Influence Science and Practice 5th Edition Test Bank Cialdini

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Influence Science and Practice 5th Edition Test Bank Cialdini

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INSTRUCTORS MANUAL AND TEST BANK
Chapter One Weapons of Influence
Teaching the Weapons of Influence:
Chapter one of Influence introduces the concept of controlled versus automatic responding (i.e., click, whirr). I have found it useful to discuss explicitly the dual-process models that underlie this distinctionPetty and Cacioppos (1986) Elaboration Likelihood Model and Chaikens (1987) Heuristic/Systematic Model (see Eagly & Chaiken, 1993, Epley & Gilovich, 2006, and Petty & Wegener, 1999, for more recent treatments of these models). One way to structure the material is as follows:
Social psychologists have suggested that there are two different ways we think about persuasive messages. Sometimes we think hard about a message. We concentrate, and if were persuaded, its by the logical strength of the arguments. Other times we dont think much at all. Instead were persuaded by cues in the message or the situation.
For example, if I see a New York Times article on the upcoming presidential race, and its a subject I care about, Ill sit down and read the article carefully. If the journalist presents good evidence and arguments, I may change my attitudes.

Systematic processing:
Occurs when we think deeply about a message
When processing systematically, we are persuaded by the strength of the arguments
Systematic processing requires the motivation and the ability to think deeply about the message

Put up this slide. Note: I have found it useful to provide students with 6-per-page handouts of the overheads at the beginning of each class period. This tends to diminish mindless note taking and increase class participation. This is called systematic processingwhen we think deeply about a message, when were persuaded by the strength of the arguments. It happens when we have the motivation and ability to think deeply about a persuasive message.
What happens if we dont have the motivation or ability to think deeply about a persuasive message? When I went to my first faculty meeting last semester, a proposal was brought up having to do with a fairly esoteric aspect of the faculty year-end reviews. I didnt really know what they were talking about, but after a somewhat heated argument, a vote was called.
Most everyone voted against the proposal. What do you think I did? As with most questions I ask in class, I wait for students to answer. I looked at what everyone else was doing and did the same. Why did I do this?
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 1
INFLUENCE: SCIENCE AND PRACTICE, 5E
Heuristic processing:
Occurs when we dont think deeply
about a message
When processing heuristically, we are
persuaded by cues in the message or
situation
Heuristic processing often happens
automatically when we lack the motivation or ability to process deeply
This is the other type of persuasion: heuristic processingwhen we dont think deeply about a message, when were persuaded by cues in the message or situationoften automatically. It happens when we lack the motivation or ability to process deeply.
With heuristic processing, we use shortcuts to come to a decision. Why dont we think deeply about everything? Its hard! Its unpleasant! Some researchers did a study of the electrical patterns of the brain while people performed various activities. The activity with the greatest similarity to deep thought was when they had people stick their hand in a bucket of ice water.
We cant think deeply about everything. What sort of activities would be impossible with deep thought? Driving. Sports
This distinction between the times we process systematically and the times we process heuristically forms one of the Dual Process Models of persuasion.
I then hand out a sheet of questions and have students divide into groups of 3-4 to brainstorm answers. I visit each group to guide and encourage, and when the groups are finished, we discuss the answers as a class. Note: each student receives an 8 12 x 11 version of the following sheet with space left after each question.
Dual-process models of persuasion
Systematic vs. heuristic processing (Chaiken, 1987)
Central vs. peripheral processing (Petty & Cacioppo, 1986)
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 2
INSTRUCTORS MANUAL AND TEST BANK
Systematic vs. heuristic processing
Describe three heuristics/shortcuts we use to help us make decisions:
1) 2) 3)
What is one situation in which we should try to process systematically rather than using heuristics?
What is one situation in which using heuristics might get us into trouble?
I then discuss what may be the most pure example of a heuristic/automatic response demonstrated in social influence research: Langer, Blank, & Chanowitz (1978). Note: here and in subsequent chapters, when I make reference to research discussed in Influence, I include the slide I use, but to avoid redundancy with the text itself, I do not elaborate on the specifics of the study.
I present Langer, Blank, & Chanowitz (1978) using two slides, and I write in 93% on the second.
Langer, Blank, & Chanowitz (1978)
Excuse me, I have five pages. May I use the Xerox machine because Im in a rush?
Excuse me, I have five pages. May I use the Xerox machine?
94%
60%
Langer, Blank, & Chanowitz (1978)
Excuse me, I have five pages. May I use the Xerox machine because Im in a rush?
Excuse me, I have five pages. May I use the Xerox machine?
94%
60%
Excuse me, I have five pages. May I use the Xerox machine because I have to
make some copies
This should give us an intro to the systematic/heuristic model of persuasion. Influence is almost entirely about the heuristic side (which I think is the more interesting).
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 3
INFLUENCE: SCIENCE AND PRACTICE, 5E
Heuristics
Reciprocation
Commitment and Consistency
Social Proof
Liking
Authority
Scarcity
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 4
Testing the Weapons of Influence:
1.1 Ethologists have identified in some species certain sequences of behavior called fixed action patterns. Which of the following is false about fixed action patterns?
(a) Social scientists have found nothing like them in human behavior.
(b) The behaviors that comprise them appear to occur in a regular, automatic fashion. (c) They are stimulated primarily by a trigger feature of a situation rather than that situation as a whole.
(d) Most of the time, fixed action patterns produce behavior that is appropriate to the situation.
ANSWER: A
1.2 In a study by Langer, Blank, and Chanowitz (1978) a requester asked subjects to allow him to cut in front of them in line to make 5 xerox copies. One group of subject received no reason for the request. A second group received a good reason, because Im in a rush. A third group received a trivial (placibic) reason, because I have to make some copies. What happened?
(a) Only the group getting the good reason complied more than the group getting no reason. (b) Only the group getting the trivial reason complied more than the group getting no reason.
(c) Both of the groups getting a reason of either sort complied more than the group getting no reason.
(d) All of the groups complied about equally.
ANSWER: C
1.3 In Influence, it was stated that mechanical adherence to certain rules, like Expensive = good:
(a) represents a shortcut path through the informational density of modern life. (b) is often the most efficient method of responding.
(c) makes us vulnerable to exploitation of others.
(d) all of the above.
(e) only a and b. ANSWER: D
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 5
INSTRUCTORS MANUAL AND TEST BANK

INFLUENCE: SCIENCE AND PRACTICE, 5E
1.4 As the environment becomes more complex, people are more likely to process the environment
(a) heuristically
(b) systematically
(c) centrally
(d) None of the above.
ANSWER: A
1.5 Weapons of influence exploit
(a) judgmental heuristics
(b) automaticity
(c) decision rules that normally lead to good decisions (d) All of the above.
ANSWER: D
1.6 What is the contrast principle of perception?
(a) That some stimuli are seen better against light than dark backgrounds.
(b) That presenting two items in succession that differ substantially from one another in some way will make the second seem even more different from the first than it is.
(c) That presenting two items in succession that are quite similar to one another will make the second seem even more similar to the first than it is.
(d) None of the above.
ANSWER: B
1.7 If you were a clerk in a fashionable mens clothing store and a man came in to purchase a suit and a sweater, which should you sell him first to get him to spend the most total money, according to the contrast principle?
(a) Sell him the suit first.
(b) Sell him the sweater first.
(c) It doesnt matter which one is shown first.
(d) Sell him a belt first, then the sweater, then the suit.
ANSWER: A
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 6
1.8 A marketer wishing to increase the perceived quality of a product should
(a) lower the price of the product.
(b) raise the price of the product.
(c) either a or b
(d) neither a nor b changing the price of the product will not affect its perceived quality
ANSWER: B
1.9 Weapons of influence tend to be used in a way that
(a) is subtle and leaves the exploiter looking blameless.
(b) exploits certain tendencies that normally lead people to irrational behavior. (c) encourages people to think more carefully about a decision or situation. (d) All of the above.
ANSWER: A
1.10 In a 1981 study by Petty, Cacioppo, and Goldman, students listened to a speech that supported the idea that seniors should have to pass a comprehensive exam before graduating. Some students (group A) were told that comprehensive exams might be implemented at their school the following year. Others (group B) were told that the exams wouldnt be implemented until well after they had graduated. Based on the theories of controlled and automatic responding, what would we expect each group of students to focus on?
(a) Group A would be persuaded primarily by the expertise of the speaker, while group B would be persuaded primarily by the quality of the speakers arguments.
(b) Group A would be persuaded primarily by the quality of the speakers arguments, while group B would be persuaded primarily by the expertise of the speaker.
(c) Both groups A and B would be persuaded primarily by the expertise of the speaker. (d) Both groups A and B would be persuaded primarily by the quality of the speakers arguments.
ANSWER: B
1.11 We are more likely to use automatic responding when
(a) the issue is important to us.
(b) we have lots of time to make a decision. (c) we are highly emotionally aroused.
(d) all of the above.
ANSWER: C
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 7
INSTRUCTORS MANUAL AND TEST BANK
INFLUENCE: SCIENCE AND PRACTICE, 5E
1.12 Under which condition(s) will people consider an argument carefully in a controlled, systematic fashion?
(a) They are able to do so.
(b) They desire to do so.
(c) Either A or B is sufficient. (d) Both A and B are necessary.
ANSWER: D
1.13 Which of the following will lead someone to value an item more?
(a) Presenting the item soon after another item of a much lesser value. (b) Charging more for the item.
(c) Presenting information that the item is scarce.
(d) All of the above
ANSWER: D COMPREHENSIVE
1.14 Which of the following is not a judgmental heuristic:
(a) If the arguments are this strong, I should be persuaded.
(b) If an expert said so, it must be true.
(c) If it is rare, it must be valuable.
(d) If all those people are doing it, its probably the right thing to do. (e) None of the above. They are all judgmental heuristics.
ANSWER: A COMPREHENSIVE
1.15 What do the door-in-the-face technique (a.k.a. the rejection-then-retreat technique) and the foot-in-the-door technique have in common?
(a) They both employ the principle of reciprocity.
(b) They both operate through automatic, shortcut responding. (c) They both work only for door-to-door salespeople.
(d) Both a and b
ANSWER: B COMPREHENSIVE
Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon. 8

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