Learning And Memory 4th Edition By Scott Terry Test Bank

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Learning And Memory 4th Edition By Scott Terry Test Bank

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COMPLETE TEST BANK WITH ANSWERS

 

Learning And Memory 4th Edition By Scott Terry Test Bank

 

Sample  Question    

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

1.1         Which of the following movements is not considered to have fostered an early interest in the investigation of learning processes? (a) evolutionary theory (b) rationalism (c) empiricism (d) existentialism

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 3-4

 

 

1.2         In response to a students question concerning the origin of knowledge, a professor responds that our genetic endowment has very little to do with the knowledge we attain; experience is the sole way of learning. Which of the following individuals would most likely disagree with the professors response? (a) Aristotle (b) Descartes (c) Locke (d) all of the above

 

ANSWER: B                  QUESTION TYPE: A               PAGE(S): 3-4

 

1.3         After eating a recent meal of steak and potatoes, Jill became nauseous and dizzy. As a result of this occurrence, Jill refuses to eat this combination of food, as she believes she will become sick, once again, if she consumes these things. Jills attitude toward steak and potatoes is most similar to the associative principle of: (a) contiguity (b) frequency (c) similarity (d) contrast

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: A               PAGE(S): 3

 

1.4         Joe needs to take a course in American History in order to graduate from college, and the course is taught by Professor Smith. Joe has a problem, however, because in the past 4 courses he has had with Professor Smith, he has always done poorly on exams and papers. As a result of these experiences, Joe now has an intense amount of anxiety related to anything connected with Professor Smith. Joes anxiety can be most directly connected to the associative principle of: (a) contiguity (b) frequency (c) similarity (d) contrast

 

ANSWER: B                  QUESTION TYPE: A               PAGE(S): 3

 

1.5         Lockes Mental Chemistry could best be defined as: (a) combining innate and experience-based knowledge to produce a new idea (b) combining the associative principles of contiguity, similarity, frequency, and contrast to produce a new idea (c) reflecting on previously acquired ideas to attain new knowledge (d) reflecting on the nature of old innate ideas to yield new innate ideas

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 3-4

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.

 

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1.6         A central theme of Darwins The Origin of Species is: (a) individual members of species are identical, with little room for variation in behavior (b) genetic inheritance plays little or no role in adapting to environmental conditions (c) learning is influenced by the degree to which ideas are different from one another (d) individuals change over time in order to adapt to environmental demands

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: F                  PAGE(S): 3-4

 

1.7         A common theme connecting Darwins ideas on evolution to learning processes is that:

 

  • learning occurs via adaptation over the course of ones lifetime (b) there is a continuity of mental activity across different species (c) since different species are related via their evolutionary pasts, research on one species could be generalized to another species (d) all of the above

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 3-4

 

1.8         Modern approaches to learning theory, in regard to whether nativism, empiricism, or evolution provides the best explanation for behavior, suggest that plausible explanations about for learning are provided by: (a) nativism and empiricism, but not evolution (b) nativism and evolution, but not empiricism (c) empiricism and evolution, but not nativism (d) nativism, empiricism, and evolution

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 3-5

 

1.9         Learning can best be defined as: (a) a relatively permanent change in behavior, or behavioral repertoire, that occurs as a result of experience (b) a temporary change in behavior, or behavioral repertoire, that occurs as a result of experience (c) a relatively permanent change in behavior, or behavioral repertoire, that occurs as a result of genetic inheritance (d) a temporary change in behavior, or behavioral repertoire, that occurs as a result of ones physiological state

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: F                PAGE(S): 5

 

1.10     The theory that evolution has produced several distinct memory systems best illustrates:

 

  • Descartess nativism (b) the nature-nurture interaction (c) the exclusive effect of the environment on behavior (d) socially learned aggression

 

ANSWER: B                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 5

 

1.11      The central question for the field of Learning is: (a) How do genetics influence behavior?

 

  • What role does the environment play in the development of mental processes? (c) How do we come to have knowledge? (d) Why do learning disabilities develop?

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: F                  PAGE(S): 5-6

 

 

 

 

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1.12     Which of the following could be considered valid ways to measure learning? (a) the rate at which an animal presses a bar in an experimental chamber (b) the degree to which ones respiration rate changes from one situation to another (c) the ability of an individual to recall material while completing an exam (d) all of the above

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: A                 PAGE(S): 5-11

 

1.13     Which of the following is not demonstrative of learning? (a) possessing factual knowledge (b) the acquisition of a new skill (c) experiencing a surge in ones attentional ability following the consumption of a stimulant medication (d) feeling more competent after training, compared to before training

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: A                 PAGE(S): 5-11

 

1.14     Ones potential for learning could be demonstrated if: (a) acquired knowledge is used after it is initially obtained (b) acquired knowledge is used as it is obtained (c) acquired knowledge is used before it is obtained (d) none of the above

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 5-11

 

1.15     Which of the following changes in behavior are typically excluded from a formal definition of learning? (a) changes that are transient (b) permanent changes in behavior

 

(c) changes in ones behavioral repertoire (d) none of the above

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: F                PAGE(S): 6-10

 

1.16     Banduras BoBo doll experiment illustrated the distinction between: (a) physiological and affective changes in behavior (b) potential and actual changes in behavior (c) potential and maturational changes in behavior (d) actual and physiological changes in behavior

 

ANSWER: B                  QUESTION TYPE: C                 PAGE(S): 7-8

 

1.17     TRUE OR FALSE: Attributing a change of behavior to either biology or the environment isnt a false dichotomy. (a) True (b) False

 

ANSWER: B                  QUESTION TYPE: F                PAGE(S): 8-9

 

1.18     Changes due to maturation are excluded from the definition of learning because: (a) they may arise from innate forces (b) they may involve neural growth that occurs at its own rate (c) they occur independent from ones experiences (d) all of the above

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: F                  PAGE(S): 9-10

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.

 

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1.19     Which of the following is a maturation-based, as opposed to experience-based, change in behavior? (a) a rats faster pace through a maze after 10 attempts through the maze (b) a decrease in ones anxiety level towards horror films after viewing one horror film per day for an entire year (c) developing aggressive tendencies after viewing models acting in an aggressive manner (d) bone growth

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: A                 PAGE(S): 9-10

 

1.20     Men cant cook. This is all that Jim heard for the week leading up to his first attempt at making Thanksgiving dinner for his family, despite the fact that he had plenty of experience cooking for these same people. When he finally attempted to cook the dinner, he panicked, and burnt the turkey. Such a result is a demonstration of: (a) latent learning (b) a forgetting curve (c) stereotype threat (d) performance dissociation

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: A                               PAGE(S): 10

 

1.21       Learning is said to occur in the mind, or brain, because: (a) behavioral measures always

 

correspond in a direct manner to what one knows and does (b) the mind controls everything (c) behavioral measures do not always correspond in a direct manner to what one knows and does (d) learning can never be observed

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: F                PAGE(S): 10-11

 

1.22     Latent learning occurs when a behavioral change: (a) is observed at the time of initial learning (b) is not observed until some time has passed between initial learning and demonstration of that learning (c) is never observed (d) none of the above

 

ANSWER: B                  QUESTION TYPE: F                PAGE(S): 10-11

 

1.23     In the past, the term learning has been used in reference to: (a) conditioning and reinforcement tasks (b) verbal recall tasks (c) the conscious recollection of past experiences (d) material presented for study on one occasion

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: F                PAGE(S): 11-14

 

1.24     In the past, the term memory has been used in reference to: (a) conditioning and reinforcement tasks (b) skills requiring repeated trials for acquisition (c) the conscious recollection to past experiences (d) none of the above

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: F                PAGE(S): 11-14

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.

 

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1.25     Professor Smith wants his graduate students to determine how young children retrieve information, and determine if such retrieval differs from retrieval methods used by adults. The students should focus on: (a) conditioning and reinforcement tasks (b) skills requiring repeated trials for acquisition (c) the conscious recollection of past experiences

 

(d) the manner in which new information is encoded

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: A                 PAGE(S): 11-14

 

1.26     Schmidt and Bork argue that learning and memory (a) are entirely separate from one another and cannot be studied together (b) measure the same thing (c) cannot be studied because they cannot be observed (d) exist along a continuum where ones degree of memory depends on ones level of learning

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: C                 PAGE(S): 11-14

 

1.27     When one learns very quickly at the start of a training period, but the amount of learning slows sown during later trials, what type of learning curve is produced? (a) an S shaped curve (b) a positively accelerated curve (c) a power curve (d) a negatively accelerated curve

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 12-13

 

1.28     The rats in Dr. Smiths experiment on maze running took a few trials before they started to show any learning ability, although this slow early period was followed by a dramatically quick improvement in performance, followed by a slowing down of learning. This data pattern suggests which of the following types of learning curves? (a) an S shaped curve (b) a positively accelerated curve (c) a power curve (d) a negatively accelerated curve

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: A               PAGE(S): 12-13

 

1.29     If subjects in a learning experiment improved by the same amount over each of 20 trials, which of the following learning curves would best illustrate the nature of subjects learning? (a) an S shaped curve (b) a positively accelerated curve (c) a power curve (d) a negatively accelerated curve

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 12-13

 

1.30     John has just completed a statistics course at the college he attends. Assuming that a classic forgetting curve can predicts the rate at which John will lose the information he acquired during the course, the time period that would likely see the smallest degree of forgetting would be: (a) 1 day after the course has ended (b) 1 week after the course has ended (c) 1 month after the course has ended (d)1 year after the course has ended

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: A                               PAGE(S): 12-13

 

 

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1.31     Which of the following best illustrates Basic Research? (a) a telephone company decreases the number of digits in their phone numbers because research shows that people cannot retain the 7 numbers that are currently used (b) teachers are asked to punish one group of students when they behave poorly, and ignore a second group demonstrating the same behaviors, in order to determine which method is most effective at classroom management (c) a scientist measures the speed at which an individual responds to the question Is kraght a real word? (d) a psychiatrist prescribes an antidepressant medication to one of her patients to determine if the patients depression is biological in nature

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: A                 PAGE(S): 14-17

 

1.32     Which of the following fails to illustrate Applied Research? (a) a telephone company decreases the number of digits in their phone numbers because research shows that people cannot retain the 7 numbers that are currently used (b) teachers are asked to punish one group of students when they behave poorly, and ignore a second group demonstrating the same behaviors, in order to determine which method is most effective at classroom management (c) a scientist measures the speed at which an individual responds to the question Is kraght a real word? (d) a psychiatrist prescribes an antidepressant medication to one of her patients to determine if the patients depression is biological in nature

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: A               PAGE(S): 14-17

 

1.33     Basic Research: (a) always has obvious connections to everyday behavior (b) is conducted without any regard for practical application (c) is directly related to answering specific, practical problems (d) is sometimes conducted without knowing its application

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: F                  PAGE(S): 14-17

 

1.34     Applied Research: (a) has connections to everyday behavior (b) is conducted without any regard for practical application (c) is sometimes conducted without knowing its application (d) none of the above

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: F                  PAGE(S): 14-17

 

1.35     In the 1970s, Ulric Neisser criticized psychology for its: (a) being too ecologically realistic (b) overemphasis of lab-based memory research (c) overemphasis on studying memory in naturalistic settings (d) failure to validate Banaji and Crowders ecological realism

 

ANSWER: B                  QUESTION TYPE: F                PAGE(S): 16

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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1.36     Which of the following is considered a memory myth? (a) amnesia involves extensive forgetting of the past (b) eidetic imagery ability is more likely to be seen in children, as opposed to adults (c) having a strong memory for a particular skill does not guarantee having a strong memory for other skills (d) hypnosis is not a very effective memory enhancer

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 17-18

 

1.37     Which of the following is not considered a memory myth? (a) amnesia involves extensive forgetting of the past (b) eidetic imagery ability is more likely to be seen in children, as opposed to adults (c) developing a strong memory for random number sequences enhances memory ability within other skill areas (d) hypnosis is a very effective memory enhancer

 

ANSWER: B                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 17-18

 

1.38     Why is it argued that forgetting is NOT a weakness of memory? (a) Forgetting allows for the separation of new and outdated information (b) Forgetting promotes survival when useless information is discarded (c) A and B are both correct (d) neither A nor B are correct

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: C                                PAGE(S): 18

 

1.39     Animals are used as subjects in learning experiments because: (a) some procedures can be used with animals, but not humans, for ethical reasons (b) the genetic background of animals cant be controlled, which mimics human subjects (c) the experiences of animal subjects, during experiments, cannot be tightly controlled (d) all of the above

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 18-19

 

1.40     Which of the following statements is false? (a) some procedures can be used with animals, but not humans, for ethical reasons (b) the genetic background of animals can be controlled, which deviates from human subjects (c) the experiences of animal subjects, during experiments, cannot be tightly controlled (d) humans and animals have a similar evolutionary history

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 18-19

 

1.41     Animal research has contributed to the study of human behavior in the sense that animal research has allowed for insights into (a) the simulation of human depression (b) the development of biofeedback techniques (c) the identification of brain-based learning and memory pathways (d) all of the above

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: F                PAGE(S): 18-19

 

 

 

 

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1.42     Mary has learned, through her own experiences, as well as via conversations with other people, that travelling, late at night, through certain portions of her hometown, can be dangerous, as many crimes are committed in those areas. Therefore, to avoid being a victim of such crimes, she avoids those dangerous areas at all times. This approach can be seen as illustrating one of the core ideas of which approach to learning? (a) functional

 

(b) behavioral (c) cognitive (d) neuroscience P. 19

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: A                               PAGE(S): 19-22

 

1.43     Dr. Smith is beginning an experiment that is designed to assess the degree to which grammar-school students understand the relationship between engaging in violent behavior and the consequences of such violence. Dr. Smiths approach seems most congruent with which approach to the study of learning? (a) behavioral (b) cognitive (c) neuropsychological (d) humanistic

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: C                 PAGE(S): 19-23

 

1.44     Dr. Smith wants to conduct an experiment that will study the degree to which a childs internal representation of an event is similar to an adults representation of that same event. Dr. Smiths approach seems most congruent with which approach to the study of learning? (a) behavioral (b) cognitive (c) neuropsychological (d) humanistic

 

ANSWER: B                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 19-23

 

1.45     Dr. Smith is studying which parts of the brain are essential for rats to learn how to run through a maze. A critical element of this research involves lesioning rats brains before and after maze running to see if the lesion has any effect on behavior. Dr. Smiths approach seems most congruent with which approach to the study of learning? (a) behavioral (b) cognitive (c) neuropsychological (d) humanistic

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: A                 PAGE(S): 19-23

 

1.46     Which of the following is not a basic tenet of the behavioral approach to learning? (a) studying the relationship between observable behaviors (b) studying the environmental stimuli that produce behaviors (c) studying how information is encoded and retrieved (d) measuring the degree to which consequences shape behavior

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: F                PAGE(S): 19-23

 

1.47     Dr. Jones argues that a rats motivation to run through a maze is dependent upon the rats expectancy of receiving a reward upon completion of the maze. Which of the following approaches would most likely dispute the inclusion of such an internal, motivational state of an organism? (a) cognitive (b) radical behaviorism (c) none of the above

 

ANSWER: B                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 19-23

 

 

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1.48     Which of the following best illustrates a functional explanation of behavior of the type advocated by radical behaviorists? (a) Punishing a child in one context causes the child to expect punishment in many contexts. (b) An organisms desire to escape an electric shock motivates bar-pressing behavior. (c) Drinking alcohol causes one to lose the ability to think rationally. (d) none of the above

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 19-23

 

1.49     The goal of psychological research should be to predict and control behavior on the basis of knowledge of the antecedents of a behavior, the behavior itself, and the consequences of a behavior. A researcher adhering to which of the following approaches to learning would be most likely to make such a statement? (a) behavioral (b) cognitive

 

(c) neuropsychological (d) humanistic

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: A               PAGE(S): 19-23

 

1.50     The impact of the field of computer science can be seen most directly in which of the following approaches to learning? (a) humanistic (b) cognitive (c) neuropsychological (d) behavioral

 

ANSWER: B                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 19-23

 

1.51     Dr. Smith is studying memory ability via observing the rate at which glucose is metabolized within different brain regions. Such a technique is central to the neuropsychological approach to learning dealing with: (a) lesions (b) RNA levels (c) PET scans (d) brain stimulation

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: A               PAGE(S): 21-22

 

 

1.52      The Mozart Effect claims to: (a) boost overall intelligence throughout a persons lifetime

 

  • cause male brains to become specialized for musical skills (c) temporarily boost language skills (d) temporarily boost spatial skills

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: F                PAGE(S): 22-23

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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Chapter 2:

 

Habituation & Other Forms of

 

Simple Stimulus Learning

 

 

 

ENHANCED OUTLINE

 

 

  • THE ORIENTING RESPONSE

 

  • An orienting response (OR) is elicited when a novel of unexpected stimulus is presented to an organism.

 

  • Several physiological and behavioral reactions make up an OR, including a startle response, a flight response, and increased arousal

 

  • Novelty is not the sole factor responsible for ORs, however, as stimulus intensity and situational cues also play a role.

 

  • In addition, familiar stimuli have also been shown to elicit an OR.

 

  • HABITUATION

 

  • Habituation is the decrease in ORs (and other reactions) to a stimulus that is repeatedly presented.

 

  • Habituation is a unique form of learning in the sense that learning is demonstrated by the exhibition of less responding over time, not more responding.

 

  • Habituation to ORs tends to apply only to neutral stimuli, as distinguished from intense or painful stimuli.

 

  • Habituation is also very common, occurring across the phylogenetic scale, from snails to humans.

 

  • Habituation has been studied using a variety of measurements, including eye fixations, startle reactions, the measurement of blood flow within the brain, and galvanic skin responses.

 

 

 

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  • A newer procedure to measure both OR and habituation is the novelty recognition task.

 

  • Animals are provided with objects to explore. Newer objects tend to garner high amounts of attention (i.e., orienting), and older ones tend to be relatively ignored (i.e., habituation).

 

  • Several parametric features of habituation have also been identified:

 

  • Frequency: Habituation increases as the number of stimuli repetitions increases.

 

  • Spontaneous Recovery: A habituation response can re-occur after a period of time where the habituated-to stimulus was not presented to a subject.

 

  • Repeated Habituations: Habituation occurs faster with successive habituation sessions.

 

  • Spacing: Closely spaced stimulus repetitions produce greater amounts of habituation than widely-spaced repetitions.

 

  • Dishabituation: Habituation occurring to one stimulus can be blocked by the successive presentation of a novel stimulus.

 

  • Generalization: Habituation to one stimulus can be transferred to other, similar, stimuli.

 

  • EXPLANATIONS OF HABITUATION

 

  • In explaining habituation, some argue that habituation isnt learning at all.

 

  • One such non-learning explanation of habituation is that habituation occurs as a result of sensory adaptation, as sense receptors become less sensitive as a function of repeated stimuli presentations.

 

  • Another non-learning explanation is that effector fatigue occurs in experimental situations, where ones response system becomes depleted, causing a reduction in responding.

 

  • Sensory adaptation and effector fatigue are more likely to explain habituation when many (greater than 20) and highly intense stimuli are utilized.

 

  • Explanations of habituation that do support learning processes deal with physiological and cognitive approaches, which typically compare habituation effects to sensitization, which occurs when a response increases over time.

 

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  • Of the neuroscience explanations, Dual-Process theory is one alternative.

 

  • Dual-Process theory argues that Type H neurons are responsible for regulating habituations, while Type S neurons mediate sensitization.

 

  • The critical factor determining whether habituation or sensitization occurs in response to stimuli has to do with the degree of balance between H and S neurons.

 

  • Kandels research with Aplysia also illustrates the physiological nature of habituation.

 

  • An Aplysias siphon serves as a tool by which the snail takes in sea water.

 

  • Tactile stimulation of the siphon causes it to withdraw into the Aplysias body.

 

  • However, continued tactile stimulation causes the withdrawal reflex to habituate.

 

  • By studying this event at the level of the synapse, Kandel has shown that habituation is the result of a decrease in sensitivity of the motor neuron in response to stimulation from the sensory neuron.

 

  • Several cognitive explanations of habituation also exist.

 

  • One possibility is that repeated presentations of a stimulus lead to the formation of a memory representation of the stimulus, and habituation is the acquisition of that memory.

 

  • The work of Sokolov, Wagner, and Olson elaborate on a Memory-Comparator theory of habituation.

 

  • At the core of the Memory-Comparator theory is the idea that a sensory input is compared to ones existing memory, and if a match is found, habituation occurs; no match results in sensitization, or an orienting response (OR).

 

  • This model also describes why massed presentations of stimuli tend to produce more habituation compared to spaced presentations.

 

 

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  • Expectancy theory argues that ones internal representation of a stimulus serves as a predictor for what will happen in the future.

 

  • When an expectation is met, habituation results.

 

  • When an expectation is not met, the missing stimulus effect occurs, where one makes an OR to the presented stimulus.

 

  1. PERCEPTUAL LEARNING

 

  • Perceptual Learning suggests that we can learn more about a stimulus when it is easily perceived, and increased experience with stimuli allows such enhanced perceptions to occur.

 

  • Gibson & Walk (1956) found that rats provided with preexposure to a triangle and circle would later use their acquired knowledge to make correct discriminations during a maze learning task.

 

  • Perceptual learning is also enhanced when one uses their preexposure periods to attend to discriminatory details between stimuli.

 

  • For example, language learning relies heavily on understanding minute differences between similar phonemes.

 

  • Several factors are suggested to play a role in perceptual learning.

 

  • Presentation of positive and negative instances of stimulus categories leads to effective understanding of items.

 

  • The perception of difficult discriminations can be facilitated by initial training on easier tasks.

 

  • While generating a general understanding of stimuli does not necessarily require intent, understanding how to discriminate between similar stimuli demands cognitive effort.

 

  • OTHER EFFECTS OF STIMULUS EXPOSURE

 

  • Habituation, although a common effect, is not the only outcome of stimulus exposure.

 

  • The mere exposure effect also arises from stimulus exposure, and involves the demonstration of an increased level of positive affect directed towards a stimulus as a result of prior exposure to that stimulus.

 

 

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  • This concept can be applied outside the lab. Littman and Manning (1954) found that cigarette smokers showed a preference for their typical cigarettes even when not being consciously aware of their presence.

 

  • In addition, once habituation has occurred to a stimulus, it can be difficult, at times, to have the mere exposure effect evolve around that stimulus.

 

  • Initial exposure to unfamiliar stimuli can also lead to neophobia, which typically involves fear of the new foods, tastes, or odors.

 

  • When the mere exposure effect is factored in however, neophobia tends to decline with experience.

 

  • The reduction of neophobia, it is suggested, is not always due to a habituation-style process.

 

  • The learned safety hypothesis suggests that subjects actively process environmental information to understand which foods can be eaten and which ignored

 

  • Conscious processing of stimuli has also been shown to not be entirely critical to obtaining the mere exposure effect, and Kunst-Wilson and Zajoncs work shows that mere exposure can be generated under subliminal conditions.

 

  • Priming has also been shown to facilitate information processing, although it involves a single presentation of a stimulus, not the increased number of presentations involved to produce the mere exposure effect.

 

  • Priming involves activating the necessary perceptual and identification processes, involved in information processing, before they are actually needed.

 

  • Certain types of stimulus exposure can also lead to potentiated startle, which occurs when a startle response is magnified because a startling stimulus is combined with an existing arousal state.

 

  • Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is one scenario that has been associated with potentiated startle, as a result of the anxiety experienced by individuals with this condition.

 

  • APPLICATIONS

 

  • Habituation can be observed in many real-world settings.

 

  • Stimulus exposures have been used in the treatment of anxiety and phobias.

 

 

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  • Emotional flooding has been used in this regard, with some success; therapists use controlled exposure to feared stimuli, to reduce the fear provoked by the situation.

 

  • Virtual Reality exposure therapy has also been utilized within this context; computer-generated images are projected to patients in an attempt to reduce anxiety.

 

  • Some scientists, however, advocate maximal arousal and actual contact with the feared stimulus in order to treat ones phobia.

 

  • In terms of effectiveness, these therapies have yielded mixed results. Some patients are helped by these procedures, but total remission is rare.

 

 

 

DISCUSSION STARTERS

 

  • When introducing the habituation process, ask students if they can recall stimuli that they have grown so accustomed to that they no longer respond to the stimuli as being novel. Some examples (both of which I have personally experienced!) might include parents habituation to the smell of dirty baby diapers, or not noticing the smell of a garbage dump near ones home. Are such habituations good or bad?

 

  • Chapter 2 discusses the utilization of GSR machines to study habituation. You may want to mention that these same devices are used in lie-detection procedures, where their accuracy is in the 85% range. The legal system does not allow lie-detection evidence to be admitted into trials as a result of this 15% error rateshould researchers accept evidence from these machines as well, especially in light of the more stringent 5% error rate that scientific statistical tests use as a benchmark?

 

  • One way that the mere exposure effect can be seen in real-world settings is within the music industry. Frequently, when new songs are initially introduced on the radio, people have negative reactions to them, stemming from their novelty. However, as the songs are repeatedly played (and sometimes overplayedThe Macarena comes to mind!) people come to like the songs. Can students recall specific songs that they initially hated but eventually came to like? What about songs that one never comes to like, yet one still has a perfect memory for the words? Why might the mere exposure effect work on some songs but not others?

 

  • Terry discusses how warning signals in our environment may be habituated to, causing the warning effect to be diminished; cigarette warnings are used as an example. If there are smokers in class, is this interpretation valid? Do smokers take the warnings seriously? Can the warnings be changed in any way to make them more effective?

 

  • Effector fatigue is cited as a non-learning explanation of habituation. This view can be applied to students ability to attend to lectures. For how long can students pay close

 

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.

 

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attention to lectures? Does the topic of the lecture contribute to effector fatigue? When the breaking point is reached an effector fatigue occurs, what do students do to maintain attention? Would students prefer shorter, but more frequent classes to combat effector fatigue?

 

  • The chapter discusses the role of feedback playing a role in perceptual learning. When students apply this concept to their own life, do they find feedback useful or harmful? For example, if a coach provides harsh criticism during an athletic event, how would the student react? What about a teacher providing feedback, for example, on a paper? Do students internalize this advice and use it constructively, or do they have difficulty getting past the fact that someone has criticized their ability?

 

  • The text describes research into food preferences and aversions. While students are likely to have both, the aversions tend to make more interesting discussions! What types of food aversions to students have? How did they develop? Do they feel that they will ever be able to overcome these negative emotions?

 

 

 

ACTIVE EXPERIMENTATION

 

Chapter 2 discusses how the mere exposure effect can mediate an organisms ability learn in a habituation-based environment. This effect is demonstrated by a subjects illustrating a positive emotional preference for more-encountered information over less-encountered information (Franzoi, 1996), and has been demonstrated in a variety of experimental settings (Bornstein, 1989). One way that this effect can be demonstrated involves studying preferences for different buildings on a college campus, which is what this project centers on.

 

  • The first step of this project is to construct a list of buildings on your college campus. This list should include a mixture of academic, administrative, and residential buildings.

 

  • Once your building list is complete, select 10 people to participate in the experiment. Ideally, five of these subjects should spend the majority of their on-campus time in one of the buildings on your list, while the other five should spend the majority of their time in another one of the buildings.

 

  • As an example, one group might consist of residential students living in a particular dormitory, while another group might be members of a particular academic department.

 

  • Present the building list to each subject, and have them rate their preference for each building according to a six-point scale, where 6 = I really like this building and 1 = I really dont like this building.

 

  • Calculate the mean liking scores for each building, for each group, and compare the scores to one another. Were the groups similar or different in any way(s)? In the above

 

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.

 

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example, the students should have the highest rating for their dormitory, while the faculty should have the highest rating for their building. Did the mere exposure effect occur within your groups? Why or why not? Answer these and any other questions in exploring the role of stimulus exposure in learning processes.

 

References

 

Bornstein, R. F. (1989). Exposure and affect: Overview and meta-analysis of research, 1968-1987. Psychological Bulletin, 106, 265-289.

 

Franzoi, S. L. (1996). Social psychology. Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark Publishers.

 

 

 

RELEVANT INTERNET SITES

 

  • http://www.grandin.com/behaviour/tips/antelope.cond.html

 

This site offers a practical application of habituation, demonstrating how habituation is used with antelope to get them accustomed to veterinary procedures.

 

  • http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/phobias.html

 

This site, provided by the U.S. National Library and the National Institutes of Health, provides links to a variety of sites dealing with different aspects of phobias.

 

  • http://phobialist.com/index.html

 

This website contains an alphabetical listing of phobias (and their corresponding definitions.

 

  • http://www.subliminalworld.com/

 

Applying subliminal processing in real-world contexts, this site offers students ideas about how subliminal effects are marketed to the general public.

 

  • http://brembs.net/learning/aplysia/

 

This site contains information (including video clips) on conditioning research on Aplysia, an organism central to our understanding of the biology of learning and memory.

 

  • http://www.comeunity.com/premature/child/growth/feeding-hints.html

 

This web site offers practical advice for dealing with food aversions in children.

 

  • http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=4806921

 

This site contains an article detailing the use of Virtual Reality Therapy for Combat Stress, including video of the procedure.

 

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.

 

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MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

 

2.1 A decrease in responding to a stimulus is referred to as: (a) sensitization (b) priming (c)
  habituation (d) none of the above  
  ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 26-28
2.2 An increase in responding to a stimulus is referred to as: (a) sensitization (b) priming (c)
  habituation (d) none of the above  
  ANSWER: A QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 26-28
2.3 Which of the following is best illustrating of priming? (a) failing to notice a sign on a
  commonly-travelled highway (b) paying more attention in class when a teacher
  announces that this material will be on your exam. (c) being able to drive a car and eat
  a sandwich at the same time (d) buying a specific box of cereal as a result of seeing a
  commercial for the product several days earlier  
  ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: A PAGE(S): 26-28
2.4 An orienting response can be said to be similar to: (a) sensitization and habituation (b)
  priming and sensitization (c) habituation and priming (d) habituation alone
  ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 26-28
2.5 Orienting responses: (a) depend upon stimulus intensity (b) can occur to familiar stimuli
  (c) can occur to novel stimuli (d) all of the above  
  ANSWER: D QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 27
2.6 Habituation can be taken as evidence of learning when: (a) a subject responds more to a
  stimulus as trials increase (b) a subject responds less to a stimulus as trials increase (c) a
  subject fails to respond at all during an entire training episode (d) none of the above
  ANSWER: B QUESTION TYPE: C PAGE(S): 27-28

 

2.7         Habituation can be measured by: (a) observing whole-body startle reactions to loud tones

 

  • measuring the amount of blood flowing into ones brain (c) measuring changes in the electrical conductivity of the skin (d) all of the above

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: F                PAGE(S): 28-29

 

 

 

 

Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Allyn & Bacon.

 

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2.8 The novelty recognition task is particularly useful for testing the degree of   that
  develops in an organism during the course of exposure to a stimulus. (a) imaginal  
  flooding (b) perceptual learning (c) orienting (d) learned safety    
  ANSWER: C QUESTION TYPE: F PAGE(S): 29-31    

 

2.9         Dr. Williams is attempting to study habituation by varying the number of repetitions required to obtain habituation to a visual stimulus. This procedure is most directly studying which parametric feature of habituation? (a) spontaneous recovery (b) generalization (c) frequency (d) spacing

 

ANSWER: C                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 31-33

 

2.10      James has been studying habituation in lab rats for the past six months. As part of his design, each week of habituation training is followed by a week where no training occurs. Over time, James has been finding that his rats habituate to the experimental stimuli faster than the previous week of habituation training. This result is evidence of which parametric feature of habituation? (a) savings (b) dishabituation (c) frequency (d) spacing

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: A               PAGE(S): 31-33

 

2.11     Which of the following is most likely to result in suppressed responding during a habituation experiment? (a) spaced presentations (b) massed presentations (c) savings (d) generalization

 

ANSWER: B                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 31-33

 

2.12     Which of the following is most likely to result in durable habituation? (a) spaced presentations (b) massed presentations (c) savings (d) dishabituation

 

ANSWER: A                  QUESTION TYPE: C                PAGE(S): 31-33

 

2.13     After habituating his animals to a visual stimulus, Dr. Stillman presents a novel tone to his subjects. Following the presentation of the tone, the animals are again shown the initial visual stimulus, but they no longer habituate to this event. What has occurred? (a) generalization (b) sensory adaptation (c) savings (d) dishabituation

 

ANSWER: D                  QUESTION TYPE: A               PAGE(S): 31-33

 

2.14     After habituating his animals to a dark-blue circle, Dr. Stillman presents a light-blue circle to his subjects and finds that they continue to habituate to this novel item. What has occurred? (a) generalization (b) sensory adaptation (c) savings (d) dishabituation

 

ANSWER: A                &n

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