International Finance Theory And Policy 10th Edition Paul R. Krugman Test Bank

International Finance Theory And Policy  10th Edition   Paul R. Krugman Test Bank
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International Economics, 10e (Krugman/Obstfeld/Melitz)
Chapter 3 Labor Productivity and Comparative Advantage: The Ricardian Model

3.1 The Concept of Comparative Advantage

1) Trade between two countries can benefit both countries if
A) each country exports that good in which it has a comparative advantage.
B) each country enjoys superior terms of trade.
C) each country has a more elastic demand for the imported goods.
D) each country has a more elastic supply for the exported goods.
E) each country produces a wide range of goods for export.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 24
Difficulty: Easy

2) In order to know whether a country has a comparative advantage in the production of one particular product we need information on at least ________ unit labor requirements
A) one
B) two
C) three
D) four
E) five
Answer: D
Page Ref: 29
Difficulty: Easy

3) A country engaging in trade according to the principles of comparative advantage gains from trade because it
A) is producing exports indirectly more efficiently than it could alternatively.
B) is producing imports indirectly more efficiently than it could domestically.
C) is producing exports using fewer labor units.
D) is producing imports indirectly using fewer labor units.
E) is producing exports while outsourcing services.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 26
Difficulty: Easy

4) Given the information in the table above, if it is ascertained that Foreign uses prison-slave labor to produce its exports, then home should
A) export cloth.
B) export widgets.
C) export both and import nothing.
D) export and import nothing.
E) export widgets and import cloth.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 29
Difficulty: Moderate

5) Given the information in the table above, if the Home economy suffered a meltdown, and the Unit Labor Requirements doubled to 20 for cloth and 40 for widgets then home should
A) export cloth.
B) export widgets.
C) export both and import nothing.
D) export and import nothing.
E) export widgets and import cloth.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 29
Difficulty: Moderate

6) The earliest statement of the principle of comparative advantage is associated with
A) David Hume.
B) David Ricardo.
C) Adam Smith.
D) Eli Heckscher.
E) Bertil Ohlin.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 26
Difficulty: Easy

7) The Ricardian model attributes the gains from trade associated with the principle of comparative advantage result to
A) differences in technology.
B) differences in preferences.
C) differences in labor productivity.
D) differences in resources.
E) gravity relationships among countries.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 25
Difficulty: Easy
8) The Ricardian model demonstrates that
A) trade between two countries will benefit both countries.
B) trade between two countries may benefit both regardless of which good each exports.
C) trade between two countries may benefit both if each exports the product in which it has a comparative advantage.
D) trade between two countries may benefit one but harm the other.
E) trade between two countries always benefits the country with a larger labor force.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 26
Difficulty: Easy

3.2 A One-Factor Economy

1) Use the information in the table below to answer the following questions.

(a) Does either country have an absolute advantage in the production of wheat or beef? Explain.
(b) What is the opportunity cost of wheat in each country?
(c) What is the opportunity cost of beef in each country?
(d) Analyze comparative advantage and opportunities for trade between the U.S. and Argentina.
Answer:
(a) The U.S. has an absolute advantage in the production of both wheat and beef because labor productivity in the U.S. exceeds labor productivity in Argentina for both products.
(b) In the U.S., the opportunity cost of wheat is 100/300 or 0.33 units of beef. In Argentina, the opportunity cost of wheat is 20/20 or 1.0 unit of beef.
(c) In the U.S., the opportunity cost of beef is 300/100 or 3.0 units of wheat. In Argentina, the opportunity cost of beef is 20/20 or 1.0 unit of wheat.
(d) The U.S. has a comparative advantage in wheat production and Argentina has a comparative advantage in beef production. If the U.S. can trade wheat to Argentina at a rate of more than 0.33 units of beef per unit of wheat, then the U.S. will benefit. If Argentina can trade beef to the U.S. at a rate of more than one unit of wheat per unit of beef, then Argentina will benefit.
Page Ref: 26-29
Difficulty: Moderate

2) Use the information in the table below to answer the following questions.

(a) Does either country have an absolute advantage in the production of wheat or beef? Explain.
(b) What is the opportunity cost of wheat in each country?
(c) What is the opportunity cost of beef in each country?
(d) Analyze comparative advantage and opportunities for trade between the U.S. and Argentina.
Answer:
(a) The U.S. has an absolute advantage in the production of both wheat and beef because labor productivity in the U.S. exceeds labor productivity in Argentina for both products.
(b) In the U.S., the opportunity cost of wheat is 100/200 or 0.5 units of beef. In Argentina, the opportunity cost of wheat is 80/20 or 4.0 units of beef.
(c) In the U.S., the opportunity cost of beef is 200/100 or 2.0 units of wheat. In Argentina, the opportunity cost of beef is 20/80 or 0.25 units of wheat.
(d) The U.S. has a comparative advantage in wheat production and Argentina has a comparative advantage in beef production. If the U.S. can trade wheat to Argentina at a rate of more than 0.5 units of beef per unit of wheat, then the U.S. will benefit. If Argentina can trade beef to the U.S. at a rate of more than 0.25 unit of wheat per unit of beef, then Argentina will benefit.
Page Ref: 26-29
Difficulty: Moderate

3) Use the information in the table below to answer the following questions.

(a) Does either country have an absolute advantage in the production of wheat or beef? Explain.
(b) What is the opportunity cost of wheat in each country?
(c) What is the opportunity cost of beef in each country?
(d) Analyze comparative advantage and opportunities for trade between the U.S. and Argentina.
Answer:
(a) Argentina has an absolute advantage in the production of both wheat and beef because labor productivity in Argentina exceeds labor productivity in the U.S. for both products.
(b) In the U.S., the opportunity cost of wheat is 200/100 or 2.0 units of beef. In Argentina, the opportunity cost of wheat is 400/200 or 2.0 units of beef.
(c) In the U.S., the opportunity cost of beef is 100/200 or 0.5 units of wheat. In Argentina, the opportunity cost of beef is 400/200 or 0.5 units of wheat.
(d) Neither country has a comparative advantage and there is, therefore, no opportunity for beneficial trade.
Page Ref: 26-29
Difficulty: Moderate
3.3 Trade in a One-Factor World

1) Given the information in the table above
A) neither country has a comparative advantage in cloth.
B) Home has a comparative advantage in cloth.
C) Foreign has a comparative advantage in cloth.
D) Home has a comparative advantage in both cloth and widgets.
E) neither country has a comparative advantage in widgets.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 29
Difficulty: Moderate

2) Given the information in the table above, if wages were to double in Home, then Home should
A) export cloth.
B) export widgets.
C) export both and import nothing.
D) export and import nothing.
E) export widgets and import cloth.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 29
Difficulty: Moderate

3) Given the information in the table above
A) neither country has a comparative advantage in cloth.
B) Home has a comparative advantage in widgets.
C) Foreign has a comparative advantage in widgets.
D) Home has a comparative advantage in both cloth and widgets.
E) neither country has a comparative advantage in widgets.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 29
Difficulty: Moderate

4) Given the information in the table above, Homes opportunity cost of cloth is
A) 0.5.
B) 2.0.
C) 6.0.
D) 1.5.
E) 3.0.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 29
Difficulty: Moderate
5) Given the information in the table above, Homes opportunity cost of widgets is
A) 0.5.
B) 2.0.
C) 6.0.
D) 1.5.
E) 3.0.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 29
Difficulty: Moderate

6) Given the information in the table above, Foreigns opportunity cost of cloth is
A) 0.5.
B) 2.0.
C) 6.0.
D) 1.5.
E) 3.0.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 29
Difficulty: Moderate

7) Given the information in the table above, Foreigns opportunity cost of widgets is
A) 0.5.
B) 2.0.
C) 6.0.
D) 1.5.
E) 3.0.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 29
Difficulty: Moderate

8) Given the information in the table above, if the world equilibrium price of widgets were 4 cloth, then
A) both countries could benefit from trade with each other.
B) neither country could benefit from trade with each other.
C) each country will want to export the good in which it enjoys comparative advantage.
D) neither country will want to export the good in which it enjoys comparative advantage.
E) both countries will want to specialize in cloth.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 30
Difficulty: Moderate

9) Given the information in the table above, if the world equilibrium price of widgets were 40 cloths, then
A) both countries could benefit from trade with each other.
B) neither country could benefit from trade with each other.
C) each country will want to export the good in which it enjoys comparative advantage.
D) neither country will want to export the good in which it enjoys comparative advantage.
E) both countries will want to specialize in cloth.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 30
Difficulty: Moderate

10) In a two product two country world, international trade can lead to increases in
A) consumer welfare only if output of both products is increased.
B) output of both products and consumer welfare in both countries.
C) total production of both products but not consumer welfare in both countries.
D) consumer welfare in both countries but not total production of both products.
E) prices of both goods in both countries.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 31
Difficulty: Moderate

11) As a result of trade, specialization in the Ricardian model tends to be
A) complete with constant costs and with increasing costs.
B) complete with constant costs and incomplete with increasing costs.
C) incomplete with constant costs and complete with increasing costs.
D) incomplete with constant costs and incomplete with increasing costs.
E) dependent on the specific opportunity costs involved in production.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 34
Difficulty: Easy

12) As a result of trade between two countries which are of completely different economic sizes, specialization in the Ricardian 2X2 model tends to
A) be incomplete in both countries.
B) be complete in both countries.
C) be complete in the small country but incomplete in the large country.
D) be complete in the large country but incomplete in the small country.
E) sustain one countries economy in in direct proportion to the other.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 35
Difficulty: Easy

13) A nation engaging in trade according to the Ricardian model will find its consumption bundle
A) inside its production possibilities frontier.
B) on its production possibilities frontier.
C) outside its production possibilities frontier.
D) inside its trade-partners production possibilities frontier.
E) on its trade-partners production possibilities frontier.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 34
Difficulty: Easy

14) In the Ricardian model, if a countrys trade is restricted, this will cause all EXCEPT which?
A) limited specialization and the division of labor
B) reduced volume of trade and reduced gains from trade
C) nations to produce inside their production possibilities curves
D) a country to produce some of the product of its comparative disadvantage
E) raised costs as more diverse product is produced internally
Answer: C
Page Ref: 36
Difficulty: Easy
15) If a very small country trades with a very large country according to the Ricardian model, then
A) the small country will suffer a decrease in economic welfare.
B) the large country will suffer a decrease in economic welfare.
C) the small country only will enjoy gains from trade.
D) the large country will enjoy gains from trade.
E) both countries will enjoy equal gains from trade.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 37
Difficulty: Easy

16) If the world terms of trade for a country are somewhere between the domestic cost ratio of H and that of F, then
A) country H but not country F will gain from trade.
B) country H and country F will both gain from trade.
C) neither country H nor F will gain from trade.
D) only the country whose government subsidizes its exports will gain.
E) country F but not country H will gain from trade.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 37
Difficulty: Moderate

17) If the world terms of trade equal those of country F, then
A) country H but not country F will gain from trade.
B) country H and country F will both gain from trade.
C) neither country H nor F will gain from trade.
D) only the country whose government subsidizes its exports will gain.
E) country F but not country H will gain from trade.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 37
Difficulty: Easy

18) If the world terms of trade equal those of country H, then
A) country H but not country F will gain from trade.
B) country H and country F will both gain from trade.
C) neither country H nor F will gain from trade.
D) only the country whose government subsidizes its exports will gain.
E) country F but not country H will gain from trade.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 32
Difficulty: Easy

19) According to Ricardo, a country will have a comparative advantage in the product in which its
A) labor productivity is relatively low.
B) labor productivity is relatively high.
C) labor mobility is relatively low.
D) labor mobility is relatively high.
E) labor is outsourced to neighboring countries.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 29
Difficulty: Easy
20) Assume that labor is the only factor of production and that wages in the United States equal $20 per hour while wages in Japan are $10 per hour. Production costs would be lower in the United States as compared to Japan if
A) U.S. labor productivity equaled 40 units per hour and Japans 15 units per hour.
B) U.S. labor productivity equaled 30 units per hour and Japans 20 units per hour.
C) U.S. labor productivity equaled 20 units per hour and Japans 30 units per hour.
D) U.S. labor productivity equaled 15 units per hour and Japans 25 units per hour.
E) U.S. labor productivity equaled 15 units per hour and Japans 40 units per hour.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 27
Difficulty: Moderate

21) If two countries engage in Free Trade following the principles of comparative advantage, then
A) neither relative prices nor relative marginal costs (marginal rates of transformation-MRTs) in one country will equal those in the other country.
B) both relative prices and MRTs will become equal in both countries.
C) relative prices but not MRTs will become equal in both countries.
D) MRTs but not relative prices will become equal in both countries.
E) trade will be unrestricted, regardless of relative costs and MRTs.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 31
Difficulty: Moderate

22) Let us define the real wage as the purchasing power of one hour of labor. In the Ricardian 2X2 model, if two countries under autarky engage in trade then
A) the real wage will not be affected since this is a financial variable.
B) the real wage will increase only if a country attains full specialization.
C) the real wage will increase in one country only if it decreases in the other.
D) the real wage will rise in both countries.
E) the real wage will fall under pressure of international competition.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 36
Difficulty: Moderate

23) In a two country and two product Ricardian model, a small country is likely to benefit more than the large country because
A) the large country will wield greater political power, and hence will not yield to market signals.
B) the small country is less likely to trade at price equal or close to its autarkic (domestic) relative prices.
C) the small country is more likely to fully specialize.
D) the small country is less likely to fully specialize.
E) the small country can raise wages.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 37
Difficulty: Moderate
24) In the Ricardian model, comparative advantage is likely to be due to
A) scale economies.
B) home product taste bias.
C) greater capital availability per worker.
D) labor productivity differences.
E) political pressure.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 45
Difficulty: Easy

25) An examination of the Ricardian model of comparative advantage yields the clear result that trade is (potentially) beneficial for each of the two trading partners since it allows for an expanded consumption choice for each. However, for the world as a whole the expansion of production of one product must involve a decrease in the availability of the other, so that it is not clear that trade is better for the world as a whole as compared to an initial situation of non-trade (but efficient production in each country). Are there in fact gains from trade for the world as a whole? Explain.
Answer: If we were to combine the production possibility frontiers of the two countries to create a single world production possibility frontier, then it is true that any change in production points (from autarky to specialization with trade) would involve a tradeoff of one good for another from the worlds perspective. In other words, the new solution cannot possibly involve the production of more of both goods. However, since we know that each country is better off at the new solution, it must be true that the original points were not on the trade contract curve between the two countries, and it was in fact possible to make some people better off without making others worse off, so that the new solution does indeed represent a welfare improvement from the worlds perspective.
Page Ref: 34-36
Difficulty: Difficult

26) It is generally claimed that a movement from autarky to free trade consistent with Ricardian comparative advantage increases the economic welfare of each of the trade partners. However, it may be demonstrated that under certain circumstances, not everyone in each country is made better off. Illustrate such a case.
Answer:
(a) If inter-generational, or economic growth considerations are taken into account, then a country may end up specializing in a good that has no or few growth linkages with the rest of the economy (e.g., an enclave sector).
(b) If some of the residents of a country have tastes biased toward their exportable, then they may suffer due to the trade-affected increase in the market price of the exportable good.
Page Ref: 50
Difficulty: Moderate
27) It is generally claimed that state trading, or centrally controlled trading will tend to reach a lower economic welfare than would be reached by allowing market forces to determine trade flow directions and terms of trade. Illustrate a counter-example to this proposition.
Answer: In general, if we begin with any suboptimal distortion, the theory of the second best tells us that an additional distortion may move a country in the correct direction of a welfare improvement. For example, If a country has an overvalued exchange rate (that is, its currency is overpriced in the foreign exchange markets), it is possible that it will find itself in an autarkic equilibrium (that is, it might overprice itself out of the international market). In such a case it is easy to demonstrate that if the government exports the goods in which the country enjoys comparative advantage, and imports the other (bypassing market prices and mechanisms), the countrys economic welfare will improve.
Page Ref: 36
Difficulty: Difficult

28) The Ricardian proposition that international trade will benefit any country (gains from trade) as long as the world terms of trade do not equal its autarkic relative prices is a straightforward and powerful concept. Nevertheless, it is impossible to demonstrate empirically. Why?
Answer: This is because there is no way of knowing exactly what are, or would have been, the autarky MRTs or MRSs. This is because there is no single example in the world of a country that is totally unengaged in international trade.
Page Ref: 36
Difficulty: Difficult

29) Given the information in the table above. What is the opportunity cost of Cloth in terms of Widgets in Foreign?
Answer: One half a widget.
Page Ref: 34
Difficulty: Moderate

30) Given the information in the table above. If these two countries trade these two goods in the context of the Ricardian model of comparative advantage, then what is the lower limit of the world equilibrium price of widgets?
Answer: 1/2 Cloths.
Page Ref: 35
Difficulty: Moderate

31) Given the information in the table above. If these two countries trade these two goods with each other in context of the Ricardian model of comparative advantage, what is the lower limit for the price of cloth?
Answer: One half a widget.
Page Ref: 34
Difficulty: Moderate
32) Given the information in the table above. What is the opportunity cost of cloth in terms of Widgets in Foreign?
Answer: 2 widgets.
Page Ref: 34
Difficulty: Moderate

3.4 Misconceptions About Comparative Advantage

1) If a production possibilities frontier is bowed out (concave to the origin), then production occurs under conditions of
A) constant opportunity costs.
B) increasing opportunity costs.
C) decreasing opportunity costs.
D) infinite opportunity costs.
E) uncertain opportunity costs.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 34
Difficulty: Easy

2) If the production possibilities frontier of one trade partner (Country A) is bowed out (concave to the origin), then increased specialization in production by that country will
A) increase the economic welfare of both countries.
B) increase the economic welfare of only Country A.
C) decrease the economic welfare of Country A.
D) decrease the economic welfare of Country B.
E) not affect the economic welfare of either country.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 35
Difficulty: Easy

3) If two countries have identical production possibility frontiers, then trade between them is likely to be beneficial if
A) their supply curves are identical.
B) their cost functions are identical.
C) their demand conditions are identical.
D) their incomes are identical.
E) their demand functions differ.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 37
Difficulty: Moderate

4) If one countrys wage level is very high relative to the others (the relative wage exceeding the relative productivity ratios), then if they both use the same currency
A) neither country has a comparative advantage.
B) only the low wage country has a comparative advantage.
C) only the high wage country has a comparative advantage.
D) consumers will still find trade worth while from their perspective.
E) it is possible that both will enjoy the conventional gains from trade.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 37-39
Difficulty: Moderate

5) If one countrys wage level is very high relative to the others (the relative wage exceeding the relative productivity ratios) then it is probable that
A) free trade will not improve either both countries welfare.
B) free trade will result in no trade taking place.
C) free trade will result in each country exporting the good in which it enjoys comparative advantage.
D) free trade will result in each country exporting the good in which it suffers the greatest comparative disadvantage.
E) free trade will not affect the economic welfare of either country.
Answer: C
Page Ref: 37-39
Difficulty: Moderate

6) In a two-country, two-product world, the statement Germany enjoys a comparative advantage over France in autos relative to ships is equivalent to
A) France having a comparative advantage over Germany in ships.
B) France having a comparative disadvantage compared to Germany in autos and ships.
C) Germany having a comparative advantage over France in autos and ships.
D) France having no comparative advantage over Germany.
E) France should produce autos.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 37
Difficulty: Easy

7) If the United States production possibility frontier was flatter to the widget axis, whereas Germanys was flatter to the butter axis, we know that
A) the United States has no comparative advantage
B) Germany has a comparative advantage in butter.
C) the U.S. has a comparative advantage in butter.
D) Germany has comparative advantages in both products.
E) the U.S. has a comparative disadvantage in widgets.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 37
Difficulty: Moderate

8) Suppose the United States production possibility frontier was flatter to the widget axis, whereas Germanys was flatter to the butter axis. We now learn that the German mark sharply depreciates against the U.S. dollar. We now know that
A) the United States has no comparative advantage
B) Germany has a comparative advantage in butter.
C) the United States has a comparative advantage in butter.
D) Germany has a comparative advantage in widgets.
E) Germany has lost its comparative advantage.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 37
Difficulty: Moderate
9) Suppose the United states production possibility frontier was flatter to the widget axis, whereas Germanys was flatter to the butter axis. We now learn that the German wage doubles, but U.S. wages do not change at all. We now know that
A) the United States has no comparative advantage.
B) Germany has a comparative advantage in butter.
C) the United States has a comparative advantage in butter.
D) Not enough information is given.
E) Germany gains a comparative advantage in widgets.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 37
Difficulty: Moderate

10) Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Free trade is beneficial only if your country is strong enough to stand up to foreign competition.
B) Free trade is beneficial only if your competitor does not pay unreasonably low wages.
C) Free trade is beneficial only if both countries have access to the same technology.
D) Free trade is never beneficial for developing countries.
E) Free trade can be beneficial to economic welfare of all countries involved.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 37-39
Difficulty: Moderate

11) Mahatma Gandhi exhorted his followers in India to promote economic welfare by decreasing imports. This approach
A) makes no sense.
B) makes no economic sense.
C) is consistent with the the Ricardian model of comparative advantage.
D) is not consistent with the Ricardian model of comparative advantage.
E) guarantees benefits for Indian workers.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 37-39
Difficulty: Moderate

12) The Country of Rhozundia is blessed with rich copper deposits. The cost of copper produced (relative to the cost of widgets produced) is therefore very low. From this information we know that
A) Rhozundia has a comparative advantage in copper.
B) Rhozundia should import copper and export widgets.
C) Rhozundia should export both widgets and copper.
D) Rhozundia should invest in more in widget production.
E) Rhozundia may or may not have a comparative advantage in copper.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 37-39
Difficulty: Moderate

13) We know that in antiquity, China exported silk because no one in any other country knew how to produce this product. From this information we know that
A) China had a comparative advantage in silk.
B) China had an absolute advantage, but not a comparative advantage in silk.
C) no comparative advantage could exist because the technology was not diffused.
D) China exported silk for political reasons even though it had no comparative advantage.
E) China was unable to profit by exporting silk because it was unknown in the rest of the world.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 37-41
Difficulty: Moderate

14) The pauper labor theory, and the exploitation argument
A) are theoretical weaknesses that limit the applicability of the Ricardian concept of comparative advantage.
B) are theoretically irrelevant to the Ricardian model, and do not limit its logical relevance.
C) are not relevant because the Ricardian model is based on the labor theory of value.
D) are not relevant because the Ricardian model allows for different technologies in different countries.
E) invalidate the Ricardian model.
Answer: B
Page Ref: 39
Difficulty: Easy

15) If labor productivities were exactly proportional to wage levels internationally, this would
A) not negate the logical basis for trade in the Ricardian model.
B) render the Ricardian model theoretically correct but practically useless.
C) negate the logical basis for trade in the Ricardian model.
D) negate the applicability of the Ricardian model if the number of products were greater than the number of trading partners.
E) demonstrate the validity of the Ricardian model.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 35
Difficulty: Moderate

16) Many countries in sub-Saharan Africa have very low labor productivities in many sectors, for example in manufacturing and agriculture. They often despair of even trying to attempt to build their industries unless it is done in an autarkic context, behind protectionist walls because they do not believe they can compete with more productive industries abroad. Discuss this issue in the context of the Ricardian model of comparative advantage.
Answer: The Ricardian model of comparative advantage argues that every country must have a comparative advantage in some product (assuming there are more products than countries). However, the Ricardian model is not a growth model, and cannot be used to identify growth modes or linkages.
Page Ref: 38
Difficulty: Moderate

17) In 1975, wage levels in South Korea were roughly 5% of those in the United States. It is obvious that if the United States had allowed Korean goods to be freely imported into the United States at that time, this would have caused devastation to the standard of living in the United States, because no producer in this country could possibly compete with such low wages. Discuss this assertion in the context of the Ricardian model of comparative advantage.
Answer: Regardless of relative wage levels, the United States would be able to provide its populace with a higher standard of living than would be possible without trade. Also, low wages tend to be associated with low productivities.
Page Ref: 38
Difficulty: Moderate

18) The evidence cited in the chapter using the examples of the East Asia New Industrializing Countries suggests that as international productivities converge, so do international wage levels. Why do you suppose this happened for the East Asian NICs? In light of your answer, what do you think is likely to happen to the relative wages (relative to those in the United States) of China in the coming decade? Explain your reasoning.
Answer: Following the logic of the Ricardian model of comparative advantage, the East Asian countries played to their respective comparative advantages. This allowed the world demand to provide excess demands for their relatively abundant labor, which in turn tended to raise these wages. If China follows the same pattern, their wages levels should also be expected over time to converge to those in their industrialized country markets.
Page Ref: 37-39
Difficulty: Moderate

3.5 Comparative Advantage with Many Goods

1) The two-country, multi-product model differs from the two-country, two-product model in that, in the former
A) the relative wage ratio will determine the pattern of trade ( which good is exported by which country.
B) which country will export which product is determined entirely by labor productivity data.
C) full specialization is likely to hold in equilibrium.
D) none of the goods are potentially nontraded.
E) domestic relative prices are not relevant.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 42-48
Difficulty: Moderate

2) How does the two-good, two-country version of the Ricardian model differ from the two-country, many-good model in terms of the determination which goods are produced and exported by each country?
Answer: In the two-good-two-country version of the Ricardian model, comparative advantage is totally determined by physical productivity ratios. Changes in wage rates in either country do not change physically determined comparative advantages, and therefore cannot affect which product will be exported by which country.

However, when there are more than two goods in the two-country model, changes in wage rates in one or the other country can in fact determine which good or goods each of the countries will export. The physical productivity definition of comparative advantage employed in the two-good model becomes ambiguous. Instead, changes in relative wage rates will alter international competitiveness along the chain of comparative advantage.
Page Ref: 42-48
Difficulty: Moderate

3.6 Adding Transport Costs and Nontraded Goods

1) Assume that transportation costs are especially high for Widgets in the two-country, two-product Ricardian model, and Country A enjoys a comparative advantage in Widgets, then
A) country B must also enjoy a comparative advantage in Widgets.
B) country B may end up exporting Widgets.
C) country A may switch to having a comparative advantage in the other good.
D) country A will still export Widgets.
E) Trade may be impossible between the two countries.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 47
Difficulty: Moderate

2) Which of the following is most likely to be an untraded good in a Ricardian two-country, multi-good model?
A) steel
B) textiles
C) haircuts
D) petroleum
E) telemarketer services
Answer: C
Page Ref: 47-48
Difficulty: Easy

3.7 Empirical Evidence on the Ricardian Model

1) Which of the following has been confirmed by empirical tests of the Ricardian model?
A) All predictions of the model for a multi-product, multi-country world are highly unrealistic.
B) The existence of nontraded goods results in a high degree of specialization among countries.
C) International trade has no impact on income distribution.
D) The unimportance of economies of scale as a cause of trade.
E) Companies tend to export goods in which they have a relatively high level of productivity.
Answer: E
Page Ref: 45
Difficulty: Moderate

2) When compared with China, the growth of clothing exports originating in Bangladesh clearly illustrates the difference between absolute and comparative advantage. Discuss and explain.
Answer: While Bangladesh has an absolute disadvantage in clothing (and, on average everything else), the country has a comparative advantage in clothing manufacture and export. Exports of clothing from Bangladesh have consequently surpassed those from China.
Page Ref: 47
Difficulty: Moderate

3) When compared with China, the growth of clothing exports originating in Bangladesh clearly illustrates the Ricardian model of comparative advantage. Discuss and explain.
Answer: While Bangladesh has an absolute disadvantage in clothing (and, on average everything else), the country has a comparative advantage in clothing manufacture and export. Exports of clothing from Bangladesh have consequently surpassed those from China.
Page Ref: 47
Difficulty: Moderate

4) When compared with China, the growth of clothing exports originating in Bangladesh is the result of
A) the comparative advantage that Bangladesh has in the production of clothing for export.
B) the absolute advantage that China has in the production of clothing for export.
C) the absolute advantage that Bangladesh has in the production of clothing for export.
D) the comparative and absolute advantage that China has in the production of clothing for export.
E) the comparative and absolute advantage that Bangladesh has in the production of clothing for export.
Answer: A
Page Ref: 47
Difficulty: Easy

5) The growth of clothing exports originating in Bangladesh is the result of the
A) high productivity of workers in Bangladesh.
B) low wages in Bangladesh.
C) low productivity of workers in other countries.
D) low productivity of workers in Bangladesh in industries other than those that produce clothing for export.
E) high wages in other countries.
Answer: D
Page Ref: 47
Difficulty: Easy

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