1. When we conceptualize, we specify what we mean by a term.
2. A concept that does not vary is known as a constant.
@ page 111
3. The term variable may be used interchangeably with the term indicator.
@ page 110
4. An operation is the process of linking abstract concepts to empirical indicants.
@ page 109
5. The primary problem with using available data for new research questions is that there is very little social data available.
@ page 107-108
6. There can only be one correct definition of a concept.
@ page 103
7. An open-ended question is designed with explicit response choices.
@ page 119
8. When we operationalize, we identify specific observations that we will take to indicate a concept in empirical reality.
@ page 109
9. Open-ended questions are most frequently used for large surveys.
@ page 119
10. A survey asks married people whether their marriage is: very happy, somewhat happy, or not very happy. This is an example of a closed-ended question.
@ page 118
11. Qualitative research usually takes an inductive approach to the process of conceptualization.
@ page 115
12. Only open-ended questions need to be exhaustive and mutually exclusive.
@ page 127
13. Direct observation is a method of choice for measuring behavior in natural settings.
@ page 120-121
14. Contrived observation is considered unethical and unreliable, and should not be used in social scientific research.
@ page 122
15. Triangulation weakens measurement considerably because we can achieve similar results with different measures of the same variable.
@ page 124-125
16. Gender is a good example of a ratio level of measurement.
@ page 129
17. Unlike other levels of measurement, nominal levels of measurement need not be exhaustive and mutually exclusive.
@ page 126-127
18. Government statistics generated by a central agency usually have higher quality than official data collected by local levels of government and compiled into a single report.
@ pages 120-121
19. At the ratio level of measurement, addition and subtraction are possible.
@ pages 129
20. Reliability is a prerequisite for measurement validity
@ page 135
21. The U.S. Census always included a question in order to categorize the respondent by race.
@ pages 111-112
22. The process by which a researcher defines specifically what he or she means when using a concept is known as:
@ page 103
23. The procedures for identifying or indicating the value of cases on a variable are known as:
24. Which of the following is NOT a problem with using available data?
A. Some measures may not be appropriate for the current research
B. Not all available data are accurate
C. Data may be collected inconsistently
*D. Government agencies and NGOs rarely make data public
E. Some concepts cannot be adequately operationalized with the available data
25. Which of the following is NOT true regarding closed-ended questions?
A. They are used by most surveys with large numbers of people.
B. They are easy to process with computers and analyze with statistics.
C. They make it easier for respondents to answer questions.
D. They reduce ambiguity.
*E. They lessen confusion about meaning of responses involving complex concepts.
26. Open-ended questions are preferable to closed-ended questions in which of the following situations?
A. Responses are mutually exclusive but not exhaustive.
B. The number of respondents is very large.
C. There is little time to review questions before data collection.
*D. The range of responses cannot be anticipated.
E. Questions have been previously used in surveys.
27. According to Schutt, which is not a reason why youth gangs are hard to define?
A. Youth gangs are not particularly cohesive.
B. Individual gangs change their focus over time.
*C. Youth culture is poorly understood by researchers.
D. Gangs may have diverse and unclear membership.
E. Popular mythos of youth gangs obscure reality.
28. Which of the following is NOT an example of a concept?
*B. Domestic violence
C. Youth gangs
D. Binge drinking
E. Substance abuse
29. In variables measured at the nominal level of measurement,
A. Rankings are possible
B. Addition and subtraction are possible
C. Multiplication and division are possible
D. Ratios are meaningful
*E. Values measure in kind but not quantity
30. Unobtrusive measures can provide a researcher with a wealth of content. Which of the following does NOT involve an unobtrusive measure?
B. legal opinions
D. e-mail messages
E. personal letters
31. Which of the following can NOT be performed on data collected at the ratio level of measurement?
B. Greater than/less than
*E. All of the above can be performed on ratio level data.
32. A characteristic that doesnt change across cases is known as a/an:
33. What kind of validity is achieved if scores on measures related to one concept are not strongly associated with measures of different concepts?
A. Face validity
B. Criterion validity
C. Content validity
*D. Discriminant validity
E. Predictive validity
34. Which of the following statistics is used commonly to measure inter-item reliability?
A. Pearsons r
*B. Cronbachs alpha
C. Guttmans scale
E. Reliability measures
35. Inter-observer reliability occurs when:
*A. Different observers measure the same phenomena in the same way
B. Different observers agree on a definition of measurement
C. Different observers administer an instrument
D. Different observers contribute to the conceptualization process
E. Different observers measure some phenomena concurrently
36. Identify the ordinal measure:
*C. a little bit wrong
D. carrying a weapon
37. When researchers measure an unchanging phenomenon at two different times, the degree to which the two measurements are related is called:
*A. Test-Retest reliability
B. Criterion validity
C. Predictive validity
D. Inter-item reliability
E. Alternate-forms reliability
38. Reliability refers to which of the following?
A. That a measurement captures what it intends to measure.
B. That a measurement includes all dimensions of a concept.
C. That a measurement is free of error.
D. That a measurement is based on empirical reality.
*E. That a measure yields consistent scores.
39. Questions are often the basis of which type(s) of research?
C. Qualitative research
D. Evaluation research
*E. All of the above
40. Predictive validity occurs when:
A. A measure can predict scores on a criterion measured in the past.
B. A measure relates to other measures specified in a social theory.
C. A measure is associated with a criterion collected at the same time.
*D. A measure can predict scores on a criterion measured in the future.
E. A measure is operationalized as a variable.
41. To establish concurrent validity, a researcher must include which of the following in a survey that includes a new index of depression?
A. A system for weighting responses
B. Multiple forms of the same index
*C. A previously validated measure of depression
D. Single items and matrix questions
E. Open-ended questions that ask for details about responses
42. Face validity refers to:
A. The ability of subsets of items to predict one another
B. The strength of items to predict one another
*C. The apparent appropriateness of how a concept is measured
D. The likelihood that multiple indicators measure the same phenomenon
E. The ability of indicators to predict desired outcomes
43. Which level of measurement is the most mathematically precise?
E. All levels of measurement are equally precise
44. Which of the following is an example of a variable measured at the interval level of measurement?
A. Age in years
B. Income in dollars
*C. Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
D. Acres of land planted in food crops
E. None of the above are measured at the interval level
45. Which of the following is an example of a variable measured at the ordinal level of measurement?
A. Military rank
B. Birth order of siblings
C. Age measured as child, teen, adult, and elderly
D. Order in which subjects complete a given task
*E. All of the above are measured at the ordinal level
46. Which of the following is an example of a variable measured at the nominal level of measurement?
*A. Location in which respondent was born
B. Religiosity measured as not religious, somewhat religious, and very religious
C. Time in seconds in which a subject completes a given task
D. Number of respondents first cousins
E. Level of education in years completed
47. When a respondent is asked to choose among explicit response categories, he or she has been asked what type of question?
48. Using more than one measure of the same variable, such as using a survey and direct observation, is known as:
49. Which of the following type of closed-ended question does not have to have mutually exclusive response categories?
*B. Check all that apply
50. Which of the following is NOT a type of unobtrusive measure?
B. Contrived observation
D. Physical trace evidence
E. Simple observations
51. The nominal level of measurement is synonymous with which of the following level of measurement:
52. The process of specifying the operations that will indicate the value of cases on a variable is known as:
B. Criterion validity
C. Construct validity
53. If a respondent misreads a survey question and answers incorrectly, what is the source of measurement error?
*A. Idiosyncratic individual error
B. Generic individual error
C. Generic factor error
D. Method factor error
E. Residual error
54. If responses are affected by factors that are not what the instrument is intended to measure, then what is the source of measurement error?
A. Idiosyncratic errors
B. Generic individual error
C. Generic factor error
*D. Systematic errors
E. Residual error
55. Which level of measurement has a value that signifies absolutely no amount of whatever variable it indicates?
56. Using 24 questions to represent multiple dimensions of the problems associated with alcohol abuse attempts to establish what type of validity?
57. According to the GAO (2006), intimate partner violence was measured in terms of:
C. Criminal activity
*D. A and B
E. None of the Above
58. Discuss the difference between conceptualization and operationalization.
@pages 103, 110
a. Conceptualization the process of specifying what we mean by a term; Operationalization the process of specifying the operations that will indicate the value of cases on a variable; when a researcher operationalizes, he or she identifies specific observations that the researcher takes to indicate that concept in empirical reality
59. Explain why a lot of surveys use closed-ended questions.
a. Respondents give explicit responses; surveys can reach a large number of people; easily processed by computer and analyzed with statistics
60. Explain the difference between reliability and validity. Why is it important for a measurement instrument to have both?
a. Validity a measure is valid when it is measuring exactly what it is supposed to measure; face validity; content validity; criterion validity; concurrent validity; predictive validity; construct validity; discriminant validity; reliability a measurement procedure yields consistent scores when the phenomenon being measured is not changing; test-retest reliability; intrarater reliability; interitem reliability; alternate-forms reliability; split-half reliability; interobserver reliability; a researcher cannot really measure a phenomenon if the measure being used gives inconsistent results and cannot be replicated
61. Explain what it means for a question to be mutually exclusive and exhaustive. Why is this important for data collection?
a. Mutually exclusive a variables attributes (or values) are mutually exclusive when every case can be classified as having only one attribute (or value. ; exhaustive offer at least one option with room for ambiguity; respondents may skip questions or make up answers, therefore affecting the data collected
62. What are unobtrusive measures? What are the four types of measures identified by Eugene Webb and colleagues (2000)?
a. Unobtrusive measure a measurement based on physical traces or other data that are collected without the knowledge or participation of the individuals or groups that generated the data; Four types: physical trace evidence, archives, simple observation, and contrived observation
63. Describe the differences between direct observations and controlled observations. Be sure to give at least one example of each.
a. Direct observation can be used as an indicator of some concepts; direct observation is often the method chosen in order to measure behavior in natural settings and avoids the problems of poor recall and self-serving distortions that can occur with surveys; Albert Reiss studied police-citizen interactions; controlled observations is typically used to measure reaction times; Correll et al. (2002) used controlled observations to study individuals who play video games
64. Define each of the four levels of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio), and give an example of each. Also, explain the special case of dichotomies in levels of measurement and give an example of a dichotomous level of measurement.
a. Nominal variables whose values have no mathematical interpretation such as race; ordinal a measurement of a variable in which the numbers indicating a variables values specify only the order of the cases, permitting greater than and less than distinctions; interval a measurement of a variable in which the numbers indicating a variables values represent fixed measurement units but have no absolute zero point such as temperature in degrees Fahrenheit; ratio a measurement of a variable in which the number indicating a variables values represent fixed measuring units and an absolute zero such as age since it can be added and subtracted; dichotomy variables having only two values such as gender
65. List the four methods of evaluating validity in research. Be sure to define and give an example of each.
a. Face validity the type of validity that exists when an inspection of items used to measure a concept suggests that they are appropriate on their face such as a count of the number of drinks people consumed during the past week; content validity the type of validity that exists when the full range of a concepts meaning is covered by the measure such as the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test; criterion validity the type of validity that is established by comparing the scores obtained on the measure being validated to those obtained with more direct measures of the same phenomenon such as a measure of blood-alcohol concentration or a urine test; construct validity the type of validity that is established by showing that a measure is related to other measures as specified in a theory such as the Addiction Severity Index
66. List four methods of evaluating the validity of measures, such as discriminant validity. Be sure to define and give an example of each.
a. Face validity: the type of validity that exists when an inspection of items used to measure a concept suggests that they are appropriate on their face'
Content validity: The type of validity that exists when the full range of a concepts meaning is covered by the measure
Criterion validity: The type of validity that is established by comparing the scores obtained on the measure being validated to those obtained with a more direct or already validated measure of the same phenomenon (the criterion)
Concurrent validity: The type of validity that exists when scores on a measure are closely related to scores on a criterion measured at the same time
Predictive validity The type of validity that exists when a measure predicts scores on a criterion measured in the future
Construct validity: The type of validity that is established by showing that a measure is related to other measures as specified in a theory
Convergent validity: The type of validity achieved when one measure of a concept is associated with different types of measures of the same concept
67. List ways in which researchers can improve reliability and validity when conducting studies.
a. A researcher cannot really measure a phenomenon if the measure being used gives inconsistent results; however if they are proved not to be reliable or valid, there is little that can be done to save the study; it is important to select measures that are likely to be reliable and valid in the first place; consider the different strengths of different measures and their appropriateness to the study; consider a pretest in which a researcher uses the measure with a small sample and check reliability; provide careful training to ensure a consistent approach if interviewers or observers will administer the measures; use measures that have been used before and whose reliability and validity have been established in other contexts
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