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Chapter 5: Computer Systems Organization




  1. The branch of computer science that studies computers in terms of their major functional units and how they work is known as computer organization.



  1. Both RAM and ROM are memory chips into which information has been prerecorded during manufacture.



  1. Memory locations are stored in row major order.



  1. As computers become faster, memory access speeds are keeping pace.



  1. The principle of locality states that when the computer uses something, it will probably use it again very soon.



  1. In a two-level memory hierarchy, when the computer needs a piece of information, it looks in RAM first, then cache memory.



  1. Registers can be accessed much more quickly than random access memory.



  1. The instructions that can be decoded and executed by the control unit of a computer are represented in machine language.



  1. The set of all operations that can be executed by a processor is called its I/O set.



  1. The Von Neumann bottleneck is the inability of the sequential one-instruction-at-a-time computer Von Neumann model to handle todays large-scale problems.





  1. The Memory Data Register contains the address of the cell being fetched or stored. _________________________



  1. Examples of volatile storage are mass storage devices such as disks and tapes. _________________________



  1. The sectors of a disk are placed in concentric circles called cells. _________________________



  1. The normal mode of operation of a Von Neumann machine is sequential. _________________________




  1. MIMD parallelism is a scalable architecture. _________________________





  1. Computer manufacturers use a standard cell size of eight ____________________.



  1. In a direct access storage device, every unit of information has a unique ____________________.



  1. The three parts of the ALU together are known as the ____________________.




  1. Machines that use the simplified approach to designing instruction sets are known as ____________________ machines.



  1. The first computer to achieve a speed of 1 million floating-point operations per second, 1 ____________________, was the Control Data 6600 in the mid-1960s.





  1. To understand how computers process information, we must study computers as collections of ____ that perform tasks such as information processing, information storage, computation, and data transfer functional units.
a. data types c. hardware
b. functional units d. memory units




  1. The acronym ____ is frequently used to refer to the memory unit of a computer.
a. ROM c. MDR
b. CD d. RAM




  1. There are ____ bytes in a gigabyte.
a. 210 c. 230
b. 220 d. 2100




  1. In a ____, the original contents of the memory cell are unchanged.
a. nondestructive fetch c. random access memory
b. destructive store d. volatile storage




  1. To solve the difficulty of scaling memory organization, memories are physically organized into a ____-dimensional organization.
a. one c. three
b. two d. multi




  1. A cache is typically ____ times faster than RAM but much smaller.
a. 5 to 10 c. 20 to 30
b. 15 to 20 d. 25 to 30




  1. The ____ are the devices that allow a computer system to communicate and interact with the outside world as well as store information.
a. registers c. control units
b. arithmetic/logic units d. input/output units




  1. The ____ of a disk is the time needed to position the read/write head over the correct track.
a. latency c. transfer speed
b. frequency d. seek time




  1. The ____ of a disk is the time for the beginning of the desired sector to rotate under the read/write head.
a. latency c. frequency
b. transfer time d. seek time



  1. A(n) ____ handles the details of input/output and compensates for any speed differences between I/O devices and other parts of the computer.
a. cache c. decoder circuit
b. I/O register d. I/O controller





  1. To alert the computer that an input/output operation is done, a(n) ____ is transmitted to the processor.
a. condition code c. broadcast
b. interrupt signal d. execution instruction




  1. A(n) ____ is a storage cell that holds the operands of an arithmetic operation and that, when the operation is complete, holds its result.
a. decoder c. I/O controller
b. register d. cache




  1. If a computer has a maximum of 2N memory cells, then each address field in a machine language instruction must be ____ bits wide to enable us to address every cell.
a. N c. N2
b. 2N d. 2N




  1. ____ machines are designed to directly provide a wide range of powerful features so that finished programs for these processors are shorter.




  1. The ____ operation in Von Neumann machines uses a special set of bits known as condition codes.
a. compare c. control
b. addition d. looping




  1. The ____ machine language instructions alter the normal sequential flow of control.
a. data transfer c. branch
b. arithmetic d. compare




  1. It is the task of the ____ to fetch and execute instructions.
a. arithmetic/logic unit (ALU) c. memory
b. I/O controllers d. control unit




  1. The ____ holds the address of the next instruction to be executed.
a. status register c. condition register
b. program counter d. instruction register



  1. During the ____ phase, the control unit circuitry generates the necessary sequence of control signals and data transfer signals to the other units of the computer to carry out the instruction.
a. fetch c. store
b. execution d. decode




  1. In the SIMD parallel processing model, the control unit ____ instructions to every ALU.
a. broadcasts c. stores
b. decodes d. encodes






  1. What are the four major subsystems of the Von Neumann architecture?




  1. Draw an analogy between cache memory and a home refrigerator.




  1. What is the most fundamental characteristic of the Von Neumann architecture?




  1. Other than clock speed, what is an accurate measure of machine speed?




  1. What is cluster computing?





  1. What is random access memory, and what are its three characteristics?




  1. When a computer needs a piece of information, does it immediately perform the memory fetch operation? If not, what does it do?




  1. Explain what a register is and how it differs from random access memory cells.




  1. Explain at length what scalability means.




  1. Describe at length what quantum computing is.






Chapter 17: Making Decisions about Computers, Information, and Society




  1. Making critical decisions about computing technology is unavoidable.



  1. The digital representation of audio information can produce massive and unwieldy data files, which can be reduced by using a compression algorithm such as FTP.



  1. The MP3 protocol allows one level of compression.



  1. By most accounts, the majority of MP3 music that Napster users shared was copyrighted, and most of the copyright holders objected to the copying of their music without royalty payments.



  1. Napster lost the case accusing it of copyright infringement but won subsequent appeals.



  1. Most ethicists agree that since there are many more music publishers than listeners, MP3 copying is okay.



  1. MP3 file copying has encouraged CD buying as a long term effect.



  1. All music artists are naturally opposed to MP3 copying.



  1. An ethical dialectic usually has a clean stopping point.



  1. Some people view hackers as social gadflies, people who raise important, but irritating, questions about society.





  1. A compression ratio of 12 to 1 has become popular, with the resulting sound quality almost comparable to a music CD that has not been compressed. _________________________



  1. In 1997, Tomislav Uzelac, a software developer at Advanced Multimedia Products, created what is regarded as the first commercially viable WMF playback program. _________________________



  1. The more you compress music data, the more sound quality you gain. _________________________


  1. Using the utilitarians criterion requires subjective judgments. _________________________



  1. The most well-known consequentialists are the neo-Luddites. _________________________





  1. In ____, the Fraunhofer Institute patented MP3 in Germany, and a few years later MP3 became an international standard.
a. 1989 c. 2000
b. 1999 d. 2002




  1. The Napster software set up whats called ____ file sharing.
a. freeware c. peer-to-peer
b. MP3 d. client-server




  1. Apples iTunes music store accounts for more than ____ of music sales in the United States.
a. 10% c. 25%
b. 15% d. 66%




  1. ____ answer the question Good for whom? with a hearty, Good for everyone!.
a. Deontologists c. Utilitarians
b. Consequentialists d. Intelligent agents




  1. What would a careful utilitarian declare an act if HAPPINESS_AFTER = HAPPINESS_BEFORE?
a. good c. ethically neutral
b. evil d. none of the above




  1. A ____ focuses on the consequences of an act to determine if the act is good or bad.
a. consequentialist c. PGP
b. universalist d. dialectic



  1. Ethicists depend on what is called a(n) ____ to try to make better and better ethical decisions.
a. PGP c. MP3
b. dialectic d. deontology




  1. In a(n) ____, we move back and forth between different viewpoints, criticizing each and trying to learn from each.
a. encryption scheme c. utilitarian scheme
b. dialectic d. PGP




  1. The new way of thinking about making and sharing music will deemphasize the need for large ____ companies.
a. record c. software
b. music d. publishing




  1. ____ calls can be made from any place that the user can get an Internet connection.
a. FTP c. Linux
b. VoIP d. MP3




  1. Social ____ are people who raise important, but irritating, questions about society.
a. gadflies c. hackers
b. gadabouts d. dialectics




  1. A(n) ____ is someone who breaks into computer systems, launches Internet worms and viruses, or perpetrates other dubious computer-related vandalism.
a. encryption c. utilitarian
b. PGP d. hacker




  1. The philosopher ____ was known to say never treat a fellow human merely as a means to an end.
a. Descartes c. Aristotle
b. Turing d. Kant





  1. The word ____ is from the Greek and means the study of duty.
a. encryption c. deontology
b. hacker d. modus ponens




  1. A ____ focus more on the duties of the person acting and the way the act impinges on the rights of others.
a. utilitarian c. hacker
b. consequentialist d. deontologist




  1. Perhaps the most famous deontologist was the German philosopher Immanuel Kant, who was born in the ____ century.
a. sixteenth c. eighteenth
b. seventeenth d. nineteenth




  1. Kant came up with ____ that characterized the duties we humans have to each other.
a. ten laws c. categorical imperatives
b. a mathematical formulation d. an algorithm




  1. The hacker ethic makes the claim that ____.
a. all hacking is positive hacking
b. information sharing is a powerful positive good
c. hackers are ethically ok as long as they have fun
d. hacking is acceptable as long as it is a solitary activity





  1. The first step in the paramedic method is to ____.
a. ask what is at stake c. identify duties and responsibilities
b. identify stakeholders d. think of analogies




  1. The final step of the paramedic method is to ____.
a. make a decision or loop again c. identify what is at stake
b. identify stakeholders d. think of analogies






  1. A fundamental question in ____________________ is what criteria to use when measuring the rightness or wrongness of a particular act.



  1. Ideally, in a(n) ____________________, the ultimate goal is for both sides to win by moving closer to the truth from two different perspectives.



  1. The opponents to ____________________ copying hold that in the long run there may be far less music available for copying because artists and publishers will have far less incentive to create and disseminate music.



  1. The power of ____________________ is that it can transfer our understandings and intuitions about something well known to a situation or entity that is less well known.



  1. One of the challenges when using a(n) ____________________ argument in a dialectic about hacking is that it is sometimes difficult to predict consequences with any accuracy.





  1. What are two challenges associated with using a utilitarian argument in a dialectic about hacking?



  1. What is Kants second categorical imperative?




  1. Define cyberbullying.




  1. What is impersonation, in the context of cyberbullying?




  1. Explain what sexting is.






  1. Using the VoIP case from this chapter, walk through the interested parties and how the establishment of lawful intercepts affects the happiness of these parties.




  1. Explain what WikiLeaks is, how it operates, and what its goal is.




  1. What are two of these major leaks in which WikiLeaks has been involved?




  1. What is Anonymous? What are its best-known actions?




  1. What are the components of the hacker ethic described in the text?








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