Introduction to Clinical Psychology 8th Edition By Geoffrey P. Kramer- -Test Bank

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Introduction to Clinical Psychology 8th Edition By Geoffrey P. Kramer- -Test Bank

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Introduction to Clinical Psychology 8th Edition By Geoffrey P. Kramer- -Test Bank

CHAPTER TWO

Clinical Psychologys Past and Present

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

 

  1. How did the eld of clinical psychology come into being?
  2. What are the empirical, psychometric, and clinical roots of clinical psychology?
  3. What applications of clinical psychology developed during the rst half of the 20th century?
  4. How did historical events, especially the two world wars, inuence the development of clinical psychology?
  5. What major approaches to clinical psychology developed during the second half of the 20th century?
  6. How do the major approaches to clinical psychology differ in their basic assumptions about causes of psychopathology and recommendations for treatment?
  7. How might the different clinical approaches be applied to specic cases?
  8. What are the pros and cons of taking a specic approach to clinical psychology?
  9. What are the challenges and major areas of transition facing clinical psychology today?

 

 

 

CHAPTER OUTLINE

 

           THE ROOTS OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY

The Empirical Tradition

The Psychometric Tradition

The Clinical Tradition

 

            CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY BEGINS TO GROW

Psychological Testing Expands

Clinicians Pursue Roles as Psychotherapists

Clinicians Form Professional Organizations

 

            THE MAJOR APPROACHES DEVELOP

The Psychodynamic Approach

The Humanistic Approach

The Behavioral Approach

The Cognitive Approach

The Cognitive-Behavioral Approach

Group, Family, Marital, and Systems Approaches

Biological Influences on Clinical Psychology

 

           

THE PROS AND CONS OF TAKING A SPECIFIC APPROACH  

 

 

 

IDENTIFICATION / KEY TERMS

 

empirical tradition (p. 22)                                      Army Alpha and Beta tests (p. 29)

Wilhelm Wundt (p. 22)                                          psychoanalytic training (p. 31)

Lightner Witner (p. 23)                                          Community Mental Health (p. 31)

psychometric tradition (p. 24)                                professional organizations (p. 32)

phrenology (p. 25)                                                 psychodynamic approaches (p. 34)

Francis Galton (p. 25)                                            humanist approach (p. 35)

mental tests (p. 26)                                                            Phenomenology (p. 35)

Alfred Binet (p. 26)                                                           Carl Rogers (p. 35)

James Cattell (p. 26)                                              client-centered (p. 35)

clinical tradition (p. 26)                                         behavioral approach (p. 55)

Hippocrates (p. 27)                                                            Mary Cover Jones (p. 37)

Philippe Pinel (p. 27)                                             cognitive approach (p. 38)

Dorothea Dix (p. 27)                                             George Kelly (p. 38)

Emil Kraepelin (p. 28)                                           cognitive-behavioral approach (p. 39)

Jean-Martin Charcot (p. 28)                                               systems approach (p. 39)

hypnosis (p. 28)                                                     diathesis-stress model (p. 41)

Sigmund Freud (p. 28)

 

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS / CLASS ACTIVITIES

 

            THE ROOTS OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY

 

  1. The development of pseudosciences, such as phrenology, influenced the early development of clinical psychology. Discuss the way these interacted with the empirical tradition to lead to our more modern clinical approach. Could the current interest in evidence-based interventions be seen as a recapitulation of this historical development?
  1. Create a timeline to illustrate the influences of findings in astronomy, anatomy, and theories of evolution on the mental testing movement.

 

            CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY BEGINS TO GROW

 

  1. World War I and World War II significantly affected the development of clinical psychology, but in different ways. How did these differences reflect the social changes in the country during these time periods?
    1. Discuss the role of professional organizations in the development of clinical psychology. What roles do such organizations play for the profession today?


 

            THE MAJOR APPROACHES DEVELOP

 

  1. Have students create a list of their own personal constructs as per George Kelly (p. 58). Discuss the ways these constructs might impact their perceptions of their college experience.
    1. Explore the reasons why proponents of behavioral approaches inevitably had to accept aspects of cognitive theories. This can be used as another example that the contributions from astronomy, anatomy, and evolution are relevant to understanding the development of clinical psychology.

            THE PROS AND CONS OF TAKING A SPECIFIC APPROACH

 

  1. Test anxiety is a common concern among college students. Have the students break into groups and describe the phenomenon from the various approaches listed in the chapter. Discuss which approaches seem to describe the issue best.
    1. Have the groups rearrange, so members who discussed different approaches are now in groups together. Again, have them describe test anxiety, but this time integrating their various views. Discuss the differences in the process of the two group configurations.

 

            CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY TODAY

  1. Have students create a pie-chart of their psychological interests, including research, assessment, direct clinical service, teaching, etc. Have them discuss their patterns of interest with their views of the field today, and where they see the field heading in the future.
    1. Bring in clinicians who spend most of their time doing either research, testing, direct service, or consulting. Discuss with them the pathways they took to end up in their particular area.

 

WEB EXERCISES

 

  1. Learn more about the history of psychology from the APAs Society for the History of Psychology:  http://www.apa.org/about/division/div26.html. View video clips of some of the major contributors on YouTube.
  1. Compare the background material from APAs Psychotherapy Section (Division 29) at http://www.apa.org/about/division/div29.html with the information from The Association for Psychological Science at http://www.psychologicalscience.org. Do these two professional organizations present different views on clinical practice?
  1. Visit the website for the Freud Museum in London, where Freud spent the last year of his life after eeing Vienna from the Nazis in 1938 (http://www.freud.org.uk). Compare his later-developing thoughts with his earlier ideas as discussed in the chapter.

 

  1. Explore your state psychological association website(s) for resources or events that might indicate which theoretical orientations are of most interest in your area. If your state requires continuing education hours for psychologists, access information about the various workshops and seminars that qualify. Is the trend toward eclecticism, or are some specific approaches becoming more prominent?

 

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

 

  • Video: Young Doctor Freud, part 1. PBS Video. Approx. 60 minutes. Presents the early years of the doctors life, and the foundational experiences that lead to the development of his theories.
  • Video: Madness: A History. (2001) Films for the Humanities and Sciences. Approx. 51 minutes.
  • Kelly, W. L. (1990) Psychology of the unconscious: Mesmer, Janet, Freud, Jung, and current issues. New York: Prometheus.
  • Kirschenbaum, H. (2004). Carl Rogerss life and work: An assessment on the 100th anniversary of his birth. Journal of Counseling and Development, 82, 116-124.
  • Ellis, A. (2003) Early theories and practices of rational-emotive behavior therapy and how they have been augmented and revised during the last three decades. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 21, 219-243.

 

TEST BANK

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. When did clinical psychology emerge as a distinct discipline?
    1. in the late 1800s
    2. in the early twentieth century
    3. in the mid- to late-1900s
    4. just before WWII
  • Answer: b Page: 22
  1. Wilhem Wundt is considered the founder of psychology because
    1. the opening of his laboratory clearly proclaimed psychology as a science.
    2. he was the only person at the time working on problems that were clearly psychological.
    3. he was the first person to apply empirical methods to psychological processes.
    4. all of the choices are correct
    • Answer: a Page: 22
  1. The earliest reception for the new clinical psychology
    1. was overwhelmingly positive.
    2. was mostly positive, especially by those involved in research.
    3. foreshadowed future issues between the psychology as a science and psychology as an applied profession divisions of the new field.
    4. none of the above
  • Answer: c Page: 22
  1. During the first half of the 20th century, what activity came to characterize applied psychology more than any other?
    1. intelligence testing
    2. vision, hearing, and other sensory acuity testing
    3. personality testing
    4. psychoanalytic treatment
  • Answer: a Page: 24
  1. The theory that assumed that each area of the brain is associated with a different faculty, and that the shape of the skull reflects the relative strengths of those areas is called
    1. the personal equation.
    2. psychodynamic diagnosis.
  • Answer: b Page: 25
  1. Alfred Binets French psychology laboratory was largely focused on
    1. mental measurement.
    2. diagnosis of mental illness.
    3. all of the above
  • Answer: a Page: 26
  1. Binets tests measured _______________, while the earlier tests of Witmer measured_________.
    1. intelligence; personality
    2. complex mental processes; fixed mental structures
    3. skills; abilities
    4. personality; fixed mental processes
  • Answer: b Page: 26
  1. Individual mental measurement was integrated into the new science by
    1. James Cattell.
    2. Sir Francis Galton.
    3. Alfred Binet.
    4. Sigmund Freud.
  • Answer: a Page: 26
    1. The individual whose classification system for mental disorders involved an approach that is evident in the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders was
    1. Emil Kraepelin.
    2. Dorothea Dix.
    3. Jean-Martin Charcot.
    4. Carl Rogers.
  • Answer: a Page: 28
  1. A major sociocultural event that created an acute need for psychological testing in the United States was
    1. the establishment of psychology departments in major universities.
    2. new requirement for public school education for all children.
    3. the involvement of the country in WWI.
    4. the establishment of the National Institute for Mental Health (NIMH).
  • Answer: c Page: 29
  1. Which of the following factors contributed to psychologys evolution toward a focus on providing therapy to adults?
    1. the expansion of psychological testing.
    2. the development of child guidance clinics.
    3. increasing interest in psychoanalysis.
    4. all of the choices are correct
  • Answer: d Page: 30
  1. To whom did William James say, The future of psychology belongs to your work?
    1. Witmer
    2. Freud
    3. Cattell
    4. Stanley Hall
  • Answer: b Page: 31
  1. A major development in 1946 that supported clinical psychology as an applied field that offered psychotherapy was
    1. the VAs launching of a program to support training in mental health disciplines.
    2. the proliferation of child guidance clinics.
    3. the development of psychoanalytic institutes.
    4. the advent of professional organizations.
  • Answer: a Page: 33
  1. Treatment in the psychoanalytic approach
    1. is aimed at unearthing unconscious conflicts in order to develop insight.
    2. is based on complex behavioral analysis.
    3. is always conducted in hospitals or institutions.
    4. is notable for being the foundation for the development of short-term treatments.
  • Answer: a Page: 34

 

  1. The philosophical position which states that behavior is determined by the perception of experience rather than the experience directly is
    1. humanistic psychology.
    2. self-actualization.
    3. Gestalt psychology.
  • Answer: b Page: 35
  1. Carl Rogers developed a humanistic therapy he termed
    1. self-actualizing psychology.
    2. Gestalt psychotherapy.
    3. client-centered psychotherapy.
    4. the actualizing tendency.
  • Answer: b Page: 35
  1. The theorist who emphasized the quality of the client-therapist relationship and considered it to be based on empathic listening was
    1. Carl Rogers.
    2. Sigmund Freud.
    3. Alfred Binet.
    4. James Cattell.
  • Answer: a Page: 36
  1. The behavioral approach led to
    1. treatments for sexual disorders, substance abuse, and anxiety in the 1920s and 1930s.
    2. the development of experimental neuroses.
    3. a move away from evaluating treatment effectiveness.
    4. a belief that psychological problems were biological, rather than learned.
  • Answer: a Page: 37

 

  1. The approach to treatment that emphasizes personal constructs and attributions and appraisals as important determinants of human behavior is
    1. behavior therapy.
    2. Gestalt therapy.
    3. cognitive therapy.
    4. psychodynamic therapy.
  • Answer: c Page: 38
  1. As behavioral therapists accepted the importance of human cognitive processes in determining behavior and reactions
    1. behavioral and cognitive therapies became much more distinct.
    2. the traditional differences between the two approaches evaporated and were replaced by new, stronger theoretical differences.
    3. cognitive and behavioral therapies began to merge and become an integrated approach.
    4. none of the above, most behavior therapists still do not acknowledge the importance of cognitions.
  • Answer: c Page: 39
  1. An early pioneer who understood the importance of focusing both on troublesome behaviors and irrational beliefs was
    1. Albert Ellis.
    2. Mary Cover Jones.
    3. John Watson.
    4. none of the above
  • Answer: a Page: 39

 

  1. The development of group therapies was facilitated by
    1. a shortage of mental health personnel around the time of WWII.
    2. a focus on testing which identified many people who needed therapy.
    3. the fact that only a few orientations developed group approaches.
    4. their limitation to inpatient populations.
  • Answer: a Page: 40
    1. Approaches to group therapy were developed by therapists with which orientation?
    1. analytic
    2. humanistic
    3. cognitive-behaviorist
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: d Page: 40
  1. One significant reason that clinical psychologists are becoming increasingly interested in the biological causes of mental disorders is
    1. a belief that all clinical psychologists should have prescription-writing privileges.
    2. An understanding that biological factors can often be modified by psychological interventions.
    3. A reduced belief in the validity of the diathesis-stress model.
    4. all of the above

 

Answer: b                    Page: 41

 

  1. The books authors point out that one reason clinical approaches tend to be self-contained, and even myopic, is that
    1. clinicians need to have only one focus because there is so much to pay attention to.
    2. as new models emerge, they often define themselves as distinct from older models.
    3. it is essential to narrow the vast range of variables one pays attention to in order to provide the best service to clients.
    4. all of the above

 

Answer: b                    Page: 45

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Early psychologists were characterized by their determination to study human behavior based on the two scientific principles of observation and experimentation.
  • Answer: True Page 22
  1. Psychological intelligence testing and personality testing developed at about the same time.
  • Answer: False             Page: 24
  1. Hippocrates legitimized the involvement of the medical profession in the treatment of mental illness with his early theories of bodily humors or fluids.
  • Answer: True Page: 27
  1. The awareness that mental illnesses could be caused by medical conditions was supported by the finding that general paresis, which led to insanity, was caused by syphilis.
  • Answer: True Page: 28
  1. By the advent of WWII, there were nearly 200 tests of mental abilities in existence.
  • Answer: False Page: 30

 

  1. In the 1940s and 1950s, the APA did little to clarify or define the specialty of clinical psychology.
  • Answer: False Page: 33
  1. Witmer was particularly supportive of the movement toward psychologists treating adult mentally ill individuals.
  • Answer: False Page: 30
  1. Carl Rogers believed that diagnostic shrewdness was an essential component of effectively working with clients.
  • Answer: False Page: 36
  1. Ellis advocated direct communication and persuasion to encourage clients to change while Freud encouraged therapists to rely on interpretation to effect therapeutic change.
  • Answer: True Page: 38
  1. Clinical work with married couples originally focused mostly on practical aspects of marriage, such as sexuality and parenting.

 

Answer: True               Page: 40

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Discuss the four reasons why Witmers new brand of psychology was not well-received when he first presented it in 1896 at the APA meeting. (Page: 23)
  1. How did the psychometric tradition influence the development of clinical psychology? (Pages: 24-26)
  1. Discuss how the American military played pivotal roles in the development of clinical psychology. (Pages: 29-31)
  1. Discuss the ways in which cognitive therapies share features of psychodynamic, humanistic, and behavioral approaches. (Pages: 38-39)
  1. There may be problems with psychologists taking specific approaches and maintaining a variety of theoretical orientations. How can these be mitigated? (Page: 44)

 

CHAPTER EIGHT

Behavioral and Cognitive-Behavioral Psychotherapies

 

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

 

  1. How do behavioral psychologists view personality organization?
  2. What are classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning?
  3. What information and instruments are behavior therapists likely to favor?
  4. How would you describe the role of the therapist in behavior therapy?
  5. In what ways are the behavioral concept of stimulus generalization and the psychoanalytic

concept of transference similar?

  1. What is relaxation training, and what is it used for?
  2. What is systematic desensitization, and how is it conducted?
  3. Describe other techniques used by behavior therapists.
  4. What does it mean to say that cognitions mediate between events and emotions?
  5. What are cognitive distortions? Schemas? Give several examples.
  6. How are automatic cognitive distortions similar to and different from unconscious

processes in psychodynamic theory?

  1. What are the main goals of cognitive therapy?
  2. What is psychoeducation, and why do cognitive therapists consider it important?
  3. What is Socratic questioning? For what purpose do cognitive therapists use it?
  4. How do clients use the three-column and the ve-column thought records to practice the

principles of cognitive therapy?

  1. How are cognitive-behavior therapy sessions typically structured?
  2. What is relapse prevention, and how do cognitive therapists work with clients on it?
  3. How would you describe the status of cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy in the United

States today?

 

 

CHAPTER OUTLINE

BEHAVIOR THERAPY

Theoretical Foundations

The Goals of Behavior Therapy

Clinical Applications

 

         COGNITIVE THERAPY

Theoretical Foundations

The Goals of Cognitive Therapy

Clinical Applications

                 Psychoeducation

Socratic Questioning and Guided Discovery

 

COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOR THERAPY

Theoretical Foundations

Clinical Applications

 

THE CURRENT STATUS OF COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOR THERAPY

 

IDENTIFICATION / KEY TERMS

 

 

  • behavior therapy (p. 208)
  • classical conditioning (p. 209)
  • operant conditioning (p. 208)
  • stimulus generalization (p. 209)
  • observational learning (p. 209)
  • vicarious conditioning (p. 209)
  • functional analysis (p. 209)
  • progressive relaxation training (p. 211)
  • systematic desensitization (p. 211)
  • reciprocal inhibition (p. 211)
  • graduated hierarchies (p. 211)
  • exposure treatments (p. 212)
  • extinction (p. 212)
  • response prevention (p. 212)
  • flooding (p. 212)
  • VR exposure treatment (p. 214)
  • in vivo exposure treatments (p. 214)
  • social skills training (p. 215)
  • behavioral activation (p. 215)
  • modeling (p. 215)
  • participant modeling (p. 215)

graded task assignments (p. 215)

aversion therapies (p. 215)

cognitive therapy (p. 218)

cognitive mediation  (p. 219)

schemas (p. 219)

automatic thoughts (p. 220)

negative attribution styles (p. 220)

cognitive specificity hypothesis (p. 220)

Aaron Beck  (p. 222)

cognitive triad (p. 222)

Albert Ellis (p. 222)

rational-emotive therapy (p. 222)

psychoeducation (p. 223)

Socratic questioning (p. 224)

decatastrophizing (p. 225)

confirmation bias (p. 225)

multi-column thought records (p. 226)

cognitive-behavioral therapy (p. 227)

relapse prevention (p. 228)

abstinence violation effect (p. 228)

Marsha Linehan (p. 228)

dialectical behavior therapy (p. 228)

 

 

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS / CLASS ACTIVITIES

 

BEHAVIOR THERAPY

 

  1. This chapter provides several nice opportunities for students to experience the main concepts directly. Choose a topic that is relevant to the group; usually test anxiety or fear of public speaking work well. Then have them do a functional analysis (see page 209). Have the students use their own understanding of these concerns as various topics are discussed in class.
  1. Conduct a progressive relaxation exercise with the class (or invite a guest speaker to do this). Another technique for lowering sympathetic nervous system activity is called Lengthening the Exhale. (See additional resources for information on this.) This is easily done in even the largest classes and students are often quite impressed with the effect they experience.

         COGNITIVE THERAPY

 

  1. Using the functional analysis developed earlier, have the students explore the role their cognitions, especially self-defeating thoughts, play in their difficulties. One way to do this is to give them homework: Have them use the outline for Socratic questioning presented on page 224 to explore their thoughts.
    1. Alternately, have students practice keeping a multicolumn thought record for several days. Have them discuss their reactions in small groups.
      COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOR THERAPY

 

  1. The basic structure for a cognitive-behavioral session is presented on page 227. Many instructors will be able to note how similar this process is to conducting a college class (e.g., by substituting student for patient, and concept for symptom). Thus, the classroom can become an illustration of the way CBT is carried out.
  1. Bring the major concepts of the chapter together at this point. Have the students imagine their anxious situation and write a paragraph about their cognitive mediators (catastrophizing is particularly fun in a group). Then lead them in a short relaxation session as they continue to visualize. Give them homework to repeat the exercise several times and discuss their experience with the class.

            THE CURRENT STATUS OF COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOR THERAPY

 

  1. A brief discussion of some basic neuropsychological concepts can clarify the reason that behavior therapy and cognitive therapy would inevitably merge. Remind students that the limbic system is in the central part of the brain. Emotions are integral to all other functions, such as memory and meaning-making. Trying to make behavior change without acknowledging this central aspect of emotions (and thereby, cognitions) is not as efficacious as combined approaches.
    1. Have the students discuss whether CBT sounds appealing to them as clinical practitioners. This is often a lively discussion, as some students find the concepts very appealing, while others fear the work will be very dry.

 

WEB EXERCISES

 

  1. Visit the APA Behavior Analysis Division 25 at apa.org/about/division/div25.html, and the site for the Beck Institute for Cognitive Therapy and Research (beckinstitute.org). Identify the similarities and differences in the approaches, information presented, and goals of the two organizations.
  1. Visit depts.gallaudet.edu/TIP/manual/ main/documents/AssertivenessTrainingforLevel2.ppt and view PowerPoint slides on assertiveness training. Is the behavioral approach clear in this presentation?
  1. At guidetopsychology.com/pmr.htm you will find instructions for a self-administered progressive relaxation exercise. Do you think its helpful to have this information readily available? Or do you think this should remain the domain of trained professionals?
  1. A self-help site for dialectical behavior therapy can be found at www.dbtselfhelp.com. This type of therapy is designed for individuals with significant personality disorders. Do you feel this site adequately encourages viewers to seek professional consultation? Is this important?
  1. Visit the websites for your local psychological association or mental health center. Do they offer behaviorally-oriented groups? Which ones are the most common?

 

 

 

 

ADDITIONAL RESOURCES

 

  • Video: Ellis, A. Rational Emotive Therapy (Undated). Champaign, IL: Research Press. Approx. 30 minutes.
  • Video: Goldstein, A., & McGinnis, E. (Undated). Skillstreaming: People skills, doing em right. Champaign, IL: Research Press. 16 minutes. Example of a social-skills training program.
  • Video: Persons, J. B. Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. (Undated). Washington D. C.: American Psychological Association. Available at apa.org/videos/4310335.html. Approx. 100 minutes.
  • Video: Skinner, B.F. (Undated). F. Skinner and behavior change: Research, Practice, and Promise. Champaign, IL: Research Press. Approx. 45 minutes.
  • Instructions for Lengthening the Exhale can be found at fiveminutestressrelief.com/Lengthening_the_Exhale.html.
  • Tavris, C. and Aronson, E. (2007). Mistakes were made (but not by me). New York: Harcourt. This book presents a lively discussion of the power of the confirmation bias.

TEST BANK

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. A key assumption underlying behavior therapy is that
    1. psychological problems develop in a unique manner that must be addressed by specific techniques.
    2. behavior problems are related to deep, underlying psychic conflicts.
    3. psychological problems develop according to the same principles as do other behaviors.
    4. behavioral problems are much more easily addressed than real psychological problems.
  • Answer: c Page: 208
  1. When two situations are similar enough that they generate the same response,
    1. stimulus generalization has occurred.
    2. the person has not discriminated between the two situations.
    3. both a and b
    4. neither a nor b
    • Answer: c Page: 209

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Both observational learning and vicarious conditioning support the understanding that
    1. behavior is developed through operant and classical conditioning.
    2. reinforcement is more powerful than punishment in changing behavior.
    3. behaviors can be learned by simply observing others.
    4. structured learning is more persistent.
  • Answer: c Page: 209
  1. Which of the following is NOT a component of functional analysis?
    1. stimulus
    2. organism
    3. consequences
    4. observations
  • Answer: d Page: 209
  1. The primary goal of behavior therapists is
    1. to complete a thorough functional analysis.
    2. to assign an accurate DSM-5 diagnosis.
    3. to help the client modify maladaptive overt behaviors.
    4. to help the client modify maladaptive cognitions that affect behavior.
  • Answer: c Page: 210
  1. The antianxiety treatment known as systematic desensitization utilizes the principle of
    1. reciprocal inhibition.
    2. consequence modification.
    3. operant conditioning.
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: a Page: 211
  1. Which of the following would NOT be considered an exposure treatment?
    1. extinction
    2. flooding
    3. response prevention
    4. all of the above are exposure treatments
  • Answer: d Page: 212

 

  1. Which of the following would probably NOT be amenable to exposure treatments?
    1. agoraphobia and the panic attacks that precede it
    2. obsessive-compulsive disorder
    3. depression
    4. binge craving in bulimia
  • Answer: c Page: 212
  1. Behavioral therapists note that some psychological disorders result from clients lacking the ability to form and maintain relationships. Thus, they often include _________________as part of treatment.
    1. social skills training
    2. exposure therapy
    3. functional analysis
    4. unconditional positive regard
  • Answer: a Page: 214
  1. When therapists set up practice scenarios in which clients are assured of experiencing success they are using
    1. aversion therapy.
    2. behavioral activation.
    3. response prevention.
  • Answer: c Page: 215
  1. Cognitions may include all but which of the following?
    1. beliefs, causal explanations
    2. schemas and self-statements
    3. free-floating anxiety
    4. problem-solving strategies
  • Answer: c Page: 218
  1. Organized knowledge structures that influence how we process information are called
    1. constellations of belief.
  • Answer: b Page: 219

 

  1. What a psychodynamic therapist might call __________________, a cognitive therapist would call ____________________.
    1. unconscious material; automatic thoughts
    2. repressed ideation; unconscious material
    3. defensiveness; repressed urges
    4. cognitions; schemas
  • Answer: a Page: 220
  1. Which of the following would NOT support the cognitive specificity hypothesis?
    1. Persons who share certain disorders seem inclined to employ similar cognitive distortions.
    2. Persons with depression often have a negative attributional style.
    3. Persons prone to depression often interpret negative events as occurring because of internal, global, and stable factors.
    4. Normal and abnormal behaviors are triggered by cognitive interpretation of events, rather than by the events themselves.
  • Answer: d Page: 220
  1. According to Aaron Beck, depressed individuals show a characteristic pattern of negative perceptions about themselves, their world, and their future. He called this
    1. a maladaptive schema.
    2. the cognitive triad.
    3. an underdeveloped ego.
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: b Page: 222
  1. Albert Ellis developed an influential pioneering cognitive therapy called
    1. systematic desensitization therapy.
    2. rational-emotive behavior therapy.
    3. behavioral activation therapy.
    4. cognitive-behavioral therapy.
  • Answer: b Page: 222
  1. Which of the following techniques are likely to be included in rational-emotive behavior therapy?
    1. role-playing
    2. sensory-awareness exercises
    3. desensitization
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: d Page: 223

 

  1. Which of the following behaviors would an REBT therapist be least likely to engage in?
    1. abrasive confrontation of the clients distortions
    2. unconditional positive regard
    3. strong, direct communication
    4. role-playing, sensory-awareness activities, and homework
  • Answer: b Page: 223
  1. When a therapist pursues a line of questioning until a clients beliefs are apparent and open to analysis, it is called
    1. collaborative empiricism.
    2. Socratic questioning.
    3. a therapeutic alliance.
  • Answer: b Page: 224
  1. If a client with social phobia is encouraged to discuss the most humiliating experience that could occur to her in public, this would be called
    1. in vivo exposure treatment.
    2. behavioral activation.
    3. reciprocal inhibition.
  • Answer: c Page: 225
  1. John has been given homework by his therapist that entails writing down events of emotional significance as they occur, along with his automatic cognitions and their intensity. This is called
    1. a two-column thought record.
    2. a three-column thought record.
    3. clarification questioning record.
    4. decatastrophizing record.
  • Answer: b Page: 226
  1. Individuals tend to pay much more attention to information that supports their beliefs than that which refutes them. This is called the
    1. confirmation bias.
    2. attributional bias.
    3. explicit belief schema.
    4. tendency to catastrophize.
  • Answer: b Page: 225

 

  1. Relapse prevention treatment is based on the cognitive-behavior principles of
    1. replacing risky cognitions with more adaptive ones.
    2. reframing relapse episode as a setback, not as an excuse to resume maladaptive behavior.
    3. developing better self-control strategies.
    4. all of the above
  • Answer: d Page: 228
  1. Marilyn has been diagnosed with borderline personality disorder. Which form of cognitive-behavior therapy is likely to be recommended for her?
    1. rational-emotive behavior therapy
    2. dialectical behavior therapy
    3. cognitive behavior therapy
    4. social skills behavior therapy
  • Answer: b Page: 228
  1. The reason cognitive-behavioral approaches to therapy continue to be popular in training programs is
    1. the techniques are straightforward and problem-oriented.
    2. as a relatively scripted approach, it is easier for clinicians to learn than some other approaches.
    3. there is solid data about the efficacy of this treatment approach for a variety of disorders.
    4. all of the above

 

Answer: d                    Page: 232

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. Behavior therapy is a highly regarded single method of psychotherapeutic treatment.
  • Answer: False Page: 208
  1. Although problem assessment is considered important, DSM-5 diagnosis is generally not the focus of this assessment.
  • Answer: True Page: 209
  1. Behavior therapies have broadened to include the development of a range of social skills, such as making conversation and engaging in interpersonal problem solving.
  • Answer: True Page: 214
  1. When tasks are large, a therapist might break the task into smaller steps called graded task assignments.
  • Answer: True Page: 215
  1. Cognitions are important because they mediate between the id and the ego.
  • Answer: False Page: 219
  1. According to cognitive theorists, if a person perceives a situation as dangerous, he will react to it as if it is dangerous, regardless of the reality of the situation.
  • Answer: True Page: 219
  1. Schemas act as filters for perceptions of the self and of the world.
  • Answer: True Page: 219
  1. Beck believes that depression is caused by deeply ingrained internal conflicts that the client has not explored fully.
  • Answer: False Page: 222
  1. In order to maintain a positive working alliance, cognitive therapists try to avoid direct education about the power of cognitive distortions.
  • Answer: False Page: 223
  1. Cognitive and behavioral approaches have maintained their individuality in spite of attempts to link the two psychotherapeutic approaches.

 

Answer: False              Page: 227

 

 

ESSAY

 

  1. Elaborate on the statement in the text that behaviors seen in psychological problems develop through the same laws of learning that influence the development of other behaviors. (Page: 209)
  1. Describe some ways that newer technologies facilitate behavioral therapies. (Page: 214)
  1. What could be the advantages and disadvantages of Elliss proposal that therapists stay very active in the process, even to the point of being challenging and abrasive. (Page: 222)
  1. What are the three main goals of cognitive therapy? (Page: 218)
  1. What are the advantages for behavioral and cognitive approaches of being well-grounded in the empirical tradition in clinical psychology? (Page: 232)

 

 

CHAPTER SIXTEEN

Getting Into Graduate School in Clinical Psychology

 

LEARNING OBJECTIVES

 

  1. List the various degrees and career options that lead to the possibility of being a therapist.
  2. How might research experience and clinical experience inuence your professional life (in

terms of career goals and admission to graduate school)?

  1. What are the pros and cons of earning a masters versus a PhD in clinical psychology?
  2. What are the pros and cons of earning a PhD versus a PsyD in clinical psychology?
  3. Describe the APA accreditation process.
  4. What is the primary emphasis of programs that are members of the Academy of

Psychological Clinical Science?

  1. Describe some of the personal costs that exist when in graduate school.
  2. In terms of nancial costs of graduate school, describe the differences between PhD and

PsyD programs. What are the reasons for these differences?

  1. Describe the content of the GRE General Test and discuss how the test is administered

currently.

  1. Describe the content of the GRE Subject Test and discuss how the test is administered

currently.

  1. What are the different types of GPA calculations that might be requested while applying

to graduate programs?

  1. What is the process to request letters of recommendation?
  2. What should be included in your personal statement?
  3. What are the ways to gather information about graduate programs and the application process?
  4. What advice do we offer about how many applications to submit?

 

 

CHAPTER OUTLINE

WHAT TYPES OF GRADUATE PROGRAMS WILL HELP ME MEET MY CAREER      GOALS?

Research Versus Clinical Emphasis?

MA, PhD, or PsyD?

 

AM I READY TO MAKE THE COMMITMENT REQUIRED IN DOCTORAL PROGRAMS          AT THIS TIME IN MY LIFE?

Time Commitments

Financial Commitments

Academic and Emotional Commitments

 

         ARE MY CREDENTIALS STRONG ENOUGH FOR GRADUATE SCHOOL IN CLINICAL          PSYCHOLOGY?

Undergraduate Coursework and Experience

Graduate Record Exam (GRE) Scores

Grade Point Average

Letters of Recommendation

 

         GIVEN MY CREDENTIALS, TO WHAT TYPE OF PROGRAM CAN I REALISTICALLY             ASPIRE?

 

         I HAVE DECIDED TO APLY TO GRADUATE SCHOOL IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY,             WHAT SHOULD I DO FIRST?

 

         SHOULD I APPLY TO A MASTERS DEGREE PROGRAM AND COMPLETE IT      BEFORE             I APPLY TO A DOCTORAL PROGRAM?

 

IF I CHOOSE TO TERMINATE MY TRAINING AFTER EARNING A MASTERS       DEGREE, WILL MY OPPORTUNITIES FOR DOING CLINICAL WORK BE LIMITED?

 

         APPLICATION PROCEDURES

                 How Do I Get Information About Graduate Schools and Identify Good Graduate                                                   Programs?

                 What Does It mean When a Clinical Psychology Graduate Program Is Accredited by the                                    APA?

What Does It Mean When a Clinical Psychology Graduate Program Is Accredited by the                                   Psychological Clinical Science Accreditation System?

When Should I Apply, and What Kind of Timeline Should I Expect?

To How Many Programs Should I Apply?

How Much Will It Cost to Apply?

What Testing Is Involved in Applying to Graduate School?

How Important Is My Grade Point Average?

Will I Need Letters of Recommendation for My Graduate School Application?

If So, How Many and From Whom?

What Should I Know About Asking for Letters of Recommendation?

Will I Be Able to See My Letters of Recommendation?

What Should I Write About in My Personal Statement?

Are Personal Interviews Required?

How Do I Prepare for an Onsite Interview?

What Kind of Financial Aid Is Available for Graduate Study?

 

         OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

Are There Any Last-Minute Things I Need to Do When Applying?

When I Am Admitted to a Program, How Long Will I Have to Make a

Decision About Whether to Accept?

Will I Be Successful in Gaining Admission?

 

IDENTIFICATION / KEY TERMS

 

 

  • research emphasis (p. 416)
  • clinical emphasis (p. 416)
  • Masters degrees (p. 417)
  • PhD and PsyD (p. 418)
  • time commitments (p. 419)
  • financial commitments (p. 419)
  • NIH loan repayment program (p. 420)
  • National Health Service Corps (p. 420)
  • undergraduate coursework (p. 421)
  • research/clinical experience (pp. 421-422)
  • grade point average (p. 423)

Graduate Study in Psychology (p. 425)

APA accreditation (p. 428)

PCSAS accreditation (p. 429)

Graduate Record Examination (p. 430)

grade point average (p. 537)

  • letters of recommendation (p. 433)
  • personal statement (p. 435)

interviews (p. 436)

financial aid (p. 439)

loans (p. 439)

fellowships (p. 439)

assistantships/traineeships (p. 439)

 

 

  • DISCUSSION QUESTIONS / CLASS ACTIVITIES

 

            WHAT TYPES OF GRADUATE PROGRAMS WILL HELP ME MEET MY CAREER   GOALS?

 

  1. Invite a graduate student to open this discussion with the students. Allow them time to ask questions about the process and listen to any tips and suggestions.
  1. Discuss that the starting point for the process of application is some real soul searching and definition of goals and aspirations. Have them create lists of what their personal goals are, what they think their familys goals are for them, and what society says are appropriate goals for them. Encourage small group sharing and processing of this information.

 

AM I READY TO MAKE THE COMMITMENT REQUIRED IN DOCTORAL PROGRAMS                      AT THIS TIME IN MY LIFE?

 

  1. This section is really a consideration of personal values. Have students develop a pie chart. First the pie gets divided into sections that reflect their perceptions of personal obligations, family obligations, and societal obligations. The personal obligation segment then can be further divided into education, employment, relationships, avocations, and hobbies, wellness activities, etc. This can be a nice visual tool as they explore the time and motivation they have available to pursue graduate school.
    1. Some students might want to consult with a financial analyst to explore their financial status. This may also lead them to explore the length of time various programs take to complete, the earning potential upon completion, and financial aid possibilities in a more coherent way.
  • ARE MY CREDENTIALS STRONG ENOUGH FOR GRADUATE SCHOOL IN CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY?
  1. Have students obtain copies of their transcripts from all schools they have attended and create lists of the research and clinical activities in which they have participated. What do they see as their strengths and weaknesses?
  1. Some students may want to take the practice GRE available at www.ets.org. This can establish a baseline performance level, and help them decide on the types of preparations that will be helpful.

            GIVEN MY CREDENTIALS, TO WHAT TYPE OF PROGRAM CAN I REALISTICALLY         ASPIRE?

 

  1. Have each student explore a PhD program, a PsyD program, and a masters level program. How do their credentials, as determined above, fit with these programs?

 

 

I HAVE DECIDED TO APPLY TO GRADUATE SCHOOL IN CLINICAL            PSYCHOLOGY. WHAT SHOULD I DO FIRST?

 

  1. The students should be able to prepare a personal statement at this point. Have them write their statements out and share them with their classmates.

 

            SHOULD I APPLY TO A MASTERS DEGREE PROGRAM AND COMPLETE IT        BEFORE I APPLY TO A DOCTORAL PROGRAM?

 

  1. Have a masters level therapist visit the class and answer questions about the decisions her or she made and why. Alternately, invite the director of training from a program that offers both masters level and doctoral level training for input on this question.

            IF I CHOOSE TO TERMINATE MY TRAINING AFTER EARNING A MASTERS        DEGREE, WILL MY OPPORTUNITIES FOR DOING CLINICAL WORK BE LIMITED?

 

  1. The answer to this question will vary from state to state. Students can explore the website for the state agency that regulates mental health practices for information about this.

 

            APPLICATION PROCEDURES

 

  1.     Have the students obtain an application from the website of a program that interests them                and make a list of all the required materials. Have them sketch out a timeline for meeting                         each step of the process.

 

            OTHER IMPORTANT QUESTIONS

 

  1.    Although it seems too basic for advanced college students, it can be a good idea to                           discuss professional courtesy and basic manners. Having students come to a class as if to                  an interview can be a good lesson in appropriate attire.

 

WEB EXERCISES

 

  1. Compare the programs listed on the Academy of Psychological Clinical Science at www.psych.arizona. edu/apcs with those on the APA Committee on Accreditation at www.apa. org/ed/accreditation. How do these two lists differ?
  1. Access the APA Guide to Getting Into Graduate School at www.apa.or/ed/getin.html. Find information there about accredited programs that might interest you.
  1. Take advantage of the information on the GRE available from the Educational Testing Service at www.gre.org. Be sure to note the new types of questions added in 2008. Do you think these question types will help make the computerized part of the test clearer?
  1. Explore the APA site for Careers in Psychology at www.apa.org/students/student1.html. See if your department or library has the books listed on the website and check some of them out for more information.
  1. Visit the website fo

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