Integrated Principles of Zoology 16th Edition Hickman-Keen-Larson-Roberts-Test Bank

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Integrated Principles of Zoology 16th Edition Hickman-Keen-Larson-Roberts-Test Bank

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Integrated Principles of Zoology 16th Edition Hickman-Keen-Larson-Roberts-Test Bank

Chapter 02

The Origin and Chemistry of Life

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Spontaneous generation was first proposed as
    A.a concept to explain the formation of the first living cells on earth.
    B. a concept to explain the evolution of simple chemicals into complex macromolecules.
    C. an explanation for the appearance of maggots and mice from rotting material, fish from leaves that fall into water, etc.
    D. an explanation by Pasteur accounting for the germination of spores in broth.

 

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Section: Spontaneous Generation of Life?
Topic: Spontaneous Generation of Life?

  1. Pasteurs work with spontaneous generation showed that
    A. life could not have evolved from non-living chemistry on the early earth.
    B.  mice came from mother mice and maggots from mother flies.
    C.  simple chemicals could become complex organic macromolecules without any living cell involved.
    D.  broth did not ferment spontaneously but required contamination with organisms.

 

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Section: Spontaneous Generation of Life?
Topic: Spontaneous Generation of Life?


 

  1. The hypothesis that simple chemicals may have naturally become complex macromolecules by natural physical forces was first proposed by
    A. Stanley Miller.
    B.  Graham CairnsSmith.
    C.  Alexander Oparin and J.B.S. Haldane.
    D.  Sidney Fox.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Spontaneous Generation of Life?
Topic: Spontaneous Generation of Life?

  1. A solution that has a pH of 5 has
    A. a concentration of H+ 20 times higher than water.
    B.  a concentration of H+ 100 times higher than water.
    C.  a concentration of H+ the same as water.
    D.  a concentration of H+ 20 times lower than water.
    E.  a concentration of H+ 100 times lower than water.

 

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Section: Water and Life
Topic: Water and Life

  1. A dissolved substance that has the ability to either remove or add H+ and OH ions to resist pH changes is
    A. a solution.
    B.  pure water.
    C.  a buffer.
    D.  a solvent.

 

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Section: Water and Life
Topic: Water and Life


 

  1. Most organic molecules are associated with living organisms. Which of the following statements is NOT related to the general distinctions between these types of molecules?
    A. Carbon dioxide (CO2) lacks hydrogen atoms found in most organic molecules and therefore is usually not considered to be organic.
    B.  Formaldehyde (CH2O) is a small molecule compared to most organic molecules but does have carbon and hydrogen covalently bonded together and therefore is considered to be organic.
    C.  Salt (Na+Cl ) is not an organic molecule but is important to the life of many organisms.
    D.  Organic carbon atoms are more diverse than inorganic carbon molecules that form the molecular structure of soot or a diamond from pure carbon.
    E.  All of the choices are correct.

 

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Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Perhaps a better description of an organic compound is that an organic compound is any substance
    A. derived from living matter.
    B.  containing carbon.
    C.  found within a cell.
    D.  consumed by animals.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. Carbohydrates are categorized into
    A. organic and inorganic carbohydrates.
    B.  saturated and unsaturated carbohydrates.
    C.  monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
    D.  primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary carbohydrates.
    E.  monomer and polymer carbohydrates.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Which of the following is a structural carbohydrate molecule?
    A. Sucrose
    B.  Glycogen
    C.  Cellulose
    D.  Glucose

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Which of the carbohydrates given below is a major component of the cuticle of arthropods (e.g., insects, crayfish, etc.)?
    A. Starch
    B.  Chitin
    C.  Cellulose
    D.  Glycogen

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. Which of the following carbohydrates is used in animal muscle and liver cells for energy storage?
    A. Starch
    B.  Chitin
    C.  Cellulose
    D.  Glycogen

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Which of the following is the most abundant carbohydrate in the world?
    A. Cellulose
    B.  Glycogen
    C.  Fructose
    D.  Glucose

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Polysaccharide are polymers made up of which kind of monomers?
    A.Simple sugars
    B. Amino acids
    C. Nucleotides
    D. Alternating sugar and phosphate groups
    E. Fatty acids and glycerol

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. The three principal groups of lipids are neutral fats, phospholipids, and
    A. glycogen.
    B.  steroids.
    C.  amino acids.
    D.  fatty acids.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Neutral fats are
    A. stored as glycogen.
    B.  not stored.
    C.  made of fatty acids and glycerol.
    D.  made of chains of fatty acids linked together by water molecules.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Lipids are polymers made of which monomers?
    A.Glucose or modified glucose molecules
    B. Amino acids
    C. Alternating sugar and phosphate groups
    D. Fatty acids and glycerol

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. A dehydration synthesis reaction is also
    A. a condensation reaction.
    B.  a hydrolysis reaction.
    C.  an isomeric reaction.
    D.  a reaction that does not require enzymes.

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Which of the lipid groups below is structurally unlike the others?
    A.Steroids
    B. Neutral fats
    C. Triglycerides
    D. Phospholipids

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Which of the following lipids forms a bilayer between two fluid regions, such as in the plasma membrane of a cell?
    A.Steroids
    B. Waxes
    C. Phospholipids
    D. Lipoproteins

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. Which of the following is NOT a steroid?
    A.Vitamin D
    B. Adrenocortical hormones
    C. Sex hormones
    D. Cholesterol
    E. All of the choices are steroids

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Cholesterol belongs to which of the following groups?
    A.Steroids
    B. Neutral fats
    C. Carbohydrates
    D. Phospholipids

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. If an animal needs to store high-energy compounds for long-term use with the least amount of extra body weight, which would be the best molecule for storage?
    A.Fructose and glucose in the form of honey
    B. High-calorie fat molecules
    C. Starch
    D. Glycogen with extensive side branches of glucose

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. A protein is a polymer made up of which kind of monomers?
    A.Glucose or modified glucose molecules
    B. Amino acids
    C. Nucleotides
    D. Fatty acids and glycerol

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. A peptide bond is found in which type of biological molecule?
    A.Carbohydrate
    B. Lipid
    C. Protein
    D. Simple sugar

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. A chain consisting of a number of amino acids is a
    A. quaternary structure.
    B.  dipeptide.
    C.  polypeptide.
    D.  None of the choices are correct.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. In a protein, the folding of a polypeptide into a three-dimensional structure, usually stabilized by covalent bonds between the side groups of the amino acids, is the
    A. primary structure.
    B.  secondary structure.
    C.  tertiary structure.
    D.  quaternary structure.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. The alpha helix is found at which level of protein organization?
    A.Primary structure
    B. Secondary structure
    C. Tertiary structure
    D. Quaternary structure

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. The splitting of one compound into two by the addition of water is called
    A. covalent.
    B.  ionic formation.
    C.  hydrolysis.
    D.  condensation.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. You eat eggs for breakfast and return in the evening to dirty dishes with dried on yellow streaks. After soaking awhile, the egg yolk protein molecules easily wash off. What happened?
    A.Heating denatured the egg protein molecules, hydrolysis reactions then formed bonds in the dried egg yolk, and soaking in water eventually resulted in condensation reactions where water broke these bonds
    B. Heating denatured the egg protein molecules, unorganized condensation reactions formed bonds in the drying egg, and soaking in water resulted in hydrolysis reactions where water broke these bonds
    C. Egg monomers were fused to become one polymer, which was easily dissolved by water back into monomers
    D. Addition of water converted organic molecules into inorganic molecules

 

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Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. At the molecular level, a cells ability to vary in its operational tolerance to temperature, etc., is most closely related to
    A. enzyme activity and protein denaturation.
    B.  ATP efficiency.
    C.  replication of nucleic acids.
    D.  extent of saturation of fatty acids.

 

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Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. DNA and RNA are polymers composed of repeated units called
    A. nucleotides.
    B.  bases.
    C.  sugars.
    D.  None of the choices are correct.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. A nucleic acid is a polymer made up of which kind of monomers?
    A.Amino acids
    B. Nucleotides
    C. Glucose or modified glucose molecules
    D. Alternating sugar and phosphate groups

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Nucleic acids are important because they
    A. act as buffers.
    B.  are the basic units of neutral fats.
    C.  direct the synthesis of proteins.
    D.  None of the choices are correct.

 

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Blooms Level: 2. Understand
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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. Which of these statements is true about DNA?
    A.It is the genetic material of the cell
    B. It forms a protein
    C. It is pure amino acid
    D. It contains no sugar

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Fish sperm is mostly made of male DNA. A chemical test would find high amounts of
    A. nitrogenous bases, sugar, and phosphate groups.
    B.  phospholipids and steroids.
    C.  amino acids and unsaturated fats.
    D.  triglycerides and ATP.
    E.  globular proteins and stored fats.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Prions are infectious
    A. carbohydrates.
    B.  proteins.
    C.  lipids.
    D.  Prions are not actually infectious.

 

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Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. Which of the following forms of energy is NOT one of those thought to have been involved in the production of large organic molecules in the primitive reducing atmosphere?
    A.Radioactivity
    B. Electrical energy
    C. Radiation from the sun
    D. Sound

 

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Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. The term reducing atmosphere for the early earth means that the atmosphere
    A. was much thinner around the surface of the earth than now.
    B.  contained only two or three kinds of gases.
    C.  contained little or no free oxygen.
    D.  contained little or no free nitrogen.

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. Who first performed an experiment that proved that amino acids could be produced in the laboratory from a reducing atmosphere and electrical sparks?
    A.Stanley Miller and Harold Urey
    B. Graham CairnsSmith
    C. Thomas Cech
    D. Alexander Oparin and J.B.S. Haldane

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution


 

  1. Which of the following is a correct statement about oxidation reduction reactions?
    A.Reduction is the loss of electrons
    B. Reduction is the loss of hydrogen atoms
    C. Oxidation is the loss of electrons or hydrogen atoms
    D. Reduction and oxidation sometimes occur together, but not always

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. Which of the following kinds of molecules is thought to have been absent from the primitive reducing atmosphere?
    A.Water vapor (H2O)
    B. Carbon dioxide (CO2)
    C. Oxygen (O2)
    D. Nitrogen (N2)

 

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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. An alternative environment to the hot dilute soup and clay hypothesis that offers a possible source of energy and molecules for the origin of life is/are the
    A. frozen Antarctic ice sheets.
    B.  surface of Mars.
    C.  hydrothermal vents in ocean bottoms.
    D.  Earth mantle and core.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution


 

  1. Water has which of the following important characteristics that explain its key role in living systems?
    A.High specific heat capacity
    B. High surface tension
    C. Is an excellent solvent
    D. All of the choices are correct

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Water and Life
Topic: Water and Life

  1. A molecule of RNA that has enzymatic or catalytic properties is called a _______________.
    A. deoxyribose
    B.  nucleotide
    C.  ribonucleic acid
    D.  ribozyme

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. The fact that nucleic acids are very complicated molecules suggests that
    A. the RNA-first hypothesis is impossible.
    B.  the protein-first hypothesis is therefore the only plausible hypothesis.
    C.  no natural system could ever generate them.
    D.  None of the choices are correct.

 

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Blooms Level: 3. Apply
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Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems


 

  1. The ancestral protocells
    A. may have contained RNA or DNA as their genetic material.
    B.  may have evolved before the development of a true cell.
    C.  may have had a lipid and protein membrane surrounding them, forming a proteinoid microsphere.
    D.  may have contained a biochemical pathway for energy metabolism.
    E.  All of the choices are correct.

 

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Blooms Level: 5. Evaluate
Gradable: automatic
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. Biological evolution differs from chemical evolution in that biological evolution would have been possible only after the development of
    A. true cells capable of replication.
    B.  nucleic acids.
    C.  enzymes.
    D.  a metabolic pathway.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Chemical Evolution
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Precambrian Life

  1. Heating dry mixtures of amino acids and then mixing them with water forms small
    A. strands of DNA.
    B.  living cells.
    C.  proteinoid microspheres.
    D.  plasma membranes.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution


 

  1. If the hypothesis that protocells were based on an RNA world is correct, what would be necessary to shift to a DNA world?
    A.An enzyme or reaction capable of removing one oxygen from ribose in nucleotides
    B. Enzymes for reverse transcription of RNA into DNA
    C. New enzymes to replicate the DNA
    D. New enzymes for transcribing DNA back to RNA
    E. All are necessary to switch to a DNA world.

 

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  1. Scientists once assumed that the earliest protocells would have been autotrophs. This concept appears to be
    A. correct, since heterotrophs would depend upon eating autotrophs.
    B.  correct, since glycolysis and fermentation only occur after oxygen is present from photosynthesis.
    C.  incorrect, since the primordial soup likely contained many preformed food molecules suitable for heterotrophic metabolism.
    D.  incorrect, since glycolysis and fermentation require complex enzymes for catalytic reactions.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. Prokaryotic cells are represented by fossils that are dated back as far as _____ billion years ago.
    A. 1.5.
    B.  2.8.
    C.  3.8.
    D.  4.8.

 

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Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems


 

  1. The Precambrian-Cambrian boundary is
    A.A point that separates reduction environments from oxidation environments
    B. The separation point between prokaryotes and eukaryotes
    C. A point of dramatically increased fossilization, although it is likely that many animal groups existed before this time
    D. The shift-over from plants to animal life

 

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Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

  1. The first eukaryotic cells probably arose about _____ billion years ago.
    A.1.5
    B. 2.5
    C. 3.5
    D. 4.5

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

  1. Which pairing of occurrence and date is correct?
    A.Beginning of Cambrian 600 million years ago
    B. Origin of life 3.8 billion years ago
    C. Origin of eukaryotic cells 1.5 billion years ago
    D. All the choices are correct

 

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Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life


 

  1. Our current understanding of the origin of eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria is that they
    A. were copies of a cell nucleus that failed to be separated by cytokinesis.
    B.  are prokaryotes that were taken into a cell and now live there symbiotically.
    C.  are variations of the plasma membrane.
    D.  are new forms of life that arose inside other cells.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. The term ____________ refers broadly to compounds that contain carbon.
    organic

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. The most important of the energy-storing carbohydrate monomers is the molecule _______________.
    glucose

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. The molecule ___________ is an important form for storing sugar in animals and is found mainly in the liver and muscle cells of animals.
    glycogen

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. A(n) _______________ fatty acid has two or more carbon atoms joined by double bonds.
    unsaturated

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. Amino acids are linked together to form proteins by __________ bonds.
    peptide

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. The alpha-helix is an example of the _______ structure of a protein.
    secondary

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems

  1. When hemoglobin takes up or releases oxygen, it undergoes a change in its _________ structure.
    quaternary

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems
Topic: Organic Molecular Structure of Living Systems


 

  1. Submarine hot springs where seawater seeps through cracks in the bottom and comes close to the hot magma are called __________ ___________.
    hydrothermal vents

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. Most biological polymerizations are ___________ dehydration reactions in which monomers are linked together by removal of water.
    condensation

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. Sidney Fox studied the synthesis of polypeptides into polymers which in water formed small spherical bodies called ____________ _____________.
    proteinoid microspheres

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. A critical answer to the chicken-or-the-egg problem formed by the nucleic-acid-or-enzyme-first dilemma is perhaps solved by the discovery of catalytic RNA called _______________.
    ribozymes

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems


 

  1. The earliest source of reduced compounds for oxidative metabolism was probably ____________ _____________.
    hydrogen sulfide

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. Bacteria contain a single, large molecule of DNA in the ____________ region.
    nucleoid

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. The ______________ theory proposes that pre-eukaryotes are the result of anaerobic bacteria ingesting aerobic bacteria and subsequently a symbiotic relationship was formed.
    endosymbiotic

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

 

Essay Questions

  1. Describe the first evidence for chemical evolution that came from Stanley Millers experiment.

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution


 

  1. This chapter began with Pasteur disproving spontaneous generation, the theory that life could arise from non-living material. Then Miller and Urey test the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis and suggest that life once did arise from non-living chemicals. Are these experiments contradictory? Explain how the science community recognize both as valid.

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Section: Chemical Evolution
Section: Spontaneous Generation of Life?
Topic: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Spontaneous Generation of Life?

  1. The Miller-Urey experiments demonstrated the formation of larger molecules from simple molecules. Why is there still a need for concentration in order to make formation of a protocell more likely?

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. Assumptions that the earliest life forms had to make their own food have been replaced with the belief that the earliest microorganisms were definitely primary heterotrophs. How could these earliest cells have lived if they did not make their own food, and why do we feel certain that they were not photosynthetic?

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution


 

  1. What evidence do scientists have that the earths primeval atmosphere was a reducing atmosphere?

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Section: Chemical Evolution
Topic: Chemical Evolution

  1. Why cant we set up an experiment that would again duplicate the conditions that were present at the early origin of protocells?

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. Describe the chicken-or-the-egg dilemma with enzymes and hereditary molecules, and detail how the RNA world proposal offers a solution.

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. What are the essential properties of a protocell?

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems


 

  1. Describe the symbiotic theory of the origin of eukaryotes.

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

  1. What may have been the reason for the Cambrian explosion?

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

  1. What evidence leads researchers to believe that there was a diversity of animal life before the Cambrian if we cannot find extensive fossils of earlier animals?

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Precambrian Life

  1. Compare and contrast the prokaryotic and eukaryotic cellular structures.

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Section: Precambrian Life
Topic: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Precambrian Life


 

  1. If eukaryotes are more complex than prokaryotes, then why are there prokaryotes living today?

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

  1. Does the recognition of prokaryotes as two major lineages, Archaebacteria and Eubacteria, result in any major changes to the internal taxonomic arrangement of the fungi, protozoan groups, plants and animals?

Answers will vary.

 

Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Section: Origin of Living Systems
Topic: Origin of Living Systems

Chapter 12

Sponges and Placozoans

 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Concerning producing larger organisms without cellular differentiation,
    A. nature has never evolved larger organisms because it would never work.
    B.  nature has evolved larger unicellular organisms but they are rare and have surface-to-volume limitations.
    C.  this has never occurred since the ancestral cell was small.
    D.  the more derived the organism, the more differentiated and the smaller the cell size.
    E.  the more primitive the organism, the smaller the cell size.

Larger size and complexity is accomplished through multicellularity.  A workable surface-to-mass ratio in an increasingly large single cell cannot be maintained.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Origin of Animals (Metezoa)
Topic: Origin of Animals (Metezoa)


 

  1. Which one of the following statements regarding the origin of metazoans has the most support?
    A. The choanoflagellates share features with the sponges, like having collars of microvilli surrounding a flagellum and being colonial.  These shared features suggest a link to at least one metazoan lineage.
    B.  Metazoans are derived from many separate lineages of unicellular organisms.
    C.  Ancient metazoans, similar to members of the phylum Placozoa, have been ruled out as ancestral metazoans.
    D.  Modern sponges have a genetic makeup that reflects their ancestral status.

The origin of the metazoa is problematic.  Morphological and functional similarities of sponges to choanocytes suggest a possible origin of that metazon lineage, however, the sponge genome is quite complex with more modern features.  Placozoans have genetic features that suggest they may reflect the primitive state.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
Section: Origin of Animals (Metezoa)
Topic: Origin of Animals (Metezoa)

  1. Which one of the following statements regarding metazoan origins is true?
    A. Origin of the metazoa has been clearly elucidated and involves ancestry from a colonial flagellate stock.
    B.  Metazoans are derived twice.  One lineage involves a colonial flagellate stock, and the other lineage involves placozoan-like ancestors.
    C.  Metazoans arose from a multinucleate ciliate where cell boundaries eventually formed around each nucleus.
    D.  Placozoans may be similar to the single ancestral state.  Features like their small nuclear genome and their large mitochondrial genome are features that may be derived from a common ancestor shared with some animal outgroups.

The nuclear and mitochondrial genomes of the Placozoa suggest ancestry with animal outgroups.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Origin of Animals (Metezoa)
Topic: Origin of Animals (Metezoa)


 

  1. Which statement about adult sponges is false?
    A. Their bodies are aggregations of one cell type.
    B.  They do not have a mouth.
    C.  Their bodies are usually asymmetrical.
    D.  Their apparently simple structure is deceptive.

Sponge bodies are aggregates of many cell types.  Even though they lack mouths and other features of more complex animals, their apparent simplicity is deceptive.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. The sponges date back to
    A. the Devonian period or age of fishes.
    B.  the early time of anaerobic prokaryotes.
    C.  the Cambrian period and probably earlier.
    D.  the time of the first prokaryotes but the sponges left no fossil evidence for lack of hard parts.

Ancestral members of the phylum Porifera arose at least by the early Cambrian period and probably into Precambrian times.  Later evolution resulted in diversification into the classes present today.

 

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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The order in which a drop of ink would pass by the structures in an ascon sponge is
    A. spongocoel-ostia-osculum.
    B.  osculum-spongocoel-ostia.
    C.  osculum-ostia-spongocoel.
    D.  ostia-spongocoel-osculum.
    E.  ostia-osculum-spongocoel.

The pathway for water moving through the simplest sponge body form is ostia-spongocoel-osculum.  In sycon sponges incurrent and radial canals are present.  In leucon sponges the spongocoel is often absent.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. The simplest of canal systems is found in the
    A. asconoids.
    B.  leuconoids.
    C.  syconoids.

The asconoid sponge body form is the simplest of the sponge body forms.  Larger, more complex sponge body forms are syconoid and leuconoid.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The most complex and the most common body form of sponges is found in the
    A. asconoids.
    B.  leuconoids.
    C.  syconoids.

Leuconoid sponges include the largest, most common, and most complex sponges.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Flagellated canals of syconoid sponges form by evagination of the body wall and these sponges often develop through a simple vase-like stage. Which of the following is a logical hypothesis based on this evidence?
    A. Asconoid sponges were derived from syconoid ancestors.
    B.  Leuconoid sponges were derived from syconoid ancestors.
    C.  Syconoid sponges were derived from leuconoid ancestors.
    D.  Syconoid sponges were derived from asconoid ancestors.
    E.  Leuconoid sponges were derived from asconoid ancestors.

Syconoid sponges may have evolved through an asconoid body plan.  All syconoid sponges, however, do not share a common ancestor.  This transition to the syconoid stage may have occurred more than once.

 

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Blooms Level: 5. Evaluate
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The extracellular matrix found in sponges is
    A. spongin.
    B.  collagen.
    C.  pinacoderm.
    D.  mesohyl or mesenchyme.

The gelatinous extracellular matrix, called mesohyle or mesenchyme, contains fibrils, skeletal elements and ameboid cells.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Calcareous or siliceous elements of the sponge body wall provide support.  These elements are called
    A. amoebocytes.
    B.  pinacocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  spicules.
    E.  spongin.

Spicules are supportive, calcareous structures in the body wall of many sponges.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The outer thin, flat, epithelial-like cells that cover the outside and some inside surfaces of sponges, are
    A. amoebocytes.
    B.  pinacocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  spicules.
    E.  spongin.

Pinacocytes line the outer surface of the body wall of sponges. They may ingest food by phagocytosis and many are contractile to help regulate water flow.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. The modified cells of sponges that form circular bands and provide just a little constriction to control water flow are
    A. amoebocytes.
    B.  choanocytes.
    C.  spicules.
    D.  myocytes.

Myocytes are modified pinacocytes and constrict to regulate water flow.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. A sponge feeds by
    A. using a net and a current that sweeps food particles through it.
    B.  squeezing the spongocoel cavity to suck debris in and out through the osculum.
    C.  beating the flagella of collar cells to form a current; food is absorbed by collar cells.
    D.  beating the flagella of collar cells to form a current from osculum to pores; food is engulfed by amoebocytes in the central cavity of the sponge.

Beating of flagella of collar cells creates water currents that circulate water through the body of a sponge. Water currents bring microscopic food particles into the canal system of a sponge.  Food particles are filtered by collar cells.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Cells that move about in the mesohyl, digest particles, and may specialize for other functions are the
    A. archaeocytes.
    B.  pinacocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  spongocytes.
    E.  lophocytes.

Sponge cells are specialized for specific functions.  Archaeocytes are found in the mesohyl and phagocytize particles at the pinacoderm.  They also receive food particles from choanocytes and may be specialized for other functions.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. Specialized archaeocytes that secrete spicules are
    A. collencytes.
    B.  sclerocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  spongocytes.
    E.  lophocytes.

Archaeocytes may be specialized as sclerocytes, which secrete spicules.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Specialized archaeocytes that secrete spongin are
    A. collencytes.
    B.  sclerocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  spongocytes.
    E.  lophocytes.

Spongocytes are archeocytes specialized for secreting spongin.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. Specialized archaeocytes that secrete large quantities of collagen are
    A. collencytes.
    B.  sclerocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  spongocytes.
    E.  lophocytes.

Lophocytes are archeocytes specialized for secreting collagen.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. The structural protein found in all sponges is
    A. elastin.
    B.  collagen.
    C.  gorgonin.
    D.  spiculin.
    E.  None of the choices are correct

Collagen is a connective protein common to all sponges.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. Cells responsible for water flow and capture of some particles are the
    A. myocytes.
    B.  archaeocytes.
    C.  choanocytes.
    D.  pinacocytes.
    E.  lophocytes.

Choanocytes are responsible for water flow and capture of some food particles.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
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  1. Which is NOT a trait of sponges?
    A. They are sessile filter feeders
    B.  Their body wall has two incipient cell layers
    C.  Their flagellated collar cells move water
    D.  Water enters through the osculum
    E.  Amoeboid cells digest food and make skeletal fibers and gametes

Water exits a sponge through the osculum.

 

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Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. If a sponge is fragmented and cells are dissociated from one another, the cells will
    A. reproduce sexually.
    B.  die from being separated.
    C.  form spicules in the pattern of the cloth.
    D.  reorganize their structure and function, and clumps of isolated cells will form a new sponge.

Sponges have remarkable powers of regeneration from fragments of an organism and can undergo somatic embryogenesis when cells are dissociated into clumps of cells.

 

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Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic

  1. Which of the following statements about sponges is NOT correct?
    A. Larvae are ciliated and swim to new locations
    B.  Sponges are classified by spicule type and material
    C.  Sponges comprise a sister group to all other animals
    D.  Sponges share few characteristics with other animals
    E.  Sponge cells can transform from one cell type to another, a trait not seen in other kinds of animals

Sponges share many characteristics with other animals including the following: common adhesion proteins, a common blastula embryonic stage, and common cell signaling proteins.

 

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Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. Which of the following is NOT found in at least some sponges?
    A. Spicules of calcium carbonate
    B.  Spicules of silica
    C.  Spicules of fibrous protein
    D.  Spongin, a fibrous protein

Skeletal elements of sponges include calcareous and siliceous spicules and the protein, spongin.

 

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Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Which of the following statements about sponges is NOT correct?
    A. Sponges lack nerve fibers
    B.  Sponges lack fully developed muscle fibers
    C.  Ameboid cells capture food particles from the water
    D.  Sponges reproduce asexually by budding or by regeneration from a small piece
    E.  If a sponge is fragmented and cells dissociate, cells undergo somatic embryogenesis and clumps of cells can form a new organism

Choanocytes create water currents, capture food, and pass food on to ameboid cells.

 

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Blooms Level: 2. Understand
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The free-swimming larva of most sponges is a
    A. bud.
    B.  gemmule.
    C.  apopyle.
    D.  parenchymula.
    E.  plasmodium.

Parenchymula larvae are free-swimming larval stages found in the development of most sponges.  Gemmules are internal buds found in freshwater sponges and some marine sponges.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Reproduction in at least some sponges is
    A. asexual by budding.
    B.  asexual by gemmules.
    C.  sexual with both male and female sex cells in one individual.
    D.  asexual by fragmentation.
    E.  All of the choices are correct

Sponges reproduce sexually and asexually.  Specific reproductive mechanisms are group specific and may involve one or more of the methods described in this question.

 

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Blooms Level: 4. Analyze
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The unique feature of sponge development in members of the class Calcarea is the amphiblastula which
    A. produces new buds.
    B.  generates gemmules.
    C.  determines the types of spicules produced.
    D.  turns inside out during its development.
    E.  controls the process of regeneration.

The ampiblastula is a developmental stage in members of the class Calcarea.  It is also present in a few members of the class Demospongia.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. In glass sponges, archaeocytes fuse their pseudopodia to form a
    A. bud.
    B.  spongin network.
    C.  micropyle.
    D.  leuconoid framework.
    E.  trabecular reticulum.

Hexactinellid sponges possess a unique syncytial body wall.  All cells fuse into a single, multinucleate syncytum called the trabecular reticulum.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
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Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. The demosponges
    A. constitute only a small number of species.
    B.  are mostly marine but include the freshwater sponges.
    C.  have the asconoid-type canal system.
    D.  are referred to as calcium or chalk sponges.
    E.  form the most beautiful glass spicule patterns.

Members of the class Demospongia are the most common sponges.  Most are large, leuconoid sponges.

 

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Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. The largest impact that the loss of sponges would have on the environment would be
    A. collapse of most food chains.
    B.  extinctions of other species that are symbionts of sponges.
    C.  alteration of ocean currents.
    D.  alteration of gases in water and the atmosphere.
    E.  loss of filtration.

Large sponges can filter up to 1,500 liters of water each day.  Loss of this filtering would adversely affect water quality in marine habitats.

 

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Blooms Level: 3. Apply
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

  1. Why are bath sponges so soft?
    A. Silica is washed away and the calcium carbonate remains
    B.  Spongin spicules are washed away and the silky silica remains
    C.  The choanocytes and amoebocytes are softer
    D.  Bath sponge support is provided primarily by spongin proteins
    E.  All of the choices are correct

Spongin is a soft protein present in the body wall of bath sponges. Bath sponges lack calcareous or siliceous spicules.

 

Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

 

Fill in the Blank Questions

  1. Molecular data support the hypotheses that metazoans have a single origin or are _________________.
    monophyletic

Sponges are monophyletic.  They arose from a single common ancestor.  All other animals comprise a sister group to the sponges.

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges


 

 

Multiple Choice Questions

  1. Placozoans
    A. are flat, plate-like animals with no symmetry.
    B.  are probably advanced mesozoans.
    C.  have calcareous spicules.
    D.  have three germ layers.

Placozoans lack symmetry and any organs, muscular, and nervous tissues.  Their dorsal and ventral epithelial layers may be ectodermal and endodermal tissue layers, thus some zoologists consider placozoans to be diplobastic.

 

Blooms Level: 1. Remember
Gradable: automatic
Section: Phylum Porifera: Sponges
Topic: Phylum Porifera: Sponges

  1. Placozoans feed by
    A. sharing food produced by symbiotic algae in their diffuse tissues
    B.

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