Labour Relations 3rd Edition by Larry Suffield -Test Bank
Labour Relations 3rd Edition by Larry Suffield -Test Bank
EMPLOYERS: OBJECTIVES, PROCESSES, AND STRATEGY
The primary objectives of employers are to maximize profitability and maintain control over the workplace.
Recently productivity growth has been the same in Canada and the United States.
Employers use public relations efforts as one of the methods to achieve their objectives.
The values or personal beliefs of some managers lead them to pursue control of the workplace.
Labour relations strategy refers to how a firm competes in the marketplace.
Concession bargaining is negotiation over employer demands for reductions in wages and benefits.
Cost leadership is a strategy that involves an organization competing on the basis of price.
Differentiation is a strategy that involves an organization competing on the basis of price.
Wal-Mart is an example of a firm using a differentiation strategy.
The extent of unionization of the industry in which a firm competes influences a firms labour relations strategy.
An employers experience with unionization influences the employers labour relations strategy.
Employers in Canada and United States have the same opportunities to oppose unionization of their employees.
The legal environment does not affect an employers ability to oppose unionization.
Employers in Canada have less opportunity to oppose unions than employers in the United States because of the reliance on membership cards in the certification process in all Canadian jurisdictions.
The premise of a union avoidance strategy is that employees will not turn to a union if they are treated fairly.
A union avoidance strategy involves an employer adopting both legal and illegal means to oppose unionization.
A union acceptance strategy refers to an employer voluntarily recognizing the union.
A union resistance strategy involves the employer providing employee representation mechanisms, such as complaint procedures, to non-union employees.
Most Canadian firms adopt a strategy of union removal.
Wal-Mart is an organization that illustrates union opposition and removal strategies.
Employers who adopt a high commitment human resource management strategy will develop and rely on the skills of the workforce.
High-performance organizations emphasize reducing costs by lowering compensation.
High-performance organizations maximize status differences between individuals in order to motivate employees.
Most Canadian firms have widely adopted high-performance policies and practices.
Concession bargaining involves employer demands for reductions in compensation.
High-performance practices such as variable pay are welcomed by unions.
Younger employees make union opposition easier for the employer.
Comparing employers in Canada and the United States, it is more difficult for employers in Canada to oppose unions.
A union opposition strategy could involve matching the pay rates of unionized firms.
It is recognized that banks and fast food franchises have used a union acceptance strategy.
The predominant approach of employers in Canada is a union avoidance strategy.
A low commitment human resource management strategy involves using traditional production methods with less emphasis on technological innovation.
High-performance work systems are part of a low commitment human resource management strategy.
Which of the following are employer objectives?
collaboration with the union
a and d
Which of the following are methods used by employers to meet their objectives?
grievances and arbitration
b and d
Which of the following are measures that an employer could pursue to increased efficiency?
changes in technology
a and b.
a, b, and c
Which of the following is correct regarding labour productivity in Canada and the United States?
Labour productivity is not a significant issue in either country.
Labour productivity is higher in Canada.
Labour productivity is higher in the United States.
There is no difference in labour productivity between the two countries.
Company A is in financial difficulty. In contract negotiations with the union the company has demanded a five percent wage reduction. This illustrates:
bargaining in bad faith
Labour relations strategy:
relates to how the firm competes in the marketplace
relates to how the employer deals with unionization
has been constant since the 1980s
is not related to environmental factors
relates to a low commitment approach to human resource management
Which of the following factors affect a firms labour relations strategy?
experience with unionization
nature of employees
power of the union
a and b
a, b, c
Which of the following is not a factor affecting an employers labour relations strategy?
the values of the employer
the philosophy of the union representing employees
labour relations legislation regulating employer conduct
whether or not the employers competitors are unionized
Which of the following make it more difficult for employers in Canada to oppose unionization than is the case in the United States:
the delay between a union application for bargaining rights and a representation vote
first contract arbitration
right to work legislation
granting bargaining rights on the basis of a representation vote instead of membership cards
provisions that allow employers to hire permanent replacements for striking workers
Which of the following factors would be emphasized in a cost leadership strategy:
speed of delivery
convenience of location
knowledge of staff
long product life
none of the above
Which of the following features would not be emphasized by an organization employing a differentiation strategy:
Which of the following statements correctly describes the majority of Canadian employers:
They have developed policies to transform the workplace.
When a union has gained bargaining rights they adopt a strategy of union acceptance.
When a union has gained bargaining rights they adopt a strategy of union removal.
They have adopted a strategy of union opposition.
They have adopted a strategy of union assistance.
Union resistance is a labour relations strategy that involves an employer attempting which of the following?
have certified unions removed from the workplace
prevent unionization through both legal and illegal means
convince employees they need a union
limit the spread of unionization further in the organization
negotiate the best deal possible with the union
Which of the following companies are the most likely to pursue a union opposition strategy?
Company A, which has adopted a differentiation approach in the marketplace
Company B, which primarily uses young part-time employees
Company C, which competes in an industry in which most employers are unionized
Company D, which has managers who are indifferent on the matter of unionization
Company A and Company B
A low commitment approach to human resource management emphasizes or includes:
increasing labour skills
reducing labour costs
higher compensation levels
higher levels of commitment
A high commitment approach to human resource management emphasizes or includes:
decreasing labour costs
reduced levels of commitment
A high commitment approach to human resource management has been associated with:
a cost leadership business strategy
a differentiation business strategy
reducing labour costs
A high-performance work system includes:
increases in training and development
reducing job security
a and b
Which of the following correctly describes the level of adoption of high-performance work systems by Canadian employers:
adopted in the service sector
adopted by U.S. subsidiaries only
completely adopted by a majority
Research has established that high-performance work systems have:
improved results for all firms
improved results for some firms
failed to improve results for any firms
been more widely adopted in Canada than United States
improved union management relations
Which of the following is correct regarding high performance work systems (HPWS)/
They have been widely adopted in Canada
It is universally accepted that HPWS have improved employees work lives
Unions accept all of the features of HPWS
Some features of HPWS will be opposed by unions.
Is universally accepted that HPWS have improved results for employers
Identify the primary objectives of employers and describe four methods that could be used to achieve those objectives.
Identify the meaning of labour relations strategy and describe four alternative strategies that could be adopted.
Identify the meaning of labour relations strategy and describe four factors that could affect a labour relations strategy.
One strategy or approach to unions that an employer could adopt has been referred to as union substitution / avoidance. Describe the objective of the strategy and outline how the employer could implement the strategy.
Distinguish between a high commitment and a low commitment approach to human resource management.
Outline the policies and practices associated with high-performance organizations and describe the implications for the union-management relationship.
COLLECTIVE BARGAINING RIGHTS
Dissatisfaction with pay is the only reason employees join a union.
Some employees will not join a union because they view union membership as being disloyal to their employer.
Perceptions of inequity in the workplace cause some employees to believe that unionization will help achieve fairness.
The organizing campaign refers to the unions application for certification to the Labour Relations Board.
All union organizers are paid union staff members.
In order to obtain bargaining rights a union must apply to the Labour Relations Board and obtain a certificate granting bargaining rights.
A voluntary recognition agreement is an agreement between the union and employees providing that the employees recognize the union as their bargaining agent.
All employee associations can apply to be certified by the Labour Relations Board.
Managerial employees are not allowed to join a union.
The restrictions on when a union may file an application for certification depend on whether employees are currently represented by a union.
It is possible for a union employee to agree with the employer to work extra hours in exchange for an extra week of vacation.
A union can represent all employees within a firm.
An independent contractor working for a unionized firm is automatically covered by the unions collective agreement.
If an employer alleges that an individual should not be included in the bargaining unit proposed by the union because they are an independent contractor, the issue is resolved by an arbitrator.
In some jurisdictions individuals are excluded from unionization on the basis of their occupation.
Union organizers may visit employees at their homes during the organizing campaign.
In addition to signing a membership card, new union members may have to pay a fee when joining a union in some jurisdictions.
When a union is certified, but a collective agreement has not yet been negotiated, another union can apply to be certified to represent employees at any time.
The appropriate bargaining unit is determined by the union filing the application for certification.
The appropriate bargaining unit is a flexible concept there may be more than one appropriate bargaining unit.
Office, clerical and technical employees are put in bargaining units separate from production employees in many jurisdictions.
In some jurisdictions unions may be certified on the basis of the number of signed membership cards they submit to the Labour Relations Board.
On a certification application a representation vote is required in all Canadian jurisdictions.
A representation vote is a secret ballot vote to determine if employees wish to be represented by a union.
A policy of requiring a representation vote to certify a union, instead of relying on membership cards, reduces the likelihood of certification.
Unfair labour practices refer to conduct that is prohibited by legislation.
Unfair labour practices only occur during the organizing campaign and the certification process.
The statutory freeze refers to the rule that prohibits the employer from changing the conditions of employment during the term of the collective agreement.
The statutory freeze means that after an application for certification has been filed with the Labour Relations Board the employer cannot make any changes in working conditions.
When a union files a complaint alleging an employer unfair labour practice, the union must prove the employers conduct was a violation of labour relations legislation in all jurisdictions.
Labour Relations Boards in some jurisdictions have the authority to certify a union without a vote if there are employer unfair labour practices during the organizing campaign.
Employees who are dissatisfied with their union are allowed to make an application for decertification at any time.
An employer can support an application for a union to be decertified.
If an employer sells a unionized business, the union must apply for certification as the bargaining agent with the new business owner.
Successor rights provisions in labour relations legislation protect the unions bargaining rights in the event that the employer sells the business.
Which of the following is not reason why employees may seek unionization?
to guarantee job advancement on the basis of ability
to improve workload
to obtain a voice in policy-making
to increase job security
to achieve workplace equity
Which of the following is the least likely to be a reason that employees would refuse to join a union?
political and social activity of unions
fear of employer retaliation
Which of the following is/are the most likely to be reasons why some employees will not want to join a union?
employer support for the union
loyalty to the employer
a desire to engage in a strike
b and d
A union could obtain the right to represent employees through:
a voluntary recognition agreement with the employees
a voluntary recognition agreement with the employer
a or b
b or c
Which of the following is correct?
Employees join unions only for financial reasons.
Employees join unions only to increase their job security.
The reasons employees join or refuse to join a union are all related to internal issues within the workplace.
Some employees join a union to make input on policy issues.
It is not possible for employers to avoid unionization through policy changes in the workplace.
Unionization increases job security for employees because:
Unionization guarantees that there will be no job loss because of technological change.
Unionization guarantees that there will be no job loss because the employer moves.
All employees who are terminated in a unionized workplace are reinstated.
Unionized employees cannot be laid off.
Some unionized employees who are terminated are reinstated by an arbitrator.
In order for the Canadian Auto Workers union to gain bargaining rights to represent employees working for a national courier company at a location in Nova Scotia the union will have to file an application with?
the Nova Scotia Labour Relations Board
the Nova Scotia Labour Court
the Canada Industrial Relations Board
the Canadian Labour Congress
none of the above; the CAW cannot represent courier company employees
Which of the following statements about a union organizing campaign and application for certification is correct?
All contacts with employees are made away from the workplace.
The union will try to keep the organizing campaign secret as long as possible in some situations.
The union must give all employees an opportunity to join.
All the work is done by paid national or international union representatives.
Employers are given an opportunity to respond to any claims made by the union before the labour relations board processes an application for certification.
Which of the following is correct regarding a union organizing campaign?
The union must advise all employees in the proposed bargaining unit about the campaign.
The union must approach all employees in the proposed bargaining unit to provide them an opportunity to join the union.
All organizing campaigns are conducted openly.
The union may inform the employer about a pending organizing campaign.
Labour relations legislation requires the establishment of a union organizing committee.
A union has been certified to represent the production employees of Company A. Which of the following is correct?
The next step in the process is a voluntary recognition agreement.
The employer may choose to bargain with the union.
Individual employees can continue to negotiate with the employer until a collective agreement is signed.
The union is now the exclusive bargaining agent for employees in the bargaining unit.
The employees in the bargaining unit can file an application to decertify the union six months after it was certified.
When a union applies to the Labour Relations Board for certification it must establish:
it is a trade union as defined in labour relations legislation
it is part of a national or international union
a and b
it has the approval of the employer
it has provided all employees in the proposed bargaining unit with an opportunity to join
Which of the following is correct?
All workers, including independent contractors, can unionize.
All workers who are not independent contractors can unionize.
All employees can unionize.
Most non-managerial employees can unionize.
Most managerial employees can unionize.
Dependent contract provisions in the labour relations legislation of some jurisdictions provides that:
independent contractors can unionize
the definition of an employee is broadened to include dependent contractors
individuals who use their own tools can unionize
individuals who are economically independent of their employer can unionize
part-time employees can unionize
Which of the following are not allowed to join or form a union?
persons who work with confidential labour relations information
a, b, c
b and c
When a labour relations board determines if a position is managerial it will refer primarily to:
the job title
the preferences of the employer
the preferences of the union
the preferences of the employee
the authority held over bargaining unit members
An organizing committee is:
the union staff who direct a union organizing campaign
a group of employees who attempt to convince their co-workers to become union members
a group of employees who are responsible for restructuring the organization
an office at the Labour Relations Board that processes applications for certification
always does its work in secret
When employees join a union during an organizing campaign:
all membership cards must be signed at the workplace
a membership fee is required in most jurisdictions
a membership fee is required in all jurisdictions
a membership fee not required in any jurisdiction
the employer is informed who has signed membership cards
Unions would prefer that support for the union be determined by referring to signed membership cards instead of a ratification vote because:
a vote delays the process
a vote is expensive
employers may influence a vote
employees dont want a vote
a vote requires more support for the union
When a group of employees are not currently unionized a union can apply for certification:
after giving notice to the employer
anytime after the employer has been in business for 12 months
after giving notice to the Canadian Labour Congress
during the opening period
at any time
Which of the following is correct regarding union membership after a union has been certified?
All employees in the bargaining unit automatically become union members.
All employees in the bargaining unit must become union members.
The union and the employer may negotiate a collective agreement that requires employees in the bargaining unit to become union members.
Employees who voted against the union do not have to become union members.
The union represents employees in the bargaining unit who voted in favour of the union.
After a union has been certified by the Labour Relations Board:
a collective agreement must be negotiated within 12 months
a collective agreement must be negotiated within six months
an application for decertification cannot be made until after a collective agreement has been negotiated
a vote is held for the employees to ratify the certification
an application for decertification cannot be filed for a time specified in the relevant labour relations legislation
The appropriate bargaining unit is determined by the:
Labour Relations Board
union and the employer jointly
The group of employees found to be the appropriate bargaining unit on an application for certification:
must be the most appropriate unit for collective bargaining
could affect the likelihood of certification
could affect the bargaining power of the union
a, b, and c
b and c
The appropriate bargaining unit determined by the Labour Relations Board:
must comply with any agreement between the employer and the union
is based upon the community of interest concept
names the individuals in the bargaining unit
excludes employees opposed to the union
is determined by the Board free of any legislative restrictions
On an application for certification Labour Relations Boards in Canada determine if there is sufficient support for the union to grant certification by:
relying on membership cards in all jurisdictions
holding a representation vote in all jurisdictions
relying on membership cards in some jurisdictions
holding a representation vote in some jurisdictions
c and d
Which of the following is correct regarding the determination of union support in an application for certification?
All jurisdictions provide that support may be determined by a representation vote.
Unions prefer support to be determined by a representation vote.
Employers prefer support to be determined on the basis of signed union membership cards.
Labour Relations Board officers can dispense with a representation vote.
A representation vote can be conducted by a show of hands at a union meeting.
The following question would have to be modified in order to be used in New Brunswick and Newfoundland and Labrador because of different rules in those provinces.
A union filed an application for certification to represent employees at a manufacturing facility. There are 50 employees in the proposed bargaining. On the day of the representation vote 40 employees voted. How many votes must the union obtain to be certified?
The Framework of Fairness agreement between Magna and the CAW is a significant departure from a traditional organizing campaign because:
It requires the employer to voice its approval of union membership.
It eliminates an employee vote.
It provides that employees do not have to pay union dues.
It establishes a separate local for each Magna location that is organized.
It prohibits employees from campaigning against the union.
Which of the following is correct regarding an organizing campaign and certification process?
There is a freeze on employer communications to employees after an application for certification has been filed.
The union must notify the employer that it will be approaching employees to join the union.
The employer cannot challenge the composition of the bargaining unit proposed by the union.
An employer would be illegally interfering with the unions application if it prohibited entry of national or international union representatives on the employers property.
The employer is allowed to communicate to employees in most jurisdictions provided that there is no intimidation or coercion.
A union is conducting an organizing campaign at Company A. Which of the following is Company A permitted to do?
Transfer union supporters to another location.
Advise employees that they are being fairly treated and there is no need to join a union and pay union dues.
Promise to increase wages if the union is rejected.
Increase wages to convince employees that the union is not necessary.
Tell employees that if the union is certified the employer will move operations to the United States.
A union could be guilty of unfair labour practices:
during the union organizing campaign
during contract negotiations
during the term of the collective agreement
a, b, and c
never; unfair labour practices refer to employer conduct
Which of the following is the most likely to be found to be an employer unfair labour practice during a union organizing campaign?
issuing a written statement referring to the disadvantages of unionization
banning union activity during working hours
expressing a preference that employees do not join a union
issuing a written statement referring to a wage increase if the union is defeated
prohibiting entry of employees on to the employers property during non-work hours
Which of the following is the least likely to be viewed as an employer unfair labour practice during an organizing campaign and the certification process?
providing the annual wage increase on the scheduled date
asking employees if they have signed union membership cards
implementing a new plan to charge employees for parking
transferring employees suspected of being union supporters
promising to establish a new position of employee representative who will be responsible for improving working conditions
The statutory freeze means that:
Employers cannot make any changes in working conditions after an application for certification has been filed.
Employers can choose to implement or postpone changes that would be carrying on business as usual.
Employers must conduct business as usual, including making normal changes.
Employers can make changes in the terms of employment other then wages, which are frozen.
Employers can make any changes in the terms employment other than promotions.
A union has started an organizing campaign at company A. Which of the following employer actions is permitted?
asking employees whether they support the union
prohibiting national union representatives from entering the premises
issuing a notice to employees advising that wages will be increased if the union is defeated
transferring union supporters
a and b
An employer has dismissed an employee during a union organizing campaign and an unfair labour practice complaint has been filed with the Labour Relations Board. Which of the following is correct?
the union should file a grievance
the Labour Relations Board does not have jurisdiction
the union bears the burden of proof in all jurisdictions
the employer bears the burden of proof in some jurisdictions
there is no burden of proof in this matter
A union organizing campaign was underway at Company A. An employee who was a member of the organizing committee was dismissed. Which of the following is correct if a complaint is filed with the Labour Relations Board?
There will be a Board hearing to determine if the employer has committed an unfair labour practice unless the parties settle the issue.
The union must establish that the dismissal was motivated by the employees union activity.
The union must prove that there was no valid reason to dismiss the employee.
The Board can order compensation but not reinstatement.
The employee must sue for wrongful dismissal.
Which of the following is not a remedy that could be granted by a Labour Relations Board for unfair labour practices committed by an employer during a union organizing campaign?
reinstatement of a discharged employee
damages for lost earnings
an order to repeat a representation vote
an order prohibiting the employer from repeating the unfair labour practices
If an employer commits unfair labour practices during a union organizing campaign which of the following is correct regarding the remedies a Labour Relations Board can order?
Certification without a vote is available in all jurisdictions only if employees have been dismissed for union activity.
Certification without a vote is available in some jurisdictions.
Certification without a vote is available in all jurisdictions.
Certification without a vote is not available in any jurisdiction.
Certification without a vote is available in jurisdictions that do not provide for a representation vote to be repeated.
The decertification process is important because it:
provides the employer with an opportunity to eliminate the union
protects employees from weak or inefficient unions
means employees can terminate the unions bargaining rights at any time
is a necessary step if employees want to change unions
is possible for the employer to support anti-union employees
Employees at Company A are represented by a union, and the parties are in the second year of a three-year collective agreement. The majority of employees in the bargaining unit are dissatisfied with the representation the union has provided. Which of the following is correct?
The employer can file a decertification application.
The employer can assist employees to file a decertification application.
The employees can file an application for a decertification in the open period.
The employees can file an application for decertification at a time.
The employees can only terminate the unions bargaining rights by applying to certify another union.
The production employees at Company A are unionized and there is currently a collective agreement in place which expires in three years. Which of the following is correct if the owners of Company A sell the business?
The bargaining rights of the union are terminated.
The bargaining rights of the union continue; however, the collective agreement is terminated.
The union and the new owner must renegotiate the collective agreement.
The unions bargaining rights and the collective agreement are not affected.
A representation vote is conducted to determine if the employees want the union to be their bargaining agent with the new owner.
When a union has a collective agreement with an employer and the employer sells the business to another entity, which of the following is correct?
The collective agreement is terminated.
The purchaser is bound by the terms of the collective agreement.
The collective agreement is binding upon the purchaser if it approves the agreement.
The collective agreement continues to run for the remainder its term but the unions bargaining rights expire at the end of the agreement.
A vote is held among employees to determine if they want the union to continue to represent them.
Describe in detail four reasons why some employees might choose not to join a union.
Describe four reasons why employees join unions. For each point referred to describe a measure an employer could adopt as part of an avoidance strategy.
Assume that you work for a company that is not unionized and you were approached by a union organizer and asked to join a union. Explain four possible reasons why you might want to join the union and four reasons why you might not want to join.
You are a union organizer and you are preparing a presentation to a group of non-union employees. What will all you say to convince employees to join the union?
Outline the key steps and restrictions on the certification process.
Explain the meaning and significance of the appropriate bargaining unit.
An important labour relations policy question is whether union support on a certification application should be determined by membership cards or by a representation vote. Explain arguments for and against each approach.
Explain the phrase unfair labour practice. If it appears that an employer is guilty of an unfair labour practice during a union organizing campaign briefly describe the procedure followed, and outline three remedies that are available.
An employer has just determined that a union has started an organizing campaign targeting its employees. Advise the employer what it can and cannot do in response to the union organizing campaign.
Describe the importance of and the procedure involved in the decertification of a union.