sole Klein-Test Bank >> |

**Chapter 4: Data Collection and Sampling Methods**

*Student: ___________________________________________________________________________*

- True or False

Statistics can be used as a descriptive tool for expressing information relevant to business.

True False

- True or False

Statistics can be used as an inferential device for using sample findings to draw conclusions about a population.

True False

- True or False

An economics student searches the Survey of Current Business for gross domestic product data as a class report item. This is an example of using primary data.

True False

- True or False

A recent graduate of mortuary school samples the death rate statistics for counties in her state in hopes of finding a good location to start a mortuary. This is an example of secondary data.

True False

- True or False

A manufacturer of semiconductors experiments with different designs and records the data. This is an example of using primary data.

True False

- True or False

Consumers Union purchases twenty-five brands of lawnmowers and tests them for various attributes. This is an example of secondary data.

True False

- True or False

Questionnaires should be pretested by personally administering them to a small number of persons who are similar to the eventual sample members.

True False

- True or False

Causal research helps us become familiar with the problem situation, identify important variables, and use other variables to form hypotheses that can be tested in subsequent research.

True False

- True or False

Predictive research attempts to forecast some situation or value that will occur in the future.

True False

- True or False

In causal research, the objective is to determine if one variable has an effect on another.

True False

- True or False

Exploratory research can be of a qualitative nature.

True False

- True or False

Regarding causal studies, it should be pointed out that statistical techniques alone can prove causality.

True False

- True or False

A sample consisting of firms or persons who have engaged in a specific behavior or activity are said to be taken from a compiled list.

True False

- True or False

Response error can occur when an individual fails to return a questionnaire.

True False

- True or False

In general, multiple choice and dichotomous questions can be easy to formulate, but data entry and analysis are relatively hard to accomplish.

True False

- True or False

External validity refers to whether the experimental treatment really made the difference in the measurements obtained.

True False

- True or False

There are two key variables in an experiment: the independent variable (or treatment) and the dependent variable (or measurement).

True False

- True or False

In evaluating experiments, two kinds of validity must be considered: internal and external.

True False

- True or False

The persons or objects receiving a treatment in an experiment are said to be in the control group.

True False

- True or False

Factor analysis is a set of techniques for studying interrelationships among variables. This is done by reducing a very large set of variables to a smaller set of new variables (factors) that are more basic in meaning but contain most of the information in the original set.

True False

- True or False

In cluster analysis, the individuals or objects are categorized into different groups where the members of each group tend to be different.

True False

- True or False

A statistic is a characteristic of a sample such as the sample mean or sample standard deviation.

True False

- True or False

A census can be viewed as a sample that includes the entire population.

True False

- True or False

Bias is a type of error that can occur because a sample has been taken rather than a census.

True False

- True or False

In practice, a sample can be more accurate than a census.

True False

- True or False

The convenience sample is an example of probability sampling where every person or element in the population may not have an equal chance for inclusion in the sample.

True False

- True or False

The quota sample is an example of nonprobability sampling that is similar to the stratified probability sample, except that members of the various strata are not chosen through the use of a probability sampling technique.

True False

- True or False

Business research studies can be categorized according to the objective involved and may be exploratory, descriptive, causal, or predictive.

True False

- True or False

Secondary data tends to require more time and expense, but have the advantage of being more applicable to the research problem or situation.

True False

- True or False

Nonsampling errors can be reduced by increasing the size of a sample.

True False

- True or False

In practice, most studies involve relatively large populations for which taking a sample can provide satisfactory results much more quickly and at considerably lower cost than a census.

True False

- True or False

Sampling error is a random, nondirectional error that is inevitable whenever a sample is taken instead of a census.

True False

- True or False

In the simple random sample, each person or element has the same chance of being included in the sample.

True False

- Which of the following statements describe secondary external data?

A. A manufacturer of semiconductors experiments with different designs and records the data.

B. A mail order company conducts a telephone survey among recent purchasers.

C. A presidential candidate commissions a political survey organization to establish the percent of persons favoring her candidacy.

D. A recent graduate of mortuary school samples the death rate statistics for counties in her state in hopes of finding a good location to start a mortuary.

E. Consumers Union purchases 25 brands of lawnmowers and tests them for various attributes.

- Which of the following statements describe secondary internal data?

A. A manufacturer of semiconductors uses available company sales and inventory valuation records to prepare an inventory turnover ratio for each month.

B. A mail order company conducts a telephone survey among recent purchasers.

C. A presidential candidate commissions a political survey organization to establish the percent of persons favoring her candidacy.

D. A recent graduate of mortuary school samples the death rate statistics for counties in her state in hopes of finding a good location to start a mortuary.

E. Consumers Union purchases 25 brands of lawnmowers and tests them for various attributes.

- Which of the following is not an example of primary data?

A. Data published by the United States Bureau of Census.

B. Data published by Statistics Canada.

C. Data published by the New York Stock Exchange.

D. Financial data tapes that contain data compiled from the New York Stock Exchange.

- When a respondent indicates that he is 25 years old when he is actually 35 years old, he is contributing to:

A. sampling error.

B. response error.

C. nonresponse error.

D. bias.

E. nonsampling error.

- The difference between a sample mean and the corresponding population mean is called a:

A. nonresponse error

B. systematic error

C. sampling error

D. response error

E. bias

- Which of the following questionnaire designs requires the respondent to pick from only two choices?

A. dichotomous questions

B. multiple choice questions

C. open-ended questions

D. demographic questions

- When a person receives a mail questionnaire and places it in the wastebasket, they are contributing to:

A. sampling error

B. response error

C. nonresponse error

D. nonsystematic error

E. nonsampling error

- To overcome one of the shortcomings of telephone surveys due to unlisted telephone numbers:

A. survey takers purchase mail lists of unlisted telephone number subscribers.

B. survey takers employ random digit dialing facilities.

C. survey takers contact telephone companies for a list of unlisted telephone numbers.

D. survey takers purchase lists of unlisted telephone numbers from magazine subscribers.

E. survey takers go door to door and identify the unlisted telephone subscribers.

- Which of the following questionnaire designs allow the respondent to freely formulate his or her own answer and expand on the subject of the question?

A. Multiple choice

B. Dichotomous

C. Open-ended

D. All of the above

- Which of the following must be avoided in designing a questionnaire?

A. Dichotomous questions

B. Leading questions

C. Open-ended questions

D. Demographic questions

- Which of the following variables probably could be measured in an observational study of airline travelers?

A. The brand of coffee they drink at home.

B. The occupation of the traveler.

C. How many frequent traveler miles they have earned.

D. The gender of the traveler.

E. The total number of bags taken on the airplane trip (carry-on and checked).

- Which of the following statements is not true?

A. Extraneous variables refer to outside variables that are not part of the experiment.

B. Persons or objects receiving a treatment are said to be in an experimental group.

C. Persons or objects not exposed to a treatment are said to be in a control group.

D. Internal validity refers to whether the treatment really made the difference in the measurements obtained.

E. All of these are true.

- Which of the following statements is not correct?

A. Internal secondary data are those that have been generated by your own firm or organization.

B. External secondary data are those that have been generated by someone outside the firm or organization, often for another purpose.

C. Internal secondary data have traditionally existed in the form of accounting or financial information.

D. All of these statements are correct.

E. None of these statements is correct.

- A characteristic of a sample, such as the sample mean or sample standard deviation, is known as a(n):

A. population

B. census

C. parameter

D. observation

E. statistic

- A sample is:

A. the entire set of elements being observed or measured.

B. a selected portion of elements from the universe.

C. the measurement/observation of the population.

D. that portion of the population that can be theoretically considered.

E. a measurement of the universe.

- A census is:

A. a complete enumeration of the population.

B. a survey of the entire population.

C. the measurement of a sample.

D. answers A and B are both correct.

E. answers A and C are both correct.

- Which of the following is a correct statement?

A. A parameter is a characteristic of the universe.

B. A census is a measurement of a sample.

C. A statistic describes a variable for the population.

D. A census is always a better measurement than is a sample.

E. A parameter is a characteristic of the sample.

- When the sample mean differs from the population mean simply be chance, the error that results is known as:

A. sampling error.

B. response error.

C. nonresponse error.

D. bias.

E. nonsystematic error.

- Which of the following represents an advantage of taking a sample?

A. Less expense than a census.

B. Can be completed in a timely fashion.

C. Testing or measuring is a destructive process.

D. The size of the population is very large.

E. Each of these is an advantage of taking a sample rather than a census.

- When is a sample a better choice than a census?

A. When the population is changing over time.

B. When taking the U.S. Census of the population.

C. When some sampling error can be tolerated.

D. When time is an important factor.

E. Each of these is a reason for taking a sample rather than a census.

- Which type of sampling would primarily be used in exploratory research studies where there is no intention of making statistical inferences from the sample to the population?

A. probability sampling

B. nonprobability sampling

C. simple random sampling

D. cluster sampling

E. stratified sampling

- Which of the following is an example of nonsampling errors?

A. Errors that arise from the recording of incorrect responses

B. Errors that arise when responses are not obtained from some members of the sample

C. Errors that arise when some members of the target population cannot possibly be selected in the sample

D. All of these.

- If the population for a study is defined as the student body in a particular high school, and the sample is selected by randomly choosing classrooms at 11:00 AM and administering the survey to all the students in those classes, we are relying on:

A. simple random sampling.

B. nonprobability sampling.

C. cluster sampling.

D. stratified sampling.

E. convenience sampling.

- Which of the following is a nonprobability sample?

A. Simple random sample

B. Systematic sample

C. Judgment sample

D. Stratified sample

E. Cluster sample

- One weakness of a systematic sample is that:

A. it is difficult to separate the population into strata.

B. geographic areas may not be known.

C. taking the sample requires judgment on the part of the researcher.

D. the data may exhibit a pattern of periodicity.

E. the observations are chosen because they are not typical of the population.

- Which of the following is a major weakness of a nonprobability sample?

A. Not every element has a known chance of being included in the sample.

B. It is convenient for the sample taker.

C. It allows the selection of members, which are not typical.

D. It is used in small exploratory studies.

E. It is cost efficient.

- At the annual freshman mixer at your university, each student places a card with his/her name in a large basket. A card is drawn for the evenings door prize. This is an example of:

A. a nonprobability sample.

B. a probability sample.

C. a simple random sample.

D. both A and C are correct.

E. both B and C are correct.

- In order to obtain a sample of persons owning a telephone, you select every 24th name in the local phone book. This is an example of:

A. simple random sampling

B. systematic sampling

C. stratified sampling

D. probability sampling

E. both B and D are correct

- When the population is divided into mutually exclusive sets, and then a simple random sample is drawn from each set, this is called:

A. simple random sampling.

B. stratified sampling.

C. cluster sampling.

D. systematic sampling.

E. quota sampling.

- When all the items in a population have some (nonzero) known or calculable chance of being selected in the sample, this is called:

A. probability sampling.

B. nonprobability sampling.

C. purposive sampling.

D. convenience sampling.

E. judgment sampling.

- Which of the following sampling plans use random methods of selections?

A. Simple random sampling

B. Stratified sampling

C. Cluster sampling

D. Systematic Sampling

E. All of these

- A pharmaceutical company interested in measuring how often physicians prescribe a certain drug has selected a simple random sample from each of two groups: M.D. (medical doctors) and D.O (osteopathic doctors). What is this type of sampling called?

A. Simple random sampling

B. Cluster sampling

C. Stratified sampling

D. Purposive sampling

E. Quota sampling

- When every possible sample of size
*n*has the same chance of being selected, this is called:

A. simple random sampling.

B. stratified sampling.

C. cluster sampling.

D. convenience sampling.

E. quota sampling.

- Which of the following does not characterize stratified sampling?

A. The population is divided into strata that are distinct.

B. The population is divided into strata that are mutually exclusive and exhaustive.

C. The population is divided into strata that are homogenous.

D. The population is divided into strata that are heterogenous.

- Which of the following statements is not true?

A. For probability samples, sampling error can be reduced by decreasing the sample size.

B. Nonsampling error is a tendency toward error in one direction or the other and can be present even if a complete census is taken.

C. In probability sampling, each element in the population has some (nonzero) known or calculable chance of being included in the sample.

D. In nonprobability sampling, not everyone in the population has a chance of being included in the sample.

E. Nonprobability techniques discussed in the text include convenience, quota, purposive, and judgment sampling.

- The nonprobability sampling technique where members are chosen specifically because they are not typical of the population is known as:

A. judgment sampling.

B. quota sampling.

C. convenience sampling.

D. purposive sampling.

E. cluster sampling.

- ____________________ helps us become familiar with the problem situation, identify important variables, and use these variables to form hypotheses that can be tested in subsequent research.

________________________________________

- The ____________________ is a method in which a moderator leads a small-group discussion about a topic and the client watches and listens from behind a one-way mirror.

________________________________________

- A(n) ____________________ questionnaire leaves respondents free to formulate their own answers and expand on the subject of the questionnaire.

________________________________________

- A(n) ____________________ questionnaire offers respondents only two alternatives.

________________________________________

- While taking a census is more expensive than taking a sample, taking a census might help eliminate the problem of ____________________ error.

________________________________________

- When the respondents to a questionnaire have different characteristics from those who did not choose to participate in the survey, the survey will likely suffer from ____________________.

________________________________________

- ____________________ validity asks whether the results of an experiment can be generalized to other people or settings.

________________________________________

- In experiments, the purpose is to identify ____________________ and ____________________ relationships between variables.

________________________________________

- The ______________________________ technique identifies the variables that best separate members of two or more groups. It can also be used to predict group membership on the basis of variables that have been measured or observed.

________________________________________

- Fill in the blank: Data that are collected by someone other than the researcher, for purposes other than the problem or decision at hand, are referred to as _________________________.

________________________________________

- A non-sampling error is also referred to as ____________________, because it is a directional error.

________________________________________

- A ____________________ is a characteristic of a sample, while a ____________________ is a characteristic of a population.

________________________________________

- In a(n) ____________________ sample, the population is divided into layers; then a simple random sample of members from each layer is selected.

________________________________________

- In a(n) ____________________ sample, we randomly select a starting point between 1 and
*k*, then sample every*k*th element from the population.

________________________________________

- Sampling methods can be categorized as ____________________ or ____________________ sampling.

________________________________________

- The ____________________ sample involves dividing the population into groups, then randomly selecting some of the groups and taking either a sample or a census of their members.

________________________________________

- ____________________ data are generated by the researcher for the problem or situation at hand, while ____________________ data have been collected by someone else for some other purpose.

________________________________________

- Secondary data can be classified as ____________________ or ____________________, depending on whether the data have been generated from within or outside the researchers firm or organization.

________________________________________

- A marketing research firm divides the population of a state into geographic areas, as shown on the diagram below.
What type of sample are they taking? How will they select the sample?

- A manufacturer is introducing a new scientific calculator and wishes to conduct a test of its ease of use. He selects a group of University math majors for his experiment. This is an example of which type of nonprobability sampling?

- A wallboard manufacturer is concerned with meeting industry quality standards for its product. Inspecting each sheet produced would necessitate many inspectors and add about 50% more to the cost of the wallboard. Sampling per shift would only increase the cost by 3 to 4 percent and yet be capable of detecting any sub-quality wallboard. Which type of probability sampling would you recommend the company to use?

- What is survey research?

- Comment on the appropriateness of the question, Have you ever broken the law and endangered the lives of others by speeding and tailgating?

- What is data warehouse?

- What is data mining?

- How can data mining be useful to a business or other organization? What are some of the analytical tools it employs?

- Briefly, what kind of information does the U.S. Department of Commerce provide in its
*Census of Housing*?

- Briefly, what kind of information does the U.S. Department of Commerce provide in its
*Census of Population*?

- What is the
*Encyclopedia of Associations*, and how can it be useful to the business researcher?

- What is a simple random sample?

- Distinguish between probability and nonprobability sampling.

- A politician wants to estimate the mean age of registered voters in her district. Unfortunately, she does not have a complete list of households. Describe a sampling plan that would be suitable for her purposes.

- The dean of a college of arts and sciences with six departments wants to estimate the student-hours lost per month due to illness of professors. Describe a sampling plan that would be suitable for estimating the college-wide loss and for comparing departments.

- What are the three major sources of error in survey research?

- Briefly, what kinds of validity must be considered in evaluating experiments?

Chapter 4: Data Collection and Sampling Methods Key

- True or False

Statistics can be used as a descriptive tool for expressing information relevant to business.

__TRUE__

- True or False

Statistics can be used as an inferential device for using sample findings to draw conclusions about a population.

__TRUE__

- True or False

An economics student searches the Survey of Current Business for gross domestic product data as a class report item. This is an example of using primary data.

__FALSE__

- True or False

A recent graduate of mortuary school samples the death rate statistics for counties in her state in hopes of finding a good location to start a mortuary. This is an example of secondary data.

__TRUE__

- True or False

A manufacturer of semiconductors experiments with different designs and records the data. This is an example of using primary data.

__TRUE__

- True or False

Consumers Union purchases twenty-five brands of lawnmowers and tests them for various attributes. This is an example of secondary data.

__FALSE__

- True or False

Questionnaires should be pretested by personally administering them to a small number of persons who are similar to the eventual sample members.

__TRUE__

- True or False

Causal research helps us become familiar with the problem situation, identify important variables, and use other variables to form hypotheses that can be tested in subsequent research.

__FALSE__

- True or False

Predictive research attempts to forecast some situation or value that will occur in the future.

__TRUE__

- True or False

In causal research, the objective is to determine if one variable has an effect on another.

__TRUE__

- True or False

Exploratory research can be of a qualitative nature.

__TRUE__

- True or False

Regarding causal studies, it should be pointed out that statistical techniques alone can prove causality.

__FALSE__

- True or False

A sample consisting of firms or persons who have engaged in a specific behavior or activity are said to be taken from a compiled list.

__FALSE__

- True or False

Response error can occur when an individual fails to return a questionnaire.

__TRUE__

- True or False

In general, multiple choice and dichotomous questions can be easy to formulate, but data entry and analysis are relatively hard to accomplish.

__FALSE__

- True or False

External validity refers to whether the experimental treatment really made the difference in the measurements obtained.

__FALSE__

- True or False

There are two key variables in an experiment: the independent variable (or treatment) and the dependent variable (or measurement).

__TRUE__

- True or False

In evaluating experiments, two kinds of validity must be considered: internal and external.

__TRUE__

- True or False

The persons or objects receiving a treatment in an experiment are said to be in the control group.

__FALSE__

- True or False

Factor analysis is a set of techniques for studying interrelationships among variables. This is done by reducing a very large set of variables to a smaller set of new variables (factors) that are more basic in meaning but contain most of the information in the original set.

__TRUE__

- True or False

In cluster analysis, the individuals or objects are categorized into different groups where the members of each group tend to be different.

__FALSE__

- True or False

A statistic is a characteristic of a sample such as the sample mean or sample standard deviation.

__TRUE__

- True or False

A census can be viewed as a sample that includes the entire population.

__TRUE__

- True or False

Bias is a type of error that can occur because a sample has been taken rather than a census.

__FALSE__

- True or False

In practice, a sample can be more accurate than a census.

__TRUE__

- True or False

The convenience sample is an example of probability sampling where every person or element in the population may not have an equal chance for inclusion in the sample.

__FALSE__

- True or False

The quota sample is an example of nonprobability sampling that is similar to the stratified probability sample, except that members of the various strata are not chosen through the use of a probability sampling technique.

__TRUE__

- True or False

Business research studies can be categorized according to the objective involved and may be exploratory, descriptive, causal, or predictive.

__TRUE__

- True or False

Secondary data tends to require more time and expense, but have the advantage of being more applicable to the research problem or situation.

__FALSE__

- True or False

Nonsampling errors can be reduced by increasing the size of a sample.

__FALSE__

- True or False

In practice, most studies involve relatively large populations for which taking a sample can provide satisfactory results much more quickly and at considerably lower cost than a census.

__TRUE__

- True or False

Sampling error is a random, nondirectional error that is inevitable whenever a sample is taken instead of a census.

__TRUE__

- True or False

In the simple random sample, each person or element has the same chance of being included in the sample.

__TRUE__

- Which of the following statements describe secondary external data?

A.A manufacturer of semiconductors experiments with different designs and records the data.

B. A mail order company conducts a telephone survey among recent purchasers.

C. A presidential candidate commissions a political survey organization to establish the percent of persons favoring her candidacy.

A recent graduate of mortuary school samples the death rate statistics for counties in her state in hopes of finding a good location to start a mortuary.__D.__

E. Consumers Union purchases 25 brands of lawnmowers and tests them for various attributes.

- Which of the following statements describe secondary internal data?

A manufacturer of semiconductors uses available company sales and inventory valuation records to prepare an inventory turnover ratio for each month.__A.__

B. A mail order company conducts a telephone survey among recent purchasers.

C. A presidential candidate commissions a political survey organization to establish the percent of persons favoring her candidacy.

D. A recent graduate of mortuary school samples the death rate statistics for counties in her state in hopes of finding a good location to start a mortuary.

E. Consumers Union purchases 25 brands of lawnmowers and tests them for various attributes.

- Which of the following is not an example of primary data?

A.Data published by the United States Bureau of Census.

B. Data published by Statistics Canada.

C. Data published by the New York Stock Exchange.

Financial data tapes that contain data compiled from the New York Stock Exchange.__D.__

- When a respondent indicates that he is 25 years old when he is actually 35 years old, he is contributing to:

A.sampling error.

response error.__B.__

C. nonresponse error.

D. bias.

E. nonsampling error.

- The difference between a sample mean and the corresponding population mean is called a:

A.nonresponse error

B. systematic error

sampling error__C.__

D. response error

E. bias

- Which of the following questionnaire designs requires the respondent to pick from only two choices?

dichotomous questions__A.__

B. multiple choice questions

C. open-ended questions

D. demographic questions

- When a person receives a mail questionnaire and places it in the wastebasket, they are contributing to:

A.sampling error

B. response error

nonresponse error__C.__

D. nonsystematic error

E. nonsampling error

- To overcome one of the shortcomings of telephone surveys due to unlisted telephone numbers:

A.survey takers purchase mail lists of unlisted telephone number subscribers.

survey takers employ random digit dialing facilities.__B.__

C. survey takers contact telephone companies for a list of unlisted telephone numbers.

D. survey takers purchase lists of unlisted telephone numbers from magazine subscribers.

E. survey takers go door to door and identify the unlisted telephone subscribers.

- Which of the following questionnaire designs allow the respondent to freely formulate his or her own answer and expand on the subject of the question?

A.Multiple choice

B. Dichotomous

Open-ended__C.__

D. All of the above

- Which of the following must be avoided in designing a questionnaire?

A.Dichotomous questions

Leading questions__B.__

C. Open-ended questions

D. Demographic questions

- Which of the following variables probably could be measured in an observational study of airline travelers?

A.The brand of coffee they drink at home.

B. The occupation of the traveler.

C. How many frequent traveler miles they have earned.

The gender of the traveler.__D.__

E. The total number of bags taken on the airplane trip (carry-on and checked).

- Which of the following statements is not true?

A.Extraneous variables refer to outside variables that are not part of the experiment.

B. Persons or objects receiving a treatment are said to be in an experimental group.

C. Persons or objects not exposed to a treatment are said to be in a control group.

D. Internal validity refers to whether the treatment really made the difference in the measurements obtained.

All of these are true.__E.__

- Which of the following statements is not correct?

A.Internal secondary data are those that have been generated by your own firm or organization.

B. External secondary data are those that have been generated by someone outside the firm or organization, often for another purpose.

C. Internal secondary data have traditionally existed in the form of accounting or financial information.

All of these statements are correct.__D.__

E. None of these statements is correct.

- A characteristic of a sample, such as the sample mean or sample standard deviation, is known as a(n):

A.population

B. census

C. parameter

D. observation

statistic__E.__

- A sample is:

A.the entire set of elements being observed or measured.

a selected portion of elements from the universe.__B.__

C. the measurement/observation of the population.

D. that portion of the population that can be theoretically considered.

E. a measurement of the universe.

- A census is:

A.a complete enumeration of the population.

B. a survey of the entire population.

C. the measurement of a sample.

answers A and B are both correct.__D.__

E. answers A and C are both correct.

- Which of the following is a correct statement?

A parameter is a characteristic of the universe.__A.__

B. A census is a measurement of a sample.

C. A statistic describes a variable for the population.

D. A census is always a better measurement than is a sample.

E. A parameter is a characteristic of the sample.

- When the sample mean differs from the population mean simply be chance, the error that results is known as:

sampling error.__A.__

B. response error.

C. nonresponse error.

D. bias.

E. nonsystematic error.

- Which of the following represents an advantage of taking a sample?

A.Less expense than a census.

B. Can be completed in a timely fashion.

C. Testing or measuring is a destructive process.

D. The size of the population is very large.

Each of these is an advantage of taking a sample rather than a census.__E.__

- When is a sample a better choice than a census?

A.When the population is changing over time.

B. When taking the U.S. Census of the population.

C. When some sampling error can be tolerated.

D. When time is an important factor.

Each of these is a reason for taking a sample rather than a census.__E.__

- Which type of sampling would primarily be used in exploratory research studies where there is no intention of making statistical inferences from the sample to the population?

A.probability sampling

nonprobability sampling__B.__

C. simple random sampling

D. cluster sampling

E. stratified sampling

- Which of the following is an example of nonsampling errors?

A.Errors that arise from the recording of incorrect responses

B. Errors that arise when responses are not obtained from some members of the sample

C. Errors that arise when some members of the target population cannot possibly be selected in the sample

All of these.__D.__

- If the population for a study is defined as the student body in a particular high school, and the sample is selected by randomly choosing classrooms at 11:00 AM and administering the survey to all the students in those classes, we are relying on:

A.simple random sampling.

B. nonprobability sampling.

cluster sampling.__C.__

D. stratified sampling.

E. convenience sampling.

- Which of the following is a nonprobability sample?

A.Simple random sample

B. Systematic sample

Judgment sample__C.__

D. Stratified sample

E. Cluster sample

- One weakness of a systematic sample is that:

A.it is difficult to separate the population into strata.

B. geographic areas may not be known.

C. taking the sample requires judgment on the part of the researcher.

the data may exhibit a pattern of periodicity.__D.__

E. the observations are chosen because they are not typical of the population.

- Which of the following is a major weakness of a nonprobability sample?

Not every element has a known chance of being included in the sample.__A.__

B. It is convenient for the sample taker.

C. It allows the selection of members, which are not typical.

D. It is used in small exploratory studies.

E. It is cost efficient.

- At the annual freshman mixer at your university, each student places a card with his/her name in a large basket. A card is drawn for the evenings door prize. This is an example of:

A.a nonprobability sample.

B. a probability sample.

C. a simple random sample.

D. both A and C are correct.

both B and C are correct.__E.__

- In order to obtain a sample of persons owning a telephone, you select every 24th name in the local phone book. This is an example of:

A.simple random sampling

B. systematic sampling

C. stratified sampling

D. probability sampling

both B and D are correct__E.__

- When the population is divided into mutually exclusive sets, and then a simple random sample is drawn from each set, this is called:

A.simple random sampling.

stratified sampling.__B.__

C. cluster sampling.

D. systematic sampling.

E. quota sampling.

- When all the items in a population have some (nonzero) known or calculable chance of being selected in the sample, this is called:

probability sampling.__A.__

B. nonprobability sampling.

C. purposive sampling.

D. convenience sampling.

E. judgment sampling.

- Which of the following sampling plans use random methods of selections?

A.Simple random sampling

B. Stratified sampling

C. Cluster sampling

D. Systematic Sampling

All of these__E.__

- A pharmaceutical company interested in measuring how often physicians prescribe a certain drug has selected a simple random sample from each of two groups: M.D. (medical doctors) and D.O (osteopathic doctors). What is this type of sampling called?

A.Simple random sampling

B. Cluster sampling

Stratified sampling__C.__

D. Purposive sampling

E. Quota sampling

- When every possible sample of size
*n*has the same chance of being selected, this is called:

simple random sampling.__A.__

B. stratified sampling.

C. cluster sampling.

D. convenience sampling.

E. quota sampling.

- Which of the following does not characterize stratified sampling?

A.The population is divided into strata that are distinct.

B. The population is divided into strata that are mutually exclusive and exhaustive.

C. The population is divided into strata that are homogenous.

The population is divided into strata that are heterogenous.__D.__

- Which of the following statements is not true?

For probability samples, sampling error can be reduced by decreasing the sample size.__A.__

B. Nonsampling error is a tendency toward error in one direction or the other and can be present even if a complete census is taken.

C. In probability sampling, each element in the population has some (nonzero) known or calculable chance of being included in the sample.

D. In nonprobability sampling, not everyone in the population has a chance of being included in the sample.

E. Nonprobability techniques discussed in the text include convenience, quota, purposive, and judgment sampling.

- The nonprobability sampling technique where members are chosen specifically because they are not typical of the population is known as:

A.judgment sampling.

B. quota sampling.

C. convenience sampling.

purposive sampling.__D.__

E. cluster sampling.

- ____________________ helps us become familiar with the problem situation, identify important variables, and use these variables to form hypotheses that can be tested in subsequent research.

__Exploratory research__

- The ____________________ is a method in which a moderator leads a small-group discussion about a topic and the client watches and listens from behind a one-way mirror.

__focus group interview__

- A(n) ____________________ questionnaire leaves respondents free to formulate their own answers and expand on the subject of the questionnaire.

__open-ended__

- A(n) ____________________ questionnaire offers respondents only two alternatives.

__dichotomous__

- While taking a census is more expensive than taking a sample, taking a census might help eliminate the problem of ____________________ error.

__sampling__

- When the respondents to a questionnaire have different characteristics from those who did not choose to participate in the survey, the survey will likely suffer from ____________________.

__nonresponse error__

- ____________________ validity asks whether the results of an experiment can be generalized to other people or settings.

__External__

- In experiments, the purpose is to identify ____________________ and ____________________ relationships between variables.

__cause; effect__

- The ______________________________ technique identifies the variables that best separate members of two or more groups. It can also be used to predict group membership on the basis of variables that have been measured or observed.

__discriminant analysis__

- Fill in the blank: Data that are collected by someone other than the researcher, for purposes other than the problem or decision at hand, are referred to as _________________________.

__secondary data__

- A non-sampling error is also referred to as ____________________, because it is a directional error.

__bias__

- A ____________________ is a characteristic of a sample, while a ____________________ is a characteristic of a population.

__statistic; parameter__

- In a(n) ____________________ sample, the population is divided into layers; then a simple random sample of members from each layer is selected.

__stratified__

- In a(n) ____________________ sample, we randomly select a starting point between 1 and
*k*, then sample every*k*th element from the population.

__systematic__

- Sampling methods can be categorized as ____________________ or ____________________ sampling.

__probability; nonprobability__

- The ____________________ sample involves dividing the population into groups, then randomly selecting some of the groups and taking either a sample or a census of their members.

__cluster__

- ____________________ data are generated by the researcher for the problem or situation at hand, while ____________________ data have been collected by someone else for some other purpose.

__Primary; secondary__

- Secondary data can be classified as ____________________ or ____________________, depending on whether the data have been generated from within or outside the researchers firm or organization.

__internal; external__

- A marketing research firm divides the population of a state into geographic areas, as shown on the diagram below.
What type of sample are they taking? How will they select the sample?

Cluster; They will randomly select some of the areas and take either a sample or census of each area.

- A manufacturer is introducing a new scientific calculator and wishes to conduct a test of its ease of use. He selects a group of University math majors for his experiment. This is an example of which type of nonprobability sampling?

Purposive

- A wallboard manufacturer is concerned with meeting industry quality standards for its product. Inspecting each sheet produced would necessitate many inspectors and add about 50% more to the cost of the wallboard. Sampling per shift would only increase the cost by 3 to 4 percent and yet be capable of detecting any sub-quality wallboard. Which type of probability sampling would you recommend the company to use?

Stratified

- What is survey research?

A type of research in which we communicate with a sample of individuals in order to generalize on the characteristics of the population from which they were drawn.

- Comment on the appropriateness of the question, Have you ever broken the law and endangered the lives of others by speeding and tailgating?

This question is biased and will most likely lead to many false negative answers.

- What is data warehouse?

Data warehouse is a large collection of data from inside and outside the company, put together for the express purpose of using sophisticated analytical techniques to uncover patterns and discover interrelationships within the data.

- What is data mining?

Data mining is a procedure by which sophisticated analytical techniques are applied to uncover patterns and discover interrelationships within the data.

- How can data mining be useful to a business or other organization? What are some of the analytical tools it employs?

Data mining is analogous to physically sifting through great quantities of ore in the quest for gold. It utilizes information and techniques such as descriptive statistics, cross-tabulations, regression, and correlation, but also includes many advanced methods such as factor analysis, cluster analysis, discriminant analysis, and multidimensional scaling, for the purpose of uncovering patterns and discovering interrelationships within the data.

- Briefly, what kind of information does the U.S. Department of Commerce provide in its
*Census of Housing*?

This report is published every 10 years and presents voluminous data on such variables as home ownership or rental, type of structure, number of residents, market value, heating source, major appliance, and much more.

- Briefly, what kind of information does the U.S. Department of Commerce provide in its
*Census of Population*?

The *Census of Population *is the research for which the Bureau of the Census is probably best known. It is conducted every 10 years and provides detailed information on the U.S. population, including age, education, employment, gender, and a broad range of other demographic characteristics.

- What is the
*Encyclopedia of Associations*, and how can it be useful to the business researcher?

The *Encyclopedia of Associations *identifies industry-related trade associations that collect and disseminate data that are related to their industry. This publication is also an excellent source for identifying private organizations having special interests that may be related to the business researchers information needs.

- What is a simple random sample?

In a simple random sample, every person or element in the population has an equal chance of being included in the sample.

- Distinguish between probability and nonprobability sampling.

With probability sampling, each person or element in the population has a known (or calculable) chance of being included in the sample.

- A politician wants to estimate the mean age of registered voters in her district. Unfortunately, she does not have a complete list of households. Describe a sampling plan that would be suitable for her purposes.

The politician may use cluster sampling by letting each county in the district represents a cluster.

- The dean of a college of arts and sciences with six departments wants to estimate the student-hours lost per month due to illness of professors. Describe a sampling plan that would be suitable for estimating the college-wide loss and for comparing departments.

The dean can select stratified random samples where the strata are the six departments. Simple random sampling can be conducted in each department.

- What are the three major sources of error in survey research?

Sampling error, response error, and nonresponse error

- Briefly, what kinds of validity must be considered in evaluating experiments?

Internal validity refers to whether the independent variable really made the difference in the measurements obtained. External validity asks whether the results of the experiment can be generalized to other people or settings.

**Chapter 10: Hypothesis Tests Involving a Sample Mean or Proportion**

*Student: ___________________________________________________________________________*

- True or False

A Type I error is the probability of failing to reject a false null hypothesis.

True False

- True or False

A Type II error is the probability of rejecting a true null hypothesis.

True False

- True or False

The probability of Type I error is referred to as the significance level of the test.

True False

- True or False

A directional claim or assertion states that a population parameter is greater than (>), at least,(), no more than(), or less than (<), some quantity.

True False

- True or False

A non-directional claim or assertion states that a population parameter is equal to some quantity.

True False

- True or False

Directional assertions lead to what is called a two-tail test.

True False

- True or False

A non-directional assertion involves what are called one-tail tests.

True False

- True or False

For a two-tail hypothesis test, the level of significance is the sum of both tail areas.

True False

- True or False

In conducting a hypothesis test, we can choose any significance level we desire. In practice, however, levels of 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01 tend to be most common.

True False

- True or False

Failure to reject a null hypothesis constitutes proof that it is true.

True False

- True or False

The rejection and non-rejection regions can be stated as a decision rule specifying the conclusion to be reached for a given outcome of the test.

True False

- True or

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