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Chapter 10 Test Bank
1. Sex is based on __________________ distinctions, whereas gender is based on _____________ distinctions.
A) Social; physical
B) Cultural; biological
C) Physical; social
D) Social; cultural
2. Emily likes to wear dresses, play with dolls, and paint her nails. These are examples of the various ways Emily is expressing her:
C) Biological constructs
D) Genetic characteristics
3. We learn __________________ from family, friends, teachers, and the media.
A) Gender messages
B) Intellectual differences
C) Biological messages
D) None of the above
4. People who are born with ambiguous genitalia are usually referred to as ___________________.
5. Levandus is biologically a male but prefers to dress in a very feminine manner and wear make-up. He decides to undergo a sex change operation in a few years. Levandus would be considered a _____________________.
6. Which of the following is NOT a reason sociologists have become more interested in studying the topic of sexuality in recent years?
A) Growing number of sexually linked social problems
B) Technological changes
C) Decrease in the usage of the internet
D) More brazen expressions of sexuality in consumer culture
7. Martine has not been interested in a sexual relationship with her husband for the past 10 years. She went to the doctor and he diagnosed her as being _____________________.
D) None of the above
8. John enjoys sexual relationships with both men and women. We can therefore conclude that John is ___________________.
9. Serena has been in a relationship with Jasmine for 10 years and can therefore be referred to as:
10. People who have been convicted of sexual assaults involving children are referred to as _______________________.
A) Juvenile delinquents
11. The male sexual script focuses primarily on:
A) Sexuality is playful
B) There is no strong need to be in control
C) Being inwardly focused
D) Operating efficiently
12. _______________ is a sociologist who has focused on sexuality and sexual relationships, specifically painful intercourse.
A) Karl Marx
B) Pepper Schwartz
C) Emile Durkheim
D) Jane Addams
13. Which of the following is NOT likely to occur following a sexual assault?
A) Survivors are 4 times more likely to contemplate suicide
B) Survivors are less likely to abuse alcohol as compared to other drugs
C) Survivors are twenty times more likely to abuse drugs
D) Survivors are 6 times more likely to suffer from post traumatic stress disorder
14. According to Ken Plummer, which of the following is NOT an interlocking market as it pertains to the sex industry?
A) Sexualized therapy
B) Sexualized objects
C) Sexualized technologies
D) Bodies and sexual acts
15. Suzzete works at a construction company. On a daily basis, she hears sexual jokes from her male co-workers and ignores their sexual comments. Sue is a victim of ______________________.
A) Sexual torment
B) Sexual harassment
C) Workplace molestation
D) None of the above
16. Which of the following is NOT a criterion used to define a form of sexual behaviour as deviant?
A) Place in which the sexual act takes place
B) Nature of the action involved
C) Degree of consent of those involved
D) Informal norms of the society in which the act took place
17. Hegemonic masculinity ____________________.
A) refers exclusively to heterosexuality for women and men
B) is patriarchy but in the guise of individuals
C) is identical to patriarchy
D) focuses on the interests and desires of men
18. The characteristics associated with being a male, such as being tall, handsome, young, and athletic is referred to as ______________________.
A) Emphasized masculinity
B) Hegemonic masculinity
C) Dominant masculinity
D) Hypermonic masculinity
19. During the 1950s women were expected to stay at home and take care of their husband and childrens needs. These socially constructed ideas are referred to as __________________________.
A) Hegemonic femininity
B) Social femininity
C) Cultural femininity
D) Emphasized femininity
20. Which of the following is NOT true of the average incomes of male lone parents:
A) It is higher than the incomes of female lone parents
B) It is higher than the incomes of single men
C) It is lower than the incomes of single men
D) It is almost identical, year upon year, with the incomes of female lone parents
21. The cult of domesticity during the time of Industrialization dictated that women be:
A) The primary breadwinners in their families
B) Submissive to their husbands
C) The aggressor in sexual relationships
D) More educated than their husbands
22. Meg Luxtons book, More Than A Labour of Love, discusses how:
A) Men are the primary caretakers of the household
B) Men share in the household duties
C) Women work outside of the home then also take care of the majority of the household duties
D) Most women feel as if their husbands help out equally in the home
23. According to a 2010 UN report, women worldwide shoulder ______________ responsibilities than men.
D) None of the above
24. Studies indicate that, from 4th to 12th grade, female students:
A) Score less on writing and reading assessments when compared to males
B) Score more on science assessments when compared to males
C) Are more likely to drop out of school when compared to males
D) Score higher on reading and writing assessments when compared to males
25. When compared to males, females are:
A) Less likely to graduate from high school
B) More likely to receive a bachelors degree
C) Less likely to receive a bachelors degree
D) Less competent in reading and writing assessments
26. Studies indicate that boys are:
A) Less likely than girls to get more attention in class from the teachers
B) Less likely to be asked questions when compared to girls
C) Receive less constructive criticism
D) More likely to monopolize class discussions
27. The Internet, when it was first introduced, mainly appealed to which demographic?
A) Young females
B) Older males
C) Younger males
D) Older females
28. Current research, regarding Internet usage, indicates that:
A) The number of women using the Internet has not increased over the years
B) Women and men tend to replicate certain offline gender patterns online
C) Women can be found in large numbers among editors of Wikipedia
D) Women are rewarded more than men for Wikipedia contributions
29. How has the consumption patterns of women changed since the time of the Industrial Revolution?
A) Women today generally consume for their families
B) Much of womens shopping today is related to love
C) Consumer practices are tied very closely to their domestic practices
D) Women are more likely today to consume subcontracted services such as childcare
30. Childrens consumer culture gained more significance and importance, in terms of advertisers, when:
A) Children were no longer considered miniature adults as was the case during the time of the Industrial Revolution
B) Children went through a period of prolonged adolescence during the 1950s
C) Department stores began to have separate departments for toys
D) Department stores began to have clothing departments for both boys and girls
31. Studies indicate that women make ______________ of brand-buying decisions.
32. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding the relationship of gender and sports?
A) Women and girls have been far more likely to be encouraged to participate in sports when compared to boys and men.
B) Women have been defined as superior in the world of sport compared to men.
C) Discrimination against females in sports has lessened but not eroded over time.
D) Females participate in sports as much as males.
33. Which statement is FALSE regarding gender, health, and mortality?
A) Women have a longer life span than men.
B) Men suffer from more illness and other health-related problems than women.
C) Over the course of an illness, women are more likely to be confined to bed than men.
D) In Canada, women live to about 78 years of age.
34. Males tend to be overrepresented in crime and deviance for all of the following factors except:
A) Family socialization
D) Response to adversity
35. Which of the following factors has led to an increase in female deviance in recent years?
A) Female victimization, for example, being abused as children
B) Women still feel inferior when compared to men
C) The pay gap between men and women no longer exists
D) More and more females are dropping out of high school
36. Which of the following is NOT a social change linked to the globalization of sexuality?
A) Global network of sexperts
B) Increasing urbanization
C) Globalization of media
D) Decreased mobility
37. According to the 2010 report on the global sex industry, _________ million people throughout the world, both adults and children, were in forced labour, bonded labour, and forced prostitution.
A) 20 million
B) 8.5 million
C) 12.3 million
D) 2.6 million
38. What is meant by the term global care chain?
A) The governments effort to help those in the lower social class
B) The help being provided to third world countries by more industrialized countries
C) A series of personal relationships between people across the globe based on the paid or unpaid work of caring
D) Programs enacted to help those who live in absolute poverty
39. Compared with other countries, women in Canada have a somewhat lighter burden of household responsibilities. In part this is because of:
A) A higher proportion of women working in the paid labour force in Canada
B) The stronger social welfare net available to families in Canada
C) The greater relative affluence of Canadian families
D) The stronger public education system in Canada
40. Women, in the global paid-labour market, are heavily employed in:
A) Business-oriented positions
41. A characteristic of informal employment is:
A) No unemployment benefits
B) Good health insurance coverage
C) Being paid on time
D) Secure contracts
42. The increasing number of women who are being channeled into low-status, poorly paid manual work is referred to as:
A) Institutionalized sexism
B) Female proletarianization
C) Feminization of work
D) Pink-collar feminization
43. Which of the following is a plausible sociological explanations for overall female success in schooling outcomes:
A) Girls attend school more regularly than boys
B) Most teachers are female and girls do better with female teachers
C) Girls have stronger non-cognitive skills than boys
D) Parents have higher aspirations for girls than boys in schooling outcomes
44. Many women in developed countries are employed in the global assembly line which refers to:
A) Managerial positions
B) Technological positions
C) Business sector positions
D) Cleaning and clerical positions
45. Which of the following has been referred to as the rape capital of the world?
A) The African nation of the Democratic Republic of Congo
46. Which of the following has NOT been a focus of the larger global womens movement?
A) The increase of womens voices in global civil society
B) The adverse effects of global capitalism
C) Increased global trafficking in women
D) The growth of antifeminist fundamentalist movements
47. Sex is primarily a biological distinction between males and females whereas gender is based primarily on social distinctions.
48. People who are born with ambiguous genitalia are usually referred to as transsexuals.
49. Transsexuals are people who may have the genitalia of one sex, but believe they are locked into the wrong body.
50. Heterosexuality is a term which refers to the desire to have sexual relations with someone of the same sex.
51. Someone who lacks sexual desire is referred to as asexual.
52. Pedophilia, or sexual attraction to children, became more visible in the late 1980s.
53. Sexual assault includes sexual acts of domination usually enacted by women against men.
54. Rape cultures tend to be prevalent in and around college campuses due to the presence of alcohol and drugs, the age of the population, and the ratio of men to women.
55. Genital mutilation is still practiced in Canada, although it is declining.
56. According to researcher Ken Plummer there are three interlocking markets found within the sex industry.
57. One of the criteria for determining a form of sexual behaviour as deviant is the society in which the sexual act takes place.
58. Heteromonic masculinity refers to a set of socially constructed ideas about masculinity that focuses on the interests and desires of men.
59. Dawn was born a male but prefers to dress and behave like a female. His identity can be referred to as transgendered.
60. Arlie Hoschilds book The Second Shift argues that women work outside the home and also take care of the majority of household and childcare duties within the home as well.
61. Studies indicate that from 4th to 12th grade, male students consistently score higher than female students on both reading and writing assessments.
62. The hidden curriculum is a term which refers to a schools unofficial rules by which students learn various behaviours, attitudes, and values.
63. Discrimination against females in sports and barriers to womens participation in sports has generally remained constant over the last few decades.
64. Between 1900 and 2010 the life span for both males and females increased, more so for men compared to women.
65. Three ideas have been put forth to explain why males commit more crime than females: family socialization, strain, and response to adversity.
66. The sexuality industry has become increasingly important to global capitalism.
67. The global care chain, according to Meg Luxton, refers to the fact that more governments are becoming involved in protecting women from being sexually exploited.
68. More and more women have been entering the labour market in large numbers in countries all over the world. This is referred to as the feminization of labour.
69. Many women, especially in developing economies, are working in low-paying jobs that provide no benefits and have substandard working conditions. This is referred to as marginal feminization.
70. The Global Womens Movement has focused on such issues as: economic concerns, health-care issues, and violence against women.
71. Explain the difference between sex and gender, showing how the two terms relate to each other.
72. Discuss two of the reasons, according to your text, why sociologists have become interested in studying the topic of sexuality.
73. What is meant by the term sexual scripts? Explain what a male script and a female script might include.
74. What is genital mutilation and where is it mainly practiced today? What are the negative consequences of this procedure?
75. Discuss two ways sexuality and technology are connected.
76. Discuss the findings found within Meg Luxtons book, More Than a Labour of Love. Why, in your opinion, do women still shoulder much of the household responsibilities?
77. How has the hidden curriculum affected the way girls are treated in the educational system? How are girls of colour often perceived by teachers and administrators in the school system?
78. Who is the primary target audience for advertisers? Provide specific examples in terms of how advertisers may target either men or women.
79. Who commits more crimes, men or women? Discuss three reasons for why this is so, according to your text.
80. Discuss how the global economy has contributed to an increase in female migration. What are some negative consequences of female migration?
81. Discuss what is meant by the term female proletarianization.
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