Introduction to Criminology Why Do They Do It? 1st Edition by Pamela J. Schram Stephen G. Tibbetts Test Bank

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Introduction to Criminology Why Do They Do It? 1st Edition by Pamela J. Schram Stephen G. Tibbetts Test Bank

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Schram, Introduction to Criminology

1. ________________ assumes that criminal behavior increases because certain individuals are caught and branded as offenders.

a. consensus theory
b. conflict theory
*c. labeling theory
d. left realism theory

General Feedback:
Page 255; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

2. _____________s theory focused on the process that occurs after an individual has been caught and designated as violating the law.

a. Lemert
*b. Tannenbaum
c. Cooley
d. Mead
e. Becker

General Feedback:
Page 255-256; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

3. Outsiders: Studies in the Sociology of Deviance was written by _______ about the labeling perspective.

a. Lemert
*b. Becker
c. Tannenbaum
d. Cooley
e. Mead

General Feedback:
Page 257; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

4. Who is deviance created by?

a. law makers
b. politicians
c. individuals
*d. society

General Feedback:
Page 258; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

5. The process by which an individual is identified as a deviant and thereafter viewed in a new light.

*a. retrospective interpretation
b. stereotyping
c. status-degradation ceremony
d. negotiation

General Feedback:
Page 259; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

6. Criminologists from the consensus perspective maintain all of the following EXCEPT:

a. where differences between groups exist, law is the neutral mechanism that helps individuals resolve their conflicts
b. law reflects the need for social order
c. law is a product of value consensus
*d. law is a partial system that protects private interests

General Feedback:
Page 264; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

7. Group conflict theory focuses only on those situations in which criminal behavior is a result of conflicting group interests, which includes all of the following types of crimes EXCEPT:

a. crimes arising from racial and ethnic clashes
b. crimes arising from labor disputes
*c. crimes arising from robbery
d. crimes arising from political protest

General Feedback:
Page 266; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

8. The philosophy and teachings of Karl Marx influenced the development of _______________.

a. labeling theory
b. consensus theory
*c. radical conflict theory
d. group conflict theory

General Feedback:
Page 270; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

9. _________ argues that part of human nature is that peoples lives are a part, and a product, of their group associations.

a. labeling theory
b. critical-radical theory
c. consensus theory
*d. group conflict theory

General Feedback:
Page 266; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

10. Cooley noted that primary groups are those characterized by intimate and personal interactions. Some of the most important primary groups are all of the following EXCEPT:

a. neighborhood
b. play groups
c. family
*d. celebrities

General Feedback:
Page 255; Blooms Taxonomy: application

11. During the various decision-making stages of police encounters with juveniles, police react to various cues from the juveniles including all of the following EXCEPT:

*a. hair color
b. dress
c. age
d. demeanor

General Feedback:
Page 259; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

12. Generally, criminologists have incorporated Marxist ideology in the following three (3) ways. (Choose the answer below that is not one of the three (3) ways Marxist ideology is incorporated.)

a. law is a tool of the ruling class
b. scholars need to address the relationships between mode of production and understanding crime
c. all crime in capitalist countries is a product of class struggle
*d. laws are made by the proletariat and followed by the bourgeoisie

General Feedback:
Page 270; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

13. The integrated structural-Marxist theory incorporates all of the following theories EXCEPT:

a. labeling theory
*b. biological theory
c. control theory
d. strain theory

General Feedback:
Page 272; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

14. John Hagan emphasized that labeling theory would likely benefit empirically from the recognition of what type of relationship between the actor and reactor?

*a. reciprocal
b. dissociated
c. separate
d. independent

General Feedback:
Page 262; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension

15. ___________ contends that society should attempt reconciliation through mediation and dispute settlement.

a. left realism
*b. peacemaking criminology
c. restorative justice perspective
d. consensus perspective

General Feedback:
Page 276; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

16. Restorative justice emphasizes all of the following EXCEPT:

*a. criminal justice system
b. victim
c. offender
d. community

General Feedback:
Page 277; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

17. The four sides of the square of crime include all of the following EXCEPT:

a. the state
b. the offender
*c. the proletariat
d. the victim

General Feedback:
Page 279; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

18. Left realists stress the necessity of a _______ strategy in a capitalist society.

*a. crime-control
b. problem-oriented
c. community-oriented
d. crime-prevention

General Feedback:
Page 280; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

19. An example of a diversionary program is ___________.

a. prison
*b. youth courts
c. parole
d. state-jail facility

General Feedback:
Page 281; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension, application

20. According to Tannenbaum, the process of making the criminal involves all of the following EXCEPT:

a. defining the individual
*b. stigmatizing the individual
c. identifying the individual
d. tagging the individual

General Feedback:
Page 266; Blooms Taxonomy:

21. Peacemaking criminology incorporates all of the following intellectual traditions EXCEPT:

a. feminist
b. religious
c. critical
*d. consensus

General Feedback:
Page 276; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

22. Turks ___________ (the process of being labeled a criminal) occurs through the interaction between those who enforce the law and those who violate the law.

a. consensus theory
b. labeling theory
*c. theory of criminalization
d. conflict theory

General Feedback:
Page 267; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

23. _________ is usually associated with racial prejudice and discrimination and can also occur in police encounters with juveniles. [

a. retrospective interpretation
*b. stereotyping
c. status-degradation ceremony
d. negotiation

General Feedback:
Page 259; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

24. Mead was concerned with the ________, or ascertaining the meaning of the actions or remarks of the other person.

*a. interpretation
b. definition
c. label
d. symbol

General Feedback:
Page 255; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

25. _________ made a significant contribution to the labeling perspective by distinguishing between primary and secondary deviance.

*a. Lemert
b. Tannenbaum
c. Cooley
d. Mead

General Feedback:
Page 256; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

26. The superordinate class that owns the means of production is called the bourgeoisie.

*a. True
b. False

General Feedback:
Page 270; proletariat; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

27. Lemert provided a concise, working definition of deviance that was lacking from labeling theory in general.

a. True
*b. False

General Feedback:
Page 258; Schur; Blooms Taxonomy:

28. The primary focus of critical-radical theories is power and the use of that power.

a. True
*b. False

General Feedback:
Page 264; conservative (pluralist); Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

29. Non-symbolic interaction occurs when individuals interpret each others gestures and act based on the meaning of those gestures.

a. True
*b. False

General Feedback:
Page 255; symbolic interaction; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

30. Retributive justice refers to the repair of justice through a one-sided approach of imposing punishment.

*a. True
b. False

General Feedback:
Page 277; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

31. Left realism contends that previous criminological theories have been incomplete in that they lack one side of the square of crime.

a. True
*b. False

General Feedback:
Page 279; they emphasize only one side; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension, knowledge

32. Negotiation is more noticeable in cases involving adults rather than juveniles.

*a. True
b. False

General Feedback:
Page 259; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

33. Labeling theory is not overly concerned with questions of why an individual engages in deviant behavior.

*a. True
b. False

General Feedback:
Page 253; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

34. Cultural norms are associated with actual behavior patterns (e.g., the law as enforced).

a. True
*b. False

General Feedback:
Page 267; social norms; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

35. The dramatization of evil states that when relatively minor laws are broken, the community tends to dramatize it.

*a. True
b. False

General Feedback:
Page 256; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

36. A major policy implication of labeling theory relates to incorporating diversion programs, particularly for juveniles.

*a. True
b. False

General Feedback:
Page 280; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension

37. The Omnibus Anti-Drug Abuse Act of 1988 lessened the disparity between mandatory minimum sentences for crack and powder cocaine offenses.

a. True
*b. False

General Feedback:
Page 281; Fair Sentencing Act; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

38. Working-class parents in an unstable work-place setting tend to enforce an uneven and erratic family control structure that fluctuates between being lax and highly punitive.

*a. True
b. False

General Feedback:
Page 272; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension

39. Along with the dramatization of evil, Tannenbaum argues that acts are inherently good or bad.

a. True
*b. False

General Feedback:
Page 256; are not inherently good or bad; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension

40. Due to the lack of satisfactory data and empirical research, evaluating the adequacy of labeling theory has been difficult.

*a. True
b. False

General Feedback:
Page 262; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension

41. What is the nonpartisan conflict perspective and what should truth be?

Correct Answer:
the ideological position or political utilities of theories are irrelevant when assessing the validity of knowledge claims; truth should be independent of political ideology or personal values
Page 267; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension

42. Give an example of an unrealistic and realistic move.

Correct Answer:
unrealistic- motorist lighting up a marijuana cigarette while driving her car alongside a highway patrol officer; realistic- when she smokes a marijuana cigarette in the privacy of her home
Page 267; Blooms Taxonomy: application, comprehension

43. What is restorative justice?

Correct Answer:
refers to the repair of justice by reaffirming a shared consensus of values involving a joint or multisided approach
Page 277; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

44. What are the five (5) basic elements of the theoretical model of peacemaking criminology?

Correct Answer:
social structure, crimes, social harms, the criminal justice system, and peacemaking alternatives
Page 276; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

45. Schur argues that the terms deviant and delinquent are what sociologists designate as an ascribed status. What does this mean?

Correct Answer:
social position an individual occupies not only due to the consequence of that individuals actions but also as a result of the actions of others
Page 259; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge, comprehension

46. What is the difference between class consciousness and false consciousness? How do these relate to the perceptions of the proletariat?

Correct Answer:
class- awareness of common interests among members in a class; false- not being aware of the common interests, this causes the proletariat to believe that maintaining the capitalist system is in their best interest, rather than in the interest of the bourgeoisie
Page 270; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension, analysis, evaluation

47. What does the term outsider refer to?

Correct Answer:
those individuals considered by others to be deviant; deemed to be outside the circle of the normal members of the group
Page 258; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

48. An essential component of symbolic interactionism is that individuals who are stigmatized as being deviant are predisposed to take on a deviant self-identity. What does this mean?

Correct Answer:
stigmatized individuals differ from normals in terms of how society reacts to them, this diminishes the individual from a whole and usual person to a tainted, discounted one
Page 255; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension

49. What is the concept of shaming and how is it related to labeling theory?

Correct Answer:
shaming-self-labeling or self-stigmatizing, this is how society deals with individuals considered to be deviant or criminal, for example- the stocks or the scarlet letter, publicly humiliating an individual so they will not be deviant again, this labels the individual as a deviant in society
Page 262; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension, analysis

50. What are the two (2) dimensions of deviance discussed by Becker?

Correct Answer:
only those behaviors considered deviant by others are truly deviant; whether a behavior or an act conforms to a certain rule
Page 258; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

51. A key aspect of secondary deviance is not only societys reaction to the individuals behavior but also what?

Correct Answer:
individuals response to that reaction
Page 257; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension

52. In the field of criminal justice, a central focus of research for a number of studies was the process of _________ (2 words) due to labeling an individual as a criminal or a delinquent.

Correct Answer(s):
a. deviance amplification
Page 260; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

53. How would you design an experiment or study to test labeling theory?

Correct Answer:
student must come up with original study or experiment
Page 255; Blooms Taxonomy: synthesis, comprehension

54. Cooley identified the process of obtaining ones self-image through the eyes of others as the ______________.

Correct Answer(s):
a. looking-glass self
Page 255; Blooms Taxonomy: knowledge

55. The text states that appellate court judges make rulings that have a lasting effect on future cases. What does this mean?

Correct Answer:
they make case law that other judges look at when they make subsequent decisions
Page 271; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension, evaluation, application

56. There are two (2) basic types of criminological theories: spiritualism and naturalism. Explain these two (2) types and the three (3) types of naturalistic theories.

Correct Answer:
spiritualism- influences by otherworld powers, these explanations cannot be considered scientific, even if some thoughtful and intelligent people believe that they represent the best explanation of crime; natural explanations are more systematic and scientific, 3 types- those that focus on the individual, those that emphasize group and intergroup relations, those that are eclectical including various factors that might explain criminal behavior
Page 266; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension, knowledge

57. List and explain five (5) of the nine (9) basic assumptions of labeling theory.

Correct Answer:
no act is intrinsically criminal; criminal definitions are enforced in the interest of the powerful; a person does not become a criminal by violating the law; the practice of dichotomizing individuals into criminal and noncriminal groups is contrary to common sense and research; only a few persons are caught in violating the law even though many individuals may be equally guilty; while the sanctions used in law enforcement are directed against the individual and not just the criminal act, the penalties for such an act vary according to the characteristics of the offender; criminal sanctions also vary according to other characteristics of the offender; criminal justice is founded on a stereotyped conception of the criminal as a pariah- a willful wrongdoer who is morally bad and deserving of the communitys condemnation; confronted by public condemnation and the label of an evil man, it may be difficult for an offender to maintain a favorable image of himself
Page 259-260; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension, analysis

58. According to Becker, what are the four (4) types of behaviors related to perceptions of deviance and behavior? Give an example of each.

Correct Answer:
falsely accused- perceived as deviant but obedient behavior, identified as disobeying rules but did not violate the rules; conforming- obedient behavior and not perceived as deviant, conforming behavior and obeys rules; pure deviant- perceived as deviant and rule-breaking behavior, disobeys rules and society knows it; secret deviant- not perceived as deviant but participates in rule-breaking behavior, elicits no reaction from society; student must supply original examples
Page 258; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension, knowledge, application

59. Explain the difference between primary and secondary deviance. Also explain the sequence of interaction within secondary deviance.

Correct Answer:
primary- type of minor, infrequent offending people commit before they are caught and labeled as offenders; secondary- the more serious, frequency offending people commit after they have been caught and labeled as offenders; sequence of interaction- primary deviation, social penalties, further primary deviation, stronger penalties and rejections, further deviation, possible with hostilities and resentment toward those imposing the penalties, crisis reaching the tolerance quotient, expressed in formal action by the community stigmatizing the deviant, strengthening of the deviant conduct as a reaction to the stigmatizing and penalties, and ultimate acceptance of the deviant social status and efforts at adjusting to the associated role
Page 256-257; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension, knowledge, analysis

60. Explain labeling theory and the process one goes through in being labeled by society. Give two (2) examples of individuals who have been labeled and how it have affected their lives. Is labeling an individual an offender a good thing? Why or why not.

Correct Answer:
assumes that criminal behavior increases because certain individuals are caught and labeled as offenders, their offending increases because they have been stigmatized; student must give own examples and reasoning as to why or why not to label offenders
Page 254-255; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension, application, evaluation

61. Richard Quinney set forth six (6) propositions that described his social reality of crime. Explain four (4) of the six (6) propositions.

Correct Answer:
crime is a definition of human conduct that is created by authorized agents in a politically organized society; criminal definitions describe behaviors that conflict with the interests of the segments of society that have the power to shape political policy; criminal definitions are applied by the segments of society that have the power to shape the enforcement and administration of criminal law; behavior patterns are structured in segmentally organized society in relation to criminal definitions, and within this context persons engage in actions that have relative probabilities of being defined as criminal; conceptions of crime are constructed and diffused in the segments of society by various means of communication; the social reality of crime is constructed by the formulation and application of criminal definitions, the development of behavior patterns related to criminal definitions, and the construction of criminal conceptions
Page 268-269; Blooms Taxonomy: comprehension, analysis, knowledge

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