Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management 4th Edition Bozarth Test Bank

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Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management 4th Edition Bozarth Test Bank

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Introduction to Operations and Supply Chain Management, 4e (Bozarth/Handfield)
Chapter 12S Supply Chain Information Systems

Learning Objective 12S-1

1) All information systems are computer-based.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Reference: Introduction
Keywords: information systems, computer-based system
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.1: Explain why information flows are a necessary part of any supply chain and describe in detail how supply chain information needs vary according to the organizational level and the direction of the linkages (upstream or downstream).

2) Accuracy is a key performance dimension for strategic decision-making information flows.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 3
Reference: Understanding Supply Chain Information Needs
Keywords: performance dimension, accuracy, supply chain activity,
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.1: Explain why information flows are a necessary part of any supply chain and describe in detail how supply chain information needs vary according to the organizational level and the direction of the linkages (upstream or downstream).

3) The purpose of the execution and transaction processing supply chain activities are to record and retrieve data and execute and control physical and monetary flows.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Reference: Understanding Supply Chain Information Needs
Keywords: supply chain activity
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.1: Explain why information flows are a necessary part of any supply chain and describe in detail how supply chain information needs vary according to the organizational level and the direction of the linkages (upstream or downstream).

4) Which of these supply chain activities is the most day-to-day, routine activity?
A) control of monetary flows
B) capacity decision making
C) warehouse location determination
D) workforce leveling
Answer: A
Diff: 1
Reference: Understanding Supply Chain Information Needs
Keywords: supply chain activity, routine decision making
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.1: Explain why information flows are a necessary part of any supply chain and describe in detail how supply chain information needs vary according to the organizational level and the direction of the linkages (upstream or downstream).
5) Which of these supply chain activities is the most strategic?
A) inventory levelling
B) entering new markets
C) supplier evaluation systems
D) job scheduling
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Reference: Understanding Supply Chain Information Needs
Keywords: supply chain activity, strategic decision making
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.1: Explain why information flows are a necessary part of any supply chain and describe in detail how supply chain information needs vary according to the organizational level and the direction of the linkages (upstream or downstream).

6) A key performance measure for an execution and transaction processing system would be:
A) flexibility.
B) form.
C) function.
D) accuracy.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Reference: Understanding Supply Chain Information Needs
Keywords: supply chain activity, performance dimension, transaction processing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.1: Explain why information flows are a necessary part of any supply chain and describe in detail how supply chain information needs vary according to the organizational level and the direction of the linkages (upstream or downstream).

7) Flexibility is a key performance dimension for information flows in a(n):
A) strategic decision-making activity.
B) global planning activity.
C) routine decision-making activity.
D) execution and transaction processing activity.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Reference: Understanding Supply Chain Information Needs
Keywords: supply chain activity, performance dimension, strategic decision making
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.1: Explain why information flows are a necessary part of any supply chain and describe in detail how supply chain information needs vary according to the organizational level and the direction of the linkages (upstream or downstream).
8) The three ways information adds value, ranked in order from lowest to highest value are:
A) visibility, mirroring, creation of new customer relationships.
B) mirroring, creation of new customer relationships, visibility.
C) visibility, , creation of new customer relationships, mirroring.
D) creation of new customer relationships, mirroring, visibility.
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Reference: Supplement Summary
Keywords: information systems, supply chain
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.1: Explain why information flows are a necessary part of any supply chain and describe in detail how supply chain information needs vary according to the organizational level and the direction of the linkages (upstream or downstream).

9) A(n) ________ as a set of interrelated components that collect, process, store, and distribute information to support decision making, coordination, and control in an organization.
Answer: information system (IS)
Diff: 1
Reference: Introduction
Keywords: information system
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.1: Explain why information flows are a necessary part of any supply chain and describe in detail how supply chain information needs vary according to the organizational level and the direction of the linkages (upstream or downstream).

10) The term ________ represents the most basic function of information in the supply chain.
Answer: visibility
Diff: 2
Reference: Supplement Summary
Keywords: visibility
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.1: Explain why information flows are a necessary part of any supply chain and describe in detail how supply chain information needs vary according to the organizational level and the direction of the linkages (upstream or downstream).

11) ________ takes visibility a step further and seeks to replace certain physical processes with virtual ones.
Answer: Mirroring
Diff: 2
Reference: Supplement Summary
Keywords: visibility, mirroring
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.1: Explain why information flows are a necessary part of any supply chain and describe in detail how supply chain information needs vary according to the organizational level and the direction of the linkages (upstream or downstream).
12) The third, and most important, way information adds value is by the ________, involves taking raw information and organizing, selecting, synthesizing, and distributing it.
Answer: creation of new customer relationships
Diff: 2
Reference: Supplement Summary
Keywords: creation of new customer relationships
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.1: Explain why information flows are a necessary part of any supply chain and describe in detail how supply chain information needs vary according to the organizational level and the direction of the linkages (upstream or downstream).

13) What are the information needs at the four levels (execution and transaction processing, routine decision making, tactical planning, and strategic decision making) of supply chain activity?
Answer: At the lowest levels, execution and transaction processing needs data to be retrieved and recorded and also to control physical and monetary flows. The routine decision-making level needs a system that can support rule-based decision making. The purpose of an IS at the tactical planning level is to develop plans that coordinate actions of key supply chain areas customers, and suppliers across the tactical time horizon. At the highest level, the strategic supply chain activity needs a system that can help develop long-range strategic plans for meeting the organizations mission.
Diff: 2
Reference: Understanding Supply Chain Information Needs
Keywords: execution and transaction processing, routine decision making, tactical planning, strategic decision making, supply chain activity
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.1: Explain why information flows are a necessary part of any supply chain and describe in detail how supply chain information needs vary according to the organizational level and the direction of the linkages (upstream or downstream).

Learning Objective 12S-2

1) Enterprise resource planning applications span the supplier, customer, and internal supply chain areas.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: supply chain, ERP, enterprise resource planning
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

2) ERP systems traditional strengths lie in routine decision making and in execution and transaction processing.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: supply chain, ERP, enterprise resource planning, execution and transaction processing, routine decision making
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

3) Customer relationship management refers to planning and control activities and information systems that link a firm with its downstream customers.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: CRM, customer relationship management
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

4) Internal supply chain management is used to link higher level planning and location decision making with lower level activities within the same supply chain.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: internal supply chain
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

5) Warehouse and transportation planning systems support strategic planning efforts by allocating fixed logistics capacity in the best possible way, given business requirements.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: supply chain, Warehouse and Transportation planning systems and tactical planning
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

6) Design collaboration is a typical customer relationship management application.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: SRM, design collaboration, supplier relationship management
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

7) One ERP vendor is known simply as SAP.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: SAP, ERP, enterprise resource planning
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

8) A supply chain information system that links a company with an entity upstream is called a(n):
A) customer relationship management system.
B) supplier relationship management system.
C) internal supply chain management system.
D) business process modeling tool.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Reference: Understanding Supply Chain Information Needs
Keywords: SRM, supplier relationship management
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.
9) A supply chain information system that is used in the internal supply chain at the strategic level is a(n):
A) CRM.
B) DSS.
C) ERP.
D) SRM.
Answer: B
Diff: 3
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: information system, supply chain, DSS, decision support system
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

10) An execution and transaction processing level system that is used throughout the supply chain is a(n):
A) CRM system.
B) DS system.
C) ERP system.
D) SRM system.
Answer: C
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: information system, supply chain, ERP, enterprise resource planning system
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

11) Which of the following statements regarding enterprise resource planning systems is NOT correct?
A) Most companies using ERP use their system to serve all of the information requirements.
B) The primary advantage of ERP systems is that they pull together all of the classic business functions into a single, tightly integrated package.
C) All of the business functions running from an ERP system use a common database.
D) Making ERP systems integrate with other applications in a business presents a significant technological challenge.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: information system, supply chain, ERP, enterprise resource planning system
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

12) Logistics information systems that support tactical planning efforts by allocating fixed logistics capacity in the best possible way given business requirements are known as:
A) decision support systems.
B) network design applications.
C) warehouse management and transportation execution systems.
D) warehouse and transportation planning systems.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: information system, logistics, warehouse and transportation planning systems
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.
13) A typical SRM application is:
A) negotiations.
B) market analysis.
C) order management.
D) service center management.
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: supplier relationship management, SRM, negotiation
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

14) A typical CRM application is:
A) design collaboration.
B) the sell process.
C) sourcing decisions.
D) supply collaboration.
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: customer relationship management, CRM
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

15) Computer-based information systems that allow users to analyze, manipulate, and present data in a manner that aids higher-level decision making are called ________.
Answer: decision support systems
Diff: 1
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: DSS, decision support systems
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

16) A system that controls all aspects of a companys business from production, through human resources, to accounting and other departments and accomplishes this with a centralized database is ________.
Answer: an enterprise resource planning (ERP ) system
Diff: 1
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: ERP, enterprise resource planning, legacy system
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

17) Long-term strategic questions such as facility location and sizing are addressed by ________.
Answer: network design applications
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: network design applications
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

18) ________ are logistics information systems that initiate and control the movement of materials between supply chain partners.
Answer: Warehouse management and transportation execution systems
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: warehouse management, transportation execution systems
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

19) Warehouse and transportation planning systems support ________ planning efforts.
Answer: tactical
Diff: 3
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: warehouse, transportation planning
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

20) Market analysis, order management, and service center management are all examples of applications found in a(n) ________ system.
Answer: CRM (customer relationship management)
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: CRM, customer relationship management
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

21) What are the functions and relationships between both customer and supplier relationship management and internal supply chain management?
Answer: Customer relationship management is a term that broadly refers to planning and control activities and information systems that link a firm with its downstream customers. Supplier relationship management systems are planning and control activities and information systems that link a firm with its upstream suppliers. The firm lies between suppliers and customers in the supply chain, and an internal supply chain management system must facilitate information flows between higher and lower levels of planning and control systems within the organization.
Diff: 2
Reference: Understanding Supply Chain Information Needs
Keywords: CRM, SRM, customer relationship management, supplier relationship management
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

22) Sketch the supply chain and indicate which information systems address which areas of the supply chain.
Answer: Supply chain components are indicated on the horizontal axis with applications appearing above each entity. Figure 12S.2 of the text adds a supply chain component called logistics, with its own information systems. This section has been shaded to reduce printability.

Diff: 3
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: ERP, SRM, CRM, DSS
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

23) What is the purpose of an ERP system and what advantages does it hold over the more traditional system it replaces?
Answer: An enterprise resource planning (ERP) system is a large, integrated, computer-based business transaction processing and reporting system. ERP systems pull together all of the classic business functions into a single tightly integrated package that uses a common database. The integration and single source of data are the primary advantages of such a system. As data are gathered, they need to be represented, stored, and updated in only one location, thereby reducing data redundancy, potential for errors, and confusion.
Diff: 2
Reference: Supply Chain Information Systems
Keywords: ERP, enterprise resource planning, legacy system
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.2: Describe and differentiate among ERP, DSS, CRRM, SRM, and logistics applications.

Learning Objective 12S-3

1) Business process modeling tools differ from business process management systems (BPMS) in that business process modeling tools are aimed at business process analysis and design and BPMS are used only to manage processes.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 1
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: business process modeling tools, BPM
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

2) Before the Internet was widely adopted by business, the vast majority of computer systems were completely isolated from one another.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

3) Before the Internet was widely adopted by business, most computer systems shared a common database but sharing software was a difficult task.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

4) The cloud affords users the ability to rapidly scale capacity up or down depending on demand.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 2
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

5) The cloud has made it more difficult for firms to outsource portions of their business.
Answer: FALSE
Diff: 2
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.
6) One characteristic of cloud computing is that the providers computing resources may serve multiple consumers with the resources dynamically allocated according to customer demand.
Answer: TRUE
Diff: 1
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

7) Which of these is NOT an essential characteristic of the cloud model?
A) preservation of metadata
B) on-demand self-service
C) broad network access
D) resource pooling
Answer: A
Diff: 2
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

8) Which of these is NOT an essential characteristic of the cloud model?
A) rapid elasticity
B) telepresence
C) on-demand self-service
D) resource pooling
Answer: B
Diff: 2
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

9) Which of these is an essential characteristic of the cloud model?
A) distributed intelligence
B) third normal form
C) on-demand self-service
D) hierarchical functionality
Answer: C
Diff: 3
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.
10) Which of these is an essential characteristic of the cloud model?
A) distributed intelligence
B) third normal form
C) asynchronous communication
D) resource pooling
Answer: D
Diff: 3
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

11) Which of these is an essential characteristic of the cloud model?
A) broad network access
B) third normal form
C) asynchronous communication
D) address mapping
Answer: A
Diff: 3
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

12) Business process modeling tools allow the user to:
A) connect to the cloud without using the Internet.
B) manage internal supply chain relationships.
C) manage external supply chain relationships.
D) simulate the performance of a new process.
Answer: D
Diff: 2
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: business process modeling tools
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

13) An organization can use ________ as a repository to access documents or other files from anywhere in the world whenever they are needed.
Answer: the cloud
Diff: 2
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

14) At one time, if an organization wanted to automate using a computer system, they had to develop the program on their own. Today, there is software available to perform virtually every business function although most of them will not conform exactly to what a company needs. Describe two software tools that can be used for business process analysis and design.
Answer: Two key tools for business process analysis and design are 1) business process modeling tools and 2) business process management system products.
Business process modeling tools are software tools that aid business teams in the analysis, modeling, and redesign of business processes. BP modeling tools do more than just chart work flows; they allow users to graphically define a process and simulate the performance of the new process to gain insights into how it might work in the real world. BP modeling tools can also help users develop cost estimates based on the sequence of activities in a process and save defined processes in a database so that they can be reused again in other parts of the business.
Business process management systems (BPMS) products are state-of-the-art software tools for developing and implementing business processes. As Harmon puts it, BPMS products are software tools that allow analysts to model processes and then automate the execution of the process at run time. Imagine how this would work: Experts use a BPMS product to develop a process map of how they want a process to work. They then define business rules to manage the flow of work through process (e.g., If an order is scheduled to be finished late by X or more days, initiate the defined expedited shipping process). When the users are satisfied that the new process works the way they want it to, the BPMS product can be used to automatically carry out future business activity, without requiring developers to write new software code. Now thats some sweet action!
Diff: 2
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: business process modeling tools, business process management systems
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

15) What are the salient features of cloud computing?
Answer: Peter Mell and Timothy Grance of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) define cloud computing as a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. According to Mell and Grance, the cloud model has five essential characteristics:
On-demand self-service. Users can automatically access applications and storage space whenever they need them.
Broad network access. Capabilities are available over the network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by a wide range of platforms, including mobile phones, laptops, and PDAs.
Resource pooling. The providers computing resources are pooled to serve multiple consumers, with different physical and virtual resources dynamically assigned and reassigned according to consumer demand.
Rapid elasticity. Capabilities can be rapidly and elastically provisioned, in some cases automatically, to quickly scale out, and they can be rapidly released to quickly scale in. To the consumer, the capabilities available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time.
Measured service. Resource usage can be monitored, controlled, and reported, providing transparency for both the provider and consumer of the utilized service.
Diff: 2
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

16) How will cloud computing impact operations and supply chain management?
Answer: First, cloud computing makes it much easier for firms to outsource key portions of their business process information flows (e.g., credit checking, satellite tracking) to outside firms.
Second, broad network access allows individual or computer systems to upload and retrieve information through a wide range of devices virtually anywhere.
In a nutshell, cloud computing will make supply chain information flows faster, more flexible, and cheaper than ever.
Diff: 2
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

17) Provide an example of a business transaction you recently conducted that took place with the help of the cloud. Describe the front and back office activities that would have been required to conduct the same business transaction in a pre-cloud business world.
Answer: Examples will vary, but would likely include the need for face to face interaction with front office personnel and non-automated activities, e.g., billing, shipping, etc., in the back office of the business.
Diff: 2
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

18) The authors make the point that cloud computing has in many respects made life easier for business and for consumers. Discuss three negative aspects to cloud computing.
Answer: Examples will vary, but might include security risks posed by cybercriminals, job losses due to substitution effects, inability of many disadvantaged people to access resources from the wrong side of the digital divide, and possible downtime, among others.
Diff: 3
Reference: Trends to Watch
Keywords: cloud computing
AACSB: Information Technology
LO: 12S.3: Describe what business process management (BPM) tools and cloud computing are and how they might impact future operations and supply chain activities.

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