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Hagan, Introduction to Criminology 9e Instructor Resource
1. The field that attempts to define, explain, and predict criminal behavior is known as:
b. Applied criminology
2. Prohibition had the intended goal of forbidding alcohol consumption to reduce substance abuse. This intended goal is an example of:
*a. A manifest function of the law
b. A latent function of the law
c. Mala en se
3. According to French sociologist Auguste Comte, the last stage of the progression of knowledge is:
4. Most of the modern-day developments in criminology have taken place in which country?
*d. United States
5. Behavior that is outside the range of normal societal toleration is best described as:
d. Mala in se
6. As society becomes increasingly complex and heterogeneous, which of the following is typically true of societys efforts to maintain order?
a. Society becomes increasingly reliant on informal methods of social control.
*b. Society becomes increasingly reliant on formal, codified laws.
c. Society becomes entirely reliant upon police and the criminal justice system.
d. Society becomes more reliant on religious organizations.
7. Which of the following is true of laws?
a. Laws are the most efficient means of social control.
b. Laws define which behaviors classify as deviant in a given society.
c. Laws can be enforced by either political or moral authorities.
*d. Laws become more common when informal methods of social control are weakened.
8. Which of the following is an example of a person violating a folkway?
*a. Johnny was eating dinner at a friends house and openly expressed distaste for the meal being served.
b. Jenny hadnt studied for her calculus exam, so she copied answers from the student sitting next to her.
c. Jessica was bored on a Friday night, so she stole a car to go joyriding.
d. Joe killed a bartender in a botched robbery attempt.
9. Prohibition had the unintended effect of increasing corruption, disobedience, and public disrespect for the law. This unintended effect is an example of:
a. A manifest function of law
*b. A latent function of law
c. Mala in Se
d. Mens Rea
10. Gemeinschaft refers to:
*a. A communal society that predominantly relies on informal methods of social control
b. A heterogeneous society in which codified laws are necessary to maintain control
c. A view that holds that law is a means of preserving the status quo on behalf of the powerful
d. A person who has a strong knowledge of law and criminal justice procedures
11. The argument that drug laws are a tool for the wealthy to control the dangerous classes is consistent with the:
*a. Conflict view of crime
b. Purist legal view of crime
c. Consensus view of crime
d. Metaphysical view of crime
12. Overall crime rates:
a. Remain stable across societies and through time
b. Tend to be stable across societies, but fluctuate over time
c. Vary across societies, but within a particular society tend to be stable over time
*d. Vary by social and historical context
13. The residents of country X have diverse viewpoints regarding which behaviors are considered moral. People in this society tend to be individualistic, which may be a product of the economic structure, which is characterized by extensive division of labor. Country X would be considered a:
a. Gemeinschaft society
*b. Gesellschaft society
c. Theocratic society
d. Communal society
14. Famed sociologist mile Durkheim argued that crime is normal. By this, he meant that:
a. Criminals should be viewed no differently than non-criminals within society.
b. Criminal labels are arbitrary and serve no function in society; thus, criminal law should be abolished.
*c. Crime is a predictable product of, and in some ways a useful element of, the structure of society.
d. Crime is so pervasive in society that it becomes normalized.
15. The use of philosophy, rationality, and logical argument to explain crime is most reflective of which stage of the progression of knowledge?
16. Driving 26 miles per hour in an area where the speed limit is 25 miles per hour would best be described as an act:
a. Mala in se
*b. Mala prohibita
c. Of overcriminalization
d. Of felonious proportions
17. Mores are:
a. Norms that are preferred, but carry no serious consequences if broken
b. The comprehensive set of morals in a given society
*c. Strong norms that carry sanctions/punishment if broken
d. Always codified into law
18. A particular crime is punishable by 5 years in prison; this crime is most likely:
a. A misdemeanor
*b. A felony
c. A folkway
d. Mens rea
19. Which of the following is not a characteristic of criminal law?
a. It is assumed by political authority.
b. It contains penal sanctions.
c. It is uniformly applied.
*d. It must be administered by federal authorities.
20. Criminology is considered a sub-discipline of:
21. Corporate violence, racism, structured inequality, and systematic wrongdoing by political officials are examples of:
22. Being arrested for possession of marijuana would best be described as an act:
a. that is Mala in se
*b. that is Mala Prohibita
c. that violates folkways
d. of deviance
23. The belief that criminal law originates from an agreement among members of society is consistent with:
*a. Consensus perspective
b. Conflict perspective
c. Interactionist perspective
d. State perspective
24. Crime has evolved over time. The most common types of criminals observed during the 1970s included:
a. Bank robbers, burglars, and car thieves
b. Revolutionaries and radicals
*c. Organized criminals and terrorists
d. Serial murderers and drug offenders
25. The early writings of this man, including his famous essay, On Crimes and Punishments, led to the reform of criminal law in Western Europe.
a. Auguste Comte
b. Emile Durkeim
c. Edwin Sutherland
*d. Cesare Beccaria
26. True or False? Crime as a violation of criminal law can only have negative consequences for the social solidarity of any society.
27. True or False? Changes in the law may be needed in an effort to define and sanction conduct related to technology.
28. True or False? Deviant behavior is defined as behavior which is in violation of written laws.
29. True or False? Definitions of deviance are relative to the time, place, and person(s) making the evaluation.
30. True or False? Folkways refer to serious customs that involve moral judgments as well as sanctions.
31. True or False? As society becomes more complex, it becomes increasingly reliant on informal methods of social control to maintain order.
32. True or False? Criminologists have a clear understanding of the economic, social, and psychological impacts of crime.
33. True or False? The field of criminalistics is focused on the scientific evaluation of physical evidence.
34. True or False? Gambling is an act that would be considered mala prohibita.
35. True or False? Despite its American roots, most of the major developments in modern criminology took place in Europe.
36. Laws, which are codified rules of behavior, represent informal methods of attempting to assure social control.
37. Many of the early criminological theories provided biological frameworks that have only recently been considered in the U.S.
38. In decades past, societies possessed cultural values that were practices and beliefs intended to benefit a group of people. Cultural values do not hold the same level of importance today.
39. The government requires that federal courts allow cameras in the court room during trials.
40. Practicing bad manners such as putting elbows on the table while eating is an example of Sumners mores.
41. Provide one example of a folkway in contemporary U.S. society.
Examples: No elbows on the table; treat your elders with respect; shake a persons hand at a first meeting; chew with your mouth closed; wear clothing appropriate to the social situation
42. Identify one manifest function of a law prohibiting marijuana possession.
Example: Reducing the presence of marijuana in society
43. List the three models of the origin of criminal law.
Conflict, consensus, and interactionist
44. List Sumners three types of norms in order from least to greatest.
Folkways, mores, and laws
45. Identify the three stages of knowledge outlined by Auguste Comte.
Theological, metaphysical (philosophical), scientific
46. Provide an example of an act that is considered mala in se.
Examples: Rape, murder
47. Identify two characteristics of a Gesellschaft society.
Complex, individualistic, extensive division of labor, secular, heterogeneous, and heavily reliant on social controls
48. Define mens rea.
Criminal intent or guilty mind
49. Criminology is a sub-discipline of ________________.
50. When the criminal law fails to prohibit acts that many feel are mala in se, it is a phenomenon known as ________________.
51. Is criminology a science? Discuss and defend your view.
Criminology is generally defined as the science or discipline that studies crime and criminal behavior. Specifically, the field of criminology concentrates on forms of criminal behavior, the causes of crime, the definition of criminality, and the societal reaction to criminal activity; related areas of inquiry may include juvenile delinquency and victimology (the study of victims). While there is considerable overlap between criminology and criminal justice, criminology shows a greater interest in the causal explanations of crime, whereas criminal justice is more occupied with practical, applied concerns, such as technical aspects of policing and corrections. In reality, the fields are highly complementary and interrelated, as indicated by overlapping membership in the two professional organizations representative of the fields: the American Society of Criminology and the Academy of Criminal Justice Sciences
52. Identify the criteria that must be met in the U.S. criminal law in order for an act to be considered a crime.
The act is prohibited by law and contains legally prescribed punishments. A criminal act must have taken place. Social harm of a conscious, voluntary nature is required meaning there must be injury to the state of to the people. The act is performed intentionally, although cases of negligence and omission may be exceptions. The voluntary misconduct must be causally related to the harm, meaning it must be shown that the decision or act directly or indirectly caused harm.
53. Describe the difference between overcriminalization and undercriminalization. Provide several examples of each.
Overcriminalization describes overextension of criminal law to penalize acts that are inappropriately or not responsibly enforced by such meausres. Examples include morality crimes such as drug use, sexual conduct, and other behavior that does not involve a clear victim. Undercriminalization refers to the fact that the criminal law fails to prohibit acts that many feel should be criminalized. Examples include corporate violence, racism, structured inequality, and systematic wrongdoing by political officials.
54. In criminological/sociological study, what are some of the limitations to defining crime as only those actions in violation of criminal law? Do you feel that criminologists should limit their study in this way? Support your response.
This would relegate the field of criminology to a position as status quo handmaiden of political systems. Hitlers genocide or Stalins purges were accepted conduct within their political ideological systems. Criminologists must study the deviants-the criminals-as well as the social structural contexts that define them. To provide additional perspectives on crime it is sometimes viewed in ways other than those suggested by the standard legal definitions. Such alternatives define crime in terms of the type of victim (child abuse), the type of offender (white collar crime), the object of the crime (property crime), or the method of criminal activity (organized crime). Such definitions usually cover one or more of the standard legal definitions. For example, organized crime may include fraud, extortion, assault, or homicide. What is considered criminal changes over time and within societies.
55. Describe the relationship between the law and informal methods of social control, both over time and in the contemporary United States.
Laws represent formal modes of control, codified rules of behavior. If one accepts the consensus model of law (to be discussed shortly), laws represent an institutionalization or crystallization of the mores. Informally, society controls the actions of individuals through acceptance or lack thereof. . Folkways are the least serious norms and refer to usages, traditions, customs, or niceties that are preferred, but are not subject to serious sanctions: manners, etiquette, and dress styles, for example. Mores refer to more serious customs that involve moral judgments as well as sanctions (rewards or punishments). The mores cover prohibitions against behaviors that are felt to be seriously threatening to a groups way of life. Our previous examples of lying, cheating, stealing, and killing are most certainly included in the mores. Both folkways and mores are examples of informal modes of social control and are characteristic of small, homogeneous cultures that feature simple technology and wide-scale consensus.
56. What is the difference between acts that are considered mala prohibita and mala in se? Give examples of both.
Acts that are defined as mala prohibita refer to those that are bad because they have been prohibited. That is, such acts are not viewed as bad in themselves but are violations because the law defines them as such. Traffic violations, gambling, and infractions of various municipal ordinances might serve as examples. Such laws are viewed as assisting human groups in making life more predictable and orderly, but disobedience carries little stigma other than (usually) fines. The criminalization of such acts might be viewed as institutionalization of folkways. On the other hand, acts mala in se are acts bad in themselves, forbidden behaviors for which there is wide-scale consensus on the mores for prohibition. The universality of laws against murder, rape, assault, and the like, irrespective of political or economic systems, bears witness to the lack of societal conflict in institutionalizing such laws. One can note that not all deviant acts are criminal, nor are all criminal acts necessarily deviant, assuming that laws against many acts mala prohibita are commonly violated.
57. What were mile Durkheims ideas concerning social change and crime?
Crime is normal, is a functional necessity in a healthy society, and helps to reinforce social solidarity.
58. The Consensus Model reflects the____________ of Locke, Hobbes, and Rousseau.
Social contract theory
59. What are the four characteristics of law?
It is assumed by political authority; it must be specific, defining both the offense and the prescribed punishment; the law is uniformly applied; the law contains penal sanctions enforced by the state.
60. Provide the definition of a misdemeanor and an example.
Less serious offenses punished by less than a year in jail; speeding, public lewdness, petty theft, public intoxication, simple assault, trespassing, indecent exposure
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