Leadership Roles And Management Functions in Nursing Theory And Application by Bessie L Marquis Test Bank

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Leadership Roles And Management Functions in Nursing Theory And Application by Bessie L Marquis Test Bank


Leadership Roles And Management Functions in Nursing Theory And Application by Bessie L Marquis Test Bank

chapter 2

1. Which represents the management functions that are incorporated into the management process?
  A) Planning, directing, organizing, staffing, and evaluating
  B) Planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling
  C) Organizing, planning, staffing, directing, and evaluating
  D) Organizing, staffing, planning, implementing, and controlling
  Ans: B
  Management functions include planning, organizing, staffing, directing, and controlling. These are incorporated into what is known as the management process.



2. What does traditional management science focuses upon?
  A) Meeting worker satisfaction
  B) Delineating barriers to productivity
  C) Using a laissez-faire approach
  D) Encouraging employee participation
  Ans: B
  Classical, or traditional, management science focuses on production in the workplace and on delineating organizational barriers to productivity. Little attention was given to worker job satisfaction, and workers were assumed to be motivated solely by economic rewards.



3. What assumption about workers does Theory X hold?
  A) Workers will naturally put forth effort
  B) Workers need threats to be motivated
  C) Workers are diligent and responsible
  D) Workers are in tune with organizational needs
  Ans: B
  Theory X managers believe that their employees are basically lazy, need constant supervision and direction, and are indifferent to organizational needs.



4. What does the Hawthorne effect implied about people?
  A) Human beings under investigation will respond to the fact that they are being studied
  B) Production will increase or decrease as light in a factory is increased or decreased
  C) Membership in small groups forms social control
  D) People are inherently good and will seek out work
  Ans: A
  Hawthorne effect indicated that people respond to the fact that they are being studied, attempting to increase whatever behavior they feel will continue to warrant the attention. The other statements do not reflect implied beliefs about people.



5. Managing conflict among staff members would occur in which part of the management process?
  A) Planning
  B) Organizing
  C) Directing
  D) Evaluating
  Ans: C
  Directing sometimes includes several staffing functions. However, this phases functions usually entail human resource management responsibilities, such as motivating, managing conflict, delegating, communicating, and facilitating collaboration. Planning encompasses determining philosophy, goals, objectives, policies, procedures, and rules; carrying out long- and short-range projections; determining a fiscal course of action; and managing planned change. Organizing includes establishing the structure to carry out plans, determining the most appropriate type of patient care delivery, and grouping activities to meet unit goals.



6. What is the idea that workers should be hired, trained, and promoted based on their competence and abilities related to?
  A) Part of the management functions identified by Fayol
  B) The result of the human relations studies
  C) The outcome of studies done by Mayo at the Hawthorne Works
  D) One of the four overriding principles of scientific management
  Ans: D
  Frederick Taylor, the father of scientific management, had the idea that workers should be hired, trained, and promoted based on their competence and abilities. This concept is not associated with any of the other options.



7. Max Weber, a well-known German sociologist, began to study large-scale organizations to determine what made some more efficient than others. What was his conclusion?
  A) Workers had to have a say in management to work most effectively
  B) Consistent rules and regulations for workers increased efficiency
  C) Employees should feel appreciated and valued
  D) Workers need frequent rest periods to increase overall production
  Ans: B
  Weber saw the need for legalized, formal authority and consistent rules and regulations for personnel in different positions. He thus proposed bureaucracy as an organizational design. None of the other options reflect his conclusions.



8. Which leadership style maintains strong control over the work group and uses coercion to motivate others?
  A) Authoritarian
  B) Democratic
  C) Laissez-faire
  D) A contingency approach
  Ans: A
  Lewin identified three common leadership styles: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire. Authoritarian leadership results in well-defined group actions that are usually predictable, reducing frustration in the work group and giving members a feeling of security. Productivity is usually high, but creativity, self-motivation, and autonomy are reduced. Authoritarian leadership is frequently found in very large bureaucracies such as the armed forces. Coercion to motivate is not associated with the other options.



9. Which statement about situational or contingency leadership theory is correct?
  A) High relationship behavior is much more essential to a good manager than high task behavior
  B) This leadership model is effective in bureaucratic organizations because it is task focused
  C) Management should be consistent in different situations so workers understand what is expected of them
  D) The leadership style chosen by a manager should reflect the task/relationship behavior of those being managed
  Ans: D
  The idea that leadership style should vary according to the situation or the individuals involved was first suggested almost 100 years ago by Mary Parker Follett, one of the earliest management consultants and among the first to view an organization as a social system of contingencies. The other options present statements that are incorrect.



10. Which statement depicts leadership?
  A) A leadership position is assigned
  B) A leadership position carries a legitimate source of power
  C) Members of a group will follow a person in a leadership position only by choice
  D) Leadership requires meeting organizational goals
  Ans: C
  A leader is the person who guides direction, opinion, and course of action without having an assigned position within the formal organization and so people choose to follow them. The other options are not accurate descriptions of leadership.



11. Gardner states that integrated leaders-managers distinguish themselves from more traditional managers in six ways. Which is a distinguishing trait of a traditional manager rather than an integrated leader-manager?
  A) They are politically astute
  B) They look outward, toward the larger organization
  C) They extend influence only to their own group
  D) They emphasize vision, values, and motivation
  Ans: C
  Traditional managers influence those in their own groups while integrated leaders influence others beyond their own group. The remaining options represent traits that may be shared by both types.



12. What concept does early leadership-theory development suggest?
  A) Leadership is a process of influencing others within an organizational culture
  B) The interactive relationship between the leader and the follower is significant
  C) Some are born to lead, whereas others are born to be led
  D) Vision and empowerment are two of the most critical leadership skills
  Ans: C
  Early leadership theorists focused on broad conceptualizations of leadership that assumed that people have certain characteristics or personality traits that make them better leaders than others. The remaining options do not describe a concept suggested by early leadership-theory development.



13. Which is a characteristic of Theory Z?
  A) Non-consensus decision making
  B) Fitting employees to their jobs
  C) Rapid career promotions
  D) Authoritative problem solving
  Ans: B
  Characteristics of Theory Z include fitting employees to their jobs, consensus decision making, job security, slower promotions, examining the long-term consequences of management decision making, quality circles, guarantee of lifetime employment, establishment of strong bonds of responsibility between superiors and subordinates, and a holistic concern for the workers.



14. What type of leader is the person who is committed, has a vision, and is able to empower others with this vision?
  A) Transactional
  B) Transformational
  C) Interactional
  D) Bureaucratic
  Ans: B
  Transformational leadership positively impacts the leader and the follower, who have a collective purpose. The traditional manager, concerned with the day-to-day operations, was termed a transactional leader. The remaining options are not associated with these characteristics.



15. How many primary leadership styles have been identified?
  A) One
  B) Two
  C) Three
  D) Four
  Ans: C
  Three primary leadership styles have been identified: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire.



16. What type of management was emphasized in the human relations era of management?
  A) Participatory
  B) Authoritarian
  C) Democratic
  D) Laissez-faire
  Ans: A
  The human relations era of management science emphasized concepts of participatory and humanistic management. Three primary leadership styles have been identified: authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire.



17. What is a distinguishing trait of integrated leader-managers? Select all that apply.
  A) Inward thinkers
  B) Long-term thinkers
  C) Concerned with employee motivation
  D) Possess influence beyond their own group
  Ans: B, C, D
  Gardner asserted that integrated leader-managers possess six distinguishing traits: They influence others beyond their own group; they emphasize vision, values, and motivation; they think longer term; they look outward, toward the larger organization they are politically astute; they think in terms of change and renewal.



18. What is the basic premise of the interactional theory?
  A) Leadership behavior is generally determined by the relationship between the leaders personality and the specific situation
  B) Manager behaviors are generally determined by the relationship between the managers personality and the specific situation.
  C) Both managers and followers have the ability to raise each other to higher levels of motivation and morality.
  D) Both leaders and followers have the ability to raise each other to higher levels of motivation and morality.
  Ans: A
  The basic premise of interactional theory is that leadership behavior is generally determined by the relationship between the leaders personality and the specific situation. Transformational leadership is where both leaders and followers have the ability to raise each other to higher levels of motivation and morality.



19. It is the idea that context is an important mediator of transformational leadership, that led to the creation of full range leadership theory early in the 21st century. This theory originally developed by Antonakis, Avolio, and Sivasubramaniam suggests how many transformational factors impacting leadership style and its impact on followers?
  A) One
  B) Three
  C) Five
  D) Nine
  Ans: C
  There are nine factors impacting leadership style and its impact on followers; five are transformational, three are transactional, and one is a nonleadership or laissez-faire leadership factor.



20. What type of manager is concerned with the day-to-day operations?
  A) Transactional
  B) Transformational
  C) Interactional
  D) Bureaucratic
  Ans: A
  The traditional manager, concerned with the day-to-day operations, is termed a transactional leader. This is not a characteristic of the other options.



21. What is the typical focus of managers? Select all that apply.
  A) Establishing a legitimate source of power
  B) Delegating responsibilities to staff members
  C) Formulate the budget to achieve the stated goals
  D) Direct attention to the management of unwilling subordinates
  Ans: A, B, C
  The manager is typically involved in the delegation of responsibilities through the power of the legitimate power associated with the position. To manipulate people, the environment, money, time, and other resources to achieve organizational goals is also a managers focus. Attention to both willing and unwilling subordinates as well as established responsibilities is associated with the role of the manager.



22. Which activity is associated with a leadership role? Select all that apply.
  A) Mentoring two new managers
  B) Establishing goals for the coming year
  C) Advocating for employee regarding personal policies
  D) Providing a motivational speech at the new employee orientation
  Ans: A, B, C, D
  Leadership roles include mentoring, decision making, advocating, andenergizing. Risk taking is also considered a leadership role.



23. The failure to engage in which activity is considered a fatal flaw of leadership? Select all that apply.
  A) Collaboration
  B) Communication
  C) Self-improvement
  D) Staff development
  Ans: A, B, C, D
  Leadership is flawed and likely ineffective when the leader does not collaborate and communicate effectively with others in the organization. The improvement and development of both others and oneself is vital to the effectiveness of a leader. Clear forward thinking is associated with good leadership.



24. Which statement by a subordinate demonstrates the greatest problem for the leader?
  A) Your plans for the changes will be difficult to implement.
  B) I dont think you heard what the rest of us had to say.
  C) Do you have an idea what direction we need to go?
  D) Can you tell me why my suggestion will not work?
  Ans: A
  The statement is a clear indication that the subordinate feels the leader is not listening and collaborating; this is a fatal flaw. The other statements are more open to explanation by and with the subordinate and leader.



25. Which function of the management process involves the performance evaluation of staff?
  A) Planning
  B) Organizing
  C) Staffing
  D) Controlling
  Ans: D
  Controlling is the function that includes performance appraisals, fiscal accountability, quality control, legal and ethical control, and professional and collegial control.


chapter 12

1. Which information is too much in flux to identify on an organizational chart?
  A) Grapevine lines of communication
  B) Line and staff authority
  C) Span of control
  D) Scalar chains
  Ans: A
  The grapevine lines of communication cannot be placed on an organizational chart because they are constantly in flux. The remaining information is stable and so identified on the chart.



2. Max Weber, as part of the scientific management era, contributed immensely to the development of organizational theory. Which statement is not representative of his beliefs?
  A) Bureaucracy could provide a rational basis for administrative decisions
  B) Worker satisfaction was integral to productivity
  C) Organization charts could depict the hierarchy of authority
  D) Impersonality of interpersonal relationships should exist in organizations
  Ans: B
  Max Webers theories did not address worker satisfaction. The other options do represent the Weber organizational theory.



3. Which statement concerning organizational culture is true?
  A) It presents how employees perceive an organization
  B) It defines how power is used by organizations to direct the work of others
  C) It describes the predictable stages of group and organizational development
  D) It is a system of symbols, beliefs, values, history, and communication patterns
  Ans: D
  Organizational culture is the symbols and beliefs, values, history, and communication patterns of the organization. It differs from organizational climate, which is how the employees perceive the organization. The other options are not relevant to the term organizational culture.



4. Which statement is true regarding depiction of staff positions on an organizational chart?
  A) They are depicted as unbroken lines
  B) They are represented by double dotted lines
  C) They are shown as a solid, vertical line
  D) They are identified with a dotted line.
  Ans: D
  Dotted or broken lines on the organization chart represent staff positions. Formal relationships, lines of communication, and authority are depicted on a chart by unbroken (solid) lines. Double dotted lines are not generally used on an organizational chart.



5. What does the term unity of command mean?
  A) The number of individuals directly reporting to a manager
  B) Having a limited number of top-level managers
  C) Each employee having only one boss
  D) A flexible structure that encourages participative decision making
  Ans: C
  Unity of command means one immediate boss per employee. None of the other options correctly describes the term unity of command.



6. Which position is characteristic of a middle-level manager?
  A) Primary care nurse
  B) Team leader
  C) Charge nurse
  D) Nursing supervisor
  Ans: D
  Nursing supervisors are middle-level managers. All the others are first-level managers.



7. How does decentralized organizational structure promote decision making?
  A) Allows problems to be solved at the level at which they occur
  B) Encourages decisions to be made by top-level hierarchy
  C) Limits communication to managers at various levels
  D) Assigns responsibility at the highest practical level
  Ans: A
  Decentralized organizational structure allows decision making to be made at the level at which problems occur. None of the other options describes how decentralized organizational structure promotes decision making.



8. Which statement about organizational centrality is true?
  A) It refers to the decision-making structure in an organization
  B) It occurs when there is consonance of subunit cultures in the organization
  C) It is a position on the organizational chart where types of communication occur
  D) It occurs primarily in line relationships
  Ans: C
  Centrality is a position on an organizational chart where it is possible to have many different types of communication (upward, downward, lateral, and diagonal). The other statements do not describe organizational centrality accurately.



9. Which is a symptom of poor organizational structure?
  A) Communication follows the chain of command
  B) The smallest possible number of managers exists to keep units functioning
  C) The chain of command is fairly short
  D) There is a heavy reliance on committees to solve unit problems
  Ans: D
  A heavy reliance on committees to solve problems is an indication of a poorly structured organization and often results in delays in critical decision making. The other options describe examples of good organizational structure.



10. Which term is used to identify having official power to act?
  A) Responsibility
  B) Authority
  C) Accountability
  D) Leadership
  Ans: B
  Authority means having the official power to act. None of the other terms is used to identify having official power to act.



11. What does the term optimum span of control mean?
  A) It defines the managers decision-making authority
  B) It identifies the managers abilities and responsibilities
  C) It refers to a line-and-staff organizational structure model
  D) It is the number of subordinates and manager is responsible for
  Ans: B
  The number of people directly reporting to any one manager represents that managers span of control and determines the number of interactions expected of him or her. None of the remaining options correctly describes this term.



12. Which characteristics are associated with a constructive culture?

1. Affiliative norms

2. Self-actualization

3. Encouragement of humanism

4. Perfectionist norms

  A) 1, 2, 3
  B) 1, 2, 4
  C) 1, 3, 4
  D) 2, 3, 4
  Ans: A
  Affiliation, self-actualization, and encouragement are all characteristics of a constructive culture, whereas perfectionist norms are a characteristic of destructive organizational cultures.



13. What is needed to change a unit culture that has become firmly entrenched?
  A) New leadership
  B) A change agent with management skills
  C) Identification with a unit that is not entrenched
  D) Administration support
  Ans: A
  It is extremely difficult to change a unit culture without new leadership. The remaining options are directly involved in the change out of entrenchment.



14. Which would suggest that flattening of the organization is occurring?
  A) There is a collective spirit
  B) There is reduction in the administration levels
  C) There are shared work goals across units
  D) There are formal and informal systems are in place to address conflicts
  Ans: B
  Reducing the numbers of administration levels is called flattening the organization. The remaining options are not related to organizational flattening.



15. What occurs during implementation of a shared governance model?
  A) Lines of authority are altered
  B) Joint practice committees are formed
  C) Participatory management is initiated
  D) The roles of first-level managers are stabilized
  Ans: B
  In shared governance, the organizations governance is shared among board members, nurses, physicians, and management. Joint practice committees are developed to assume the power and accountability for decision making, and professional communication is egalitarian rather than hierarchical. Shared governance is not associated with the other options.



16. What is the primary responsibility of the committee chairperson during a committee meeting?
  A) Keeping members on task
  B) Asking questions
  C) Resolving conflicts
  D) Providing information on each agenda item
  Ans: A
  Although all the items may be something the chairperson does, the primary responsibility is to keep members on task so committee work gets completed.



17. What is the leadership role when a unit is attempting to overcome the decentralization of patient care?
  A) Determining what changes will be made to the plan of care
  B) Facilitating the groups work
  C) Identifying the patient care problems
  D) Selecting solutions to problems
  Ans: B
  In a patient-centered focused activity, the team leader should facilitate the work of the group and should not be the sole decision maker.



18. What should the leader remember when forming committees?
  A) Committees work best when there is an adequate supply of workers, with 10 members being the minimum
  B) Willingness to work hard is the most important criterion for appointment
  C) Written agendas provide excessive structure and stifle committee creativity
  D) There should be sufficient expertise among committee members to accomplish the assigned task
  Ans: D
  The most important criterion for committee selection is overall adequate expertise to accomplish the agenda. The remaining options are not as relevant as the correct option.



19. During a strategic planning committee meeting to develop futuristic technology goals, several unit managers spend a considerable amount of time discussing current staffing problems. What is the primary action of the chairperson of this committee?
  A) Take the remainder of the meeting time to discuss staffing with all members
  B) Adjourn the meeting and reschedule at a time when there are no staffing problems
  C) Request that committee members return to discussing items on the agenda
  D) Excuse those discussing staffing from the remainder of the meeting
  Ans: C
  Committee time is wasted when agendas are not adhered to. The remaining options do not address the issue of wasted time effectively.



20. Which characteristics are associated with Magnet hospital status?

1. Centralized environment

2. Open, participatory management

3. Improved patient outcomes

4. Higher staff nurse satisfaction

  A) 1, 2, 3
  B) 1, 2, 4
  C) 1, 3, 4
  D) 2, 3, 4
  Ans: D
  Magnet designation is conferred by the ANCC to health-care organizations exemplifying well-qualified nurse executives in a decentralized environment, with organizational structures that emphasize open, participatory management. Magnet-designated organizations demonstrate improved patient outcomes and higher staff nurse satisfaction than organizations that do not have Magnet status.



21. Which component is considered a part of an organizational structure? Select all that apply.
  A) Group formation
  B) Lines of communication
  C) Decision-making process
  D) Channels of legitimate authority
  Ans: A, B, C, D
  Organizational structure refers to the way in which a group is formed, its lines of communication, and its means for channeling authority and making decisions.



22. What is an institutional grapevine?
  A) Organizational gossip
  B) An informal channel of communications
  C) An institutions informal authority chain
  D) The connecting format used on an organizational chart
  Ans: B
  The informal structure also has its own communication channels, often referred to as the grapevine. None of the remaining options accurately describes an organizational grapevine.



23. Research supports that organizational restructure affects nursing in what manner?
  A) It decreases nursing autonomy
  B) It decreases nursings formal authority
  C) It increases the effectiveness of patient care
  D) It increases patient autonomy
  Ans: C
  Current research suggests that changing an organizations structure in a manner that increases autonomy and work empowerment for nurses will lead to effective patient care. The remaining options failed to describe the research supported effect of organizational restructure on nursing.



24. When considering the interprofessional approach to healthcare, to whom does the nurse owe accountability?
  A) The physician
  B) Their patients
  C) Their unit manager
  D) Their director of nursing
  Ans: A, B, C, D
  Nurses frequently feel as though they have many individuals to account to because health care often involves an interprofessional approach. Additional individuals the nurse may need to be accountable to may include the immediate supervisor, the patient, the patients family, central administration, and the physician. The nurse has no accountability to other nurses in this situation.



25. Which statement is true concerning a bureaucratic organization?
  A) It is commonly referred to as a line organization
  B) It is typically found in large health-care organizations
  C) They resemble Webers original design of organization
  D) Its authority is represented by its staff organizational chart
  Ans: A, B, C, D
  Bureaucratic organizational designs are commonly called line structures or line organizations. Those with staff authority may be referred to as staff organizations. Both of these types of organizational structures are found frequently in large health-care facilities and usually resemble Webers original design for effective organizations. Because of most peoples familiarity with these structures, there is little stress associated with orienting people to these organizations.


chapter 24

1. What should the manager do in completing an annual performance appraisal?
  A) Consider good intentions as well as actual performance
  B) Base the appraisal on a standard to which all are held accountable
  C) Always make an effort to include subjective data
  D) Closely observe the employee for the 2 weeks preceding the appraisal conference
  Ans: B
  For an objective appraisal, the manager must have a fair performance appraisal tool that is used for all employees in the same classification.



2. What increases the likelihood that the performance appraisal will have a positive outcome?
  A) The manager refrains from making any comments about the workers performance
  B) The employee is encouraged to identify three areas of satisfactory performance
  C) The employee provides input into developing the performance standards
  D) The manager identifies not more than three areas of deficient performance
  Ans: C
  If the employee has some input into developing the standards or goals on which his or her performance is judged, there is more of a chance that the appraisal will have a positive outcome. The remaining options fail to contribute to an effective performance appraisal.



3. Although some subjectivity is inescapable in performance appraisals, what action can the manager take to arrive at a more fair and accurate assessment?
  A) Written anecdotal notes regarding the employees performance should be maintained throughout the evaluation period
  B) Evaluation criteria that reflect on the employee as a person rather than just on work performance should be used
  C) Data gathered by the manager in preparation for the performance appraisal should be limited to not more than two sources, so no conflicting information is received
  D) The manager should rate all employees using central tendency whenever possible
  Ans: A
  Because a manager will tend to remember an employees performance better in the weeks or months directly preceding the appraisal, a manager should take notes on an employees performance throughout the year. The other options are less affective in proving a balanced appraisal.



4. Which statement accurately reflects self-appraisals?
  A) Self-appraisals are more objective than the other types of appraisals

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