Integrated Principles of Zoology 16th Hickman Keen Larson Roberts Test bank

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Integrated Principles of Zoology 16th Hickman Keen Larson Roberts Test bank

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Chapter 10
Taxonomy and Phylogeny of Animals
 
 
Multiple Choice Questions 
1. Which is NOT a major goal of systematic zoology? A. to discover and describe all species of animalsB. to group animals based on their destructiveness or usefulness to human activityC. to construct the evolutionary relationships among animalsD. to communicate relationships by constructing informative taxonomic systems
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automatic 
2.  A phylogeny based on evolutionary theory will  A.  explain variations among fossils from rock strata. B.  explain similarities and differences among modern living groups. C.  reflect patterns of shared and unique sections of DNA among groups of animals. D.  All of the choices are correct.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic ReconstructionTopic: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic Reconstruction 

3.  Who developed the present system of classification?  A.  Aristotle B.  John Ray C.  Carolus Linnaeus D.  Charles Darwin
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: Linnaeus and TaxonomyTopic: Linnaeus and Taxonomy 
4.  Which of the following correctly lists the classic Linnaean ranks for animals, from largest and most inclusive to smallest and least inclusive?  A.  Domain-kingdom-phylum-order-class-family-genus-species B.  Domain-kingdom-phylum-order-family-class-genus-species C.  Domain-kingdom-phylum-class-order-family-genus-species D.  Domain-kingdom-division-order-class-family-genus-species
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: Linnaeus and TaxonomyTopic: Linnaeus and Taxonomy 
5.  According to the binomial system of nomenclature, the aegypti in Aedes aegypti refers to the _____.  A.  species name B.  genus C.  family D.  specific epithet
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: Linnaeus and TaxonomyTopic: Linnaeus and Taxonomy 

6.  The scientific name of the copperhead is Agkistrodon contortrix. Therefore,  A.  it belongs to the genus Agkistrodon. B.  it belongs to the species Agkistrodon. C.  it is species Agkistrodon, subspecies contortrix. D.  None of the choices are correct.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: Linnaeus and TaxonomyTopic: Linnaeus and Taxonomy 
7.  The table represents a     A.  classification of the frog Rana sphenocephala. B.  phylogenetic tree of Rana sphenocephala. C.  cladogram of Rana sphenocephala. D.  hierarchical list of the taxonomic ranks and taxa to which Rana sphenocephala belongs. E.  listing of the scientific names of Rana sphenocephala.
 
Blooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: Linnaeus and TaxonomyTopic: Linnaeus and Taxonomy 

8.  What is character similarity that results from common embryology, and therefore ancestry, called?  A.  analogy B.  taxonomy C.  homology D.  phylogeny
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic ReconstructionTopic: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic Reconstruction 
9.  Homoplasy involves  A.  any two organisms with exactly the same trait. B.  two organisms sharing the same trait because they have a common ancestor with that trait. C.  two or more lineages having what appears to be the same trait. D.  possession of homologous structures.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic ReconstructionTopic: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic Reconstruction 
10.  _______ character states are present in the common ancestor and all members of a group.  A.  Ancestral B.  Analogous C.  Derived D.  Synapomorphous
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic ReconstructionTopic: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic Reconstruction 

11.  Zoologists used to refer to animals as simple and advanced. Now it is more scientifically accurate to use  A.  simple and complex, since it is the complexity that evolved. B.  allopatric and sympatric, since the reproductive isolation of the species is most important. C.  evolved and un-evolved, since everything ties together with evolution. D.  ancestral and derived, since some early forms became very complex and some highly evolved forms are derived from them but lost complex characters and secondarily became more simple.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic ReconstructionTopic: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic Reconstruction 
12.  One way of establishing whether a character of an extant species is ancestral or derived is to locate a/an ______ and if the character occurs in both, it is likely ________.  A.  fossil, ancestral B.  fossil, derived C.  sister species, derived D.  outgroup, ancestral
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic ReconstructionTopic: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic Reconstruction 
13.  Which of the following terms is NOT correctly associated?  A.  synapomorphya derived character shared by members of a clade B.  monophylyone group formed from animals with two separate ancestors C.  adaptive zonea way of life D.  cladograma nested hierarchy of clades represented as a branching diagram
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: Theories of TaxonomyTopic: Theories of Taxonomy 

14.  Which of the following is NOT true of a cladogram?  A.  It is a branching diagram. B.  It depicts the nested hierarchy of clades within clades. C.  Its structure denotes only real lineages that occurred in the evolutionary past. D.  A cladogram may be congruent with that of a corresponding phylogenetic tree.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic ReconstructionTopic: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic Reconstruction 
15.  Characters used to distinguish one group from another must be  A.  morphological or structural features. B.  chromosomal or genetic. C.  molecular and cellular structures. D.  Any or all of the above
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic ReconstructionTopic: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic Reconstruction 
16.  The ability to use biochemical data to form phylogenetic trees is based on the assumption that  A.  all life uses the same sequences of DNA. B.  there are no mutations in DNA. C.  amino acids are unrelated to evolution. D.  protein and DNA sequences undergo similar rates of divergence through time.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: Theories of TaxonomyTopic: Theories of Taxonomy 

17.  A taxon is paraphyletic if it  A.  includes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group and all of its descendants. B.  includes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group and some, but not all, of its descendants. C.  does not include the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group. D.  excludes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: Theories of TaxonomyTopic: Theories of Taxonomy 
18.  A taxon is monophyletic if it  A.  includes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group and all of its descendants. B.  includes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group and some, but not all, of its descendants. C.  does not include the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group. D.  excludes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: Theories of TaxonomyTopic: Theories of Taxonomy 
19.  A taxon is polyphyletic if it  A.  includes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group and all of its descendants. B.  includes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group and some, but not all, of its descendants. C.  does not include the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group. D.  includes the most recent common ancestor of all members of the group.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: Theories of TaxonomyTopic: Theories of Taxonomy 

20.  What is a taxon that comprises a distinct adaptive zone?  A.  an ancestral descendant B.  a derived descendent C.  a clade D.  a grade
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: Theories of TaxonomyTopic: Theories of Taxonomy 
21.  The dispute between evolutionary taxonomy and cladistics can be described as a difference between  A.  use of morphology and use of biomolecular data. B.  acceptance or rejection of paraphyletic groups. C.  acceptance or rejection of monophyletic groups. D.  acceptance or rejection of polyphyletic groups.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: Theories of TaxonomyTopic: Theories of Taxonomy 
22.  To a cladist, the statement that birds (a monophyletic group) evolved from reptiles (a paraphyletic group) constitutes which of the following?  A.  a meaningful statement of the evolutionary advancement of the birds over the reptiles B.  a meaningful statement that birds represent a different, but not necessarily more advanced adaptive zone than reptiles C.  a trivial statement that birds evolved from something that they are not D.  an incorrect statement because ancestral groups must be extinct but reptiles are still alive
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: Theories of TaxonomyTopic: Theories of Taxonomy 

23.  Two different monophyletic taxa are termed _____ if they share common ancestry with each other more recently than either one does with another taxa.  A.  outgroups B.  sister groups C.  sibling species D.  paraphyletic
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: Theories of TaxonomyTopic: Theories of Taxonomy 
24.  Which of the following is NOT an important criterion for species recognition among the many definitions?  A.  common descent B.  smallest distinct grouping of organisms C.  reproductive community D.  possession of distinct morphological differences
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 
25.  Museum type specimens are kept as name bearers for comparison when potentially new species are discovered. However, the original use of type specimens reflected a sense of the ideal or perfect specimen as seen in the ______ species concept.  A.  typological B.  biological C.  evolutionary D.  phylogenetic
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 

26.  In the scientific name Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus, 1758, the section Linnaeus, 1758 indicates that the specimen was  A.  named after Linnaeus who was born in 1758. B.  named by Linnaeus who was born in 1758. C.  named by Linnaeus and the description was published in 1758. D.  named by Linnaeus and based on a specimen collected in 1758.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 
27.  The biological species concept by Theodosius Dobzhansky and Ernst Mayr defines a species in the textbook as a group of interbreeding natural populations reproductively isolated from other such groups and occupying a specific niche. Such a definition cannot be used for  A.  fossils. B.  asexual organisms. C.  determining species based on dead or preserved specimens. D.  organisms that cannot be raised in captivity, easily bred, or with very long generation times. E.  All of the choices pose problems for the biological species concept.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 
28.  An entomologist discovered that two morphologically identical crickets sang completely different mating songs and this resulted in the two populations never mating. Thus they were  A.  sister groups. B.  sibling species. C.  paraphyletic. D.  polyphyletic.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 

29.  Which of the following concepts of species is most compatible with the goals of cladistic systematics?  A.  typological B.  biological C.  evolutionary D.  phenetic
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 3. ApplyGradable: automaticSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 
30.  Which is NOT one of the inherent conflicting features of the biological species concept?  A.  A species is both a taxonomic rank and a unit of evolution. B.  The functional definition centers on a sexual ability to interbreed but many species are asexual. C.  A species can be defined with boundaries among present organisms, or within a changing lineage over time. D.  Some scientists disagree over the name of a species.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 
31.  A species of fern that was only found on one small island would be defined as  A.  an outgroup. B.  cosmopolitan. C.  speciating. D.  endemic to the island.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 

32.  The time, usually on a larger or geological time scale, that a species exists before it becomes another species or goes extinct is its  A.  adaptive zone. B.  reproductive cohesion. C.  geographic range. D.  evolutionary duration.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 
33.  G. G. Simpson provided a definition of an evolutionary species as a single lineage of ancestor-descendant populations that maintains its identity from other such lineages and that has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate. How does this compare with the biological species concept of Mayr?  A.  Only Mayrs definition is easily testable for most organisms. B.  Only Simpsons definition is easily testable for living organisms. C.  Mayrs definition is limited to sexually reproducing organisms whereas Simpsons theoretically covers all life. D.  They are in complete disagreement.
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 2. UnderstandGradable: automaticSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 
34.  Which kingdom in Whittakers five-kingdom system must be discontinued and broken up to be compatible with cladistic systematics?  A.  Plantae B.  Fungi C.  Animalia D.  Protista
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: Major Divisions of LifeTopic: Major Divisions of Life 

35.  What biochemical trait varies but is present throughout all of life, allowing the construction of an estimate of phylogeny?  A.  DNA in the nucleus B.  DNA in mitochondria C.  RNA in the nucleus D.  Ribosomal RNA
 
Accessibility: Keyboard NavigationBlooms Level: 1. RememberGradable: automaticSection: Major Divisions of LifeTopic: Major Divisions of Life 
 
Fill in the Blank Questions 
36.  If a taxon includes the most recent common ancestor of a group of organisms and all of the descendants of that ancestor, it is termed ______.  monophyletic
 
Blooms Level: 1. RememberSection: Theories of TaxonomyTopic: Theories of Taxonomy 
37. If two different taxa share common ancestry with each other more recently than either one does with any other organisms, we call them _______ ______. sister groups
 
Blooms Level: 1. RememberSection: Theories of TaxonomyTopic: Theories of Taxonomy 
38. A derived character shared by members of a clade is a _______________. synapomorphy
 
Blooms Level: 1. RememberSection: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic ReconstructionTopic: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic Reconstruction 

39. A branching diagram representing a nested hierarchical pattern of clades is called a/an ________. cladogram
 
Blooms Level: 1. RememberSection: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic ReconstructionTopic: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic Reconstruction 
40. A branching diagram whose branches represent real lineages that occurred in the evolutionary past is called a/an _________ _________. phylogenetic tree
 
Blooms Level: 1. RememberSection: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic ReconstructionTopic: Taxonomic Characters and Phylogenetic Reconstruction 
41. A characteristic reaction and mutual relationship between environment and organism, a way of life and not a place where life is led is the classical description of a/an ___________ _________. adaptive zone
 
Blooms Level: 1. RememberSection: Theories of TaxonomyTopic: Theories of Taxonomy 
42. Species that have very restricted geographic distributions are called ____________________. endemic
 
Blooms Level: 1. RememberSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 

43. A single lineage of ancestor-descendant populations that maintains its identity from other such lineages and which has its own evolutionary tendencies and historical fate describes the _________ _________ _________. evolutionary species concept
 
Blooms Level: 1. RememberSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 
44. An irreducible (basal) grouping of organisms, diagnosably distinct from other such groupings, and within which there is a parental pattern of ancestry and descent describes the ________ ________ _______. phylogenetic species concept
 
Blooms Level: 1. RememberSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 
 
Essay Questions 
45.  Discern what classification and systematization of species means to a taxonomist.  
 
Blooms Level: 4. AnalyzeSection: Linnaeus and TaxonomyTopic: Linnaeus and Taxonomy 
46. What is DNA barcoding of species and why might it be a useful tool for scientists? 
Answers will vary.
 
Blooms Level: 2. UnderstandSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 

47. If biology moved to a three domain system and attempted to incorporate the five-kingdom system, which kingdom in the current five-kingdom system would have to be split to become monophyletic, and why? 
Answers will vary.
 
Blooms Level: 2. UnderstandSection: Major Divisions of LifeTopic: Major Divisions of Life 
48. Is it possible that systematists are arguing over definitions that cannot possibly reconcile the state of biological reality? Is it possible that there cannot be a single definition of a species simply because there are so many variables that must go into an encompassing definition? Wouldnt it be better to admit to the reality and adjust the reasoning to fit the reality rather than search for the perfect definition? 
Answers will vary.
 
Blooms Level: 5. EvaluateSection: SpeciesTopic: Species 

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