Legal And Ethical Issues For Healthcare Professions 3rd Edition by Elsevier -Test Bank

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Legal And Ethical Issues For Healthcare Professions 3rd Edition by Elsevier -Test Bank

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Legal And Ethical Issues For Healthcare Professions 3rd Edition by Elsevier -Test Bank

 

Chapter 02: The Basics of Ethics

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. The definition of ethics is:
a. the values that influence human behavior.
b. tying our actions to what is right or wrong.
c. ones moral principles.
d. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:  D

When discussing the definition of ethics, it can mean several things. As a branch of philosophy, ethics studies the values that influence human behavior, tying our actions to a sense of right and wrong. A second aspect is an individuals ethics; this refers to one persons moral principles, the values that govern a single persons decisions with a goal of maintaining ones integrity or conscience.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   p. 18

 

  1. Values are:
a. thoughts a person has.
b. principles one chooses to live by.
c. knowing right from wrong.
d. ones integrity.

 

 

ANS:  B

Values are the principles that an individual chooses to live by. Although these may be personal values, they are also the qualities that drive most ethical behavioral models for groups.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   p. 19

 

  1. The principle of doing no harm is called:
a. integrity.
b. beneficence.
c. nonmaleficence.
d. autonomy.

 

 

ANS:  C

Nonmaleficence is part of a physicians oath to do no harm. In bioethical terms, the principle of nonmaleficence means that healthcare professionals should avoid harming a patient.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   p. 25

 

  1. If there is one heart available for transplant and healthcare professionals must make the decision as to who gets the heart, which bioethical principle is involved?
a. Integrity
b. Beneficence
c. Nonmaleficence
d. Justice

 

 

ANS:  D

The principle of justice means treating everyone fairly, and distributing healthcare justly or fairly is a key issue in many ethical debates.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   pp. 25, 27

 

  1. The reason that most people enter the healthcare field is grounded in the principle of:
a. nonmaleficence.
b. integrity.
c. beneficence.
d. justice.

 

 

ANS:  C

Beneficence is another word for doing good, or being kind, which is a predominant reason that most people enter the healthcare field.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 25

 

  1. Actions that show respect for human dignity, such as being honest and putting the patient first, reflect which of the following principles?
a. Integrity
b. Justice
c. Beneficence
d. Nonmaleficence

 

 

ANS:  A

Integrity is part of the standards of the healthcare profession and the actions that show respect for human dignity.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 18-19

 

  1. Who is the most important person in the healthcare organizations code of ethics?
a. Healthcare professional
b. Patient
c. Physician
d. Hospital administrator

 

 

ANS:  B

Usually a healthcare organizations code of ethics will include statements regarding the treatment and care of the patient as the most important priority, emphasizing handling all with dignity and respect. These in turn dictate such standards as guarding and respecting patient confidentiality.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   p. 19

 

  1. When healthcare professionals attempt to improve the situations surrounding the patient, they are practicing which of the following principles?
a. Autonomy
b. Beneficence
c. Bioethics
d. Nonmaleficence

 

 

ANS:  B

Beneficence means doing good or being kind, and the actions taken on behalf of the patient should always be aimed at helping the patient.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 25

 

  1. Respect for others whose beliefs, practices, religions, or customs may differ from our own is called:
a. integrity.
b. values.
c. utilitarianism.
d. tolerance.

 

 

ANS:  D

Tolerance is respect for others whose beliefs, practices, religions, or customs may differ from our own. Tolerance must be practiced by all healthcare providers in all fields. We do not have to agree with or condone the behaviors, beliefs, or practices of another individual but can never pass judgment by our actions or words against another.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   p. 20

 

  1. Unwavering adherence to an individuals values and principles with dedication to high standards is:
a. integrity.
b. values.
c. utilitarianism.
d. tolerance.

 

 

ANS:  A

Integrity is part of ones individual ethics, which refers to one persons moral principles, the values that govern a single persons decisions with a goal of maintaining ones integrity or conscience.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   pp. 18-19

 

  1. Principles that individuals choose to live by are called:
a. integrity.
b. values.
c. utilitarianism.
d. tolerance.

 

 

ANS:  B

Although these may be personal values, they are also the qualities that drive most ethical behavioral models for groups. Individually, a person may value loyalty or privacy as well as freedom. For a group, the code of ethics would mirror these values and require that all employees or individuals involved in that group adhere to the principles prescribed in that organizations code of ethics.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   p. 19

 

  1. Ethical theory based on the greatest good for the greatest number is called:
a. integrity.
b. values.
c. utilitarianism.
d. tolerance.

 

 

ANS:  C

Also called beneficence, utilitarianism is doing the most good and/or benefiting the largest number, which is one of the four foundational principles emphasized by the American Medical Association.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 25-26

 

  1. This ethical theory is based on the obligation of the individual to perform his or her responsibility no matter the circumstance.
a. Teleology
b. Deontology
c. Rights-based ethics
d. Justice-based ethics

 

 

ANS:  A

The general principle of teleology includes impartial thinking with respect to individuals. All individuals are considered equal and rules are absolute and should be obeyed by everyone. In other words, it is the duty of an individual to adhere to universal rules and regulations, regardless of circumstances.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 25-26

 

  1. This type of ethics theory emphasizes the specific person and does not consider the general population.
a. Teleology
b. Deontology
c. Rights-based ethics
d. Justice-based ethics

 

 

ANS:  C

This theory is based on the individuals rights. The emphasis is on the specific person and does not always take the consequences of the general population into consideration, asserting instead that those rights should be upheld no matter what the circumstances. If misused, this could lead to individual gain without regard for damage or harm that can be caused to others.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 25, 27

 

  1. Justice is blind ethics theory is considered:
a. teleology.
b. virtue-based ethics.
c. rights-based ethics.
d. justice-based ethics.

 

 

ANS:  D

This theory is that all individuals should be treated with impartiality and there should be no advantages or disadvantages to individuals. Many believe this theory would prevent unfairness and injustice under social contracts, such as the distribution of organ donations.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 25, 27

 

  1. This ethics theory is based on character traits and qualities of individuals.
a. Teleology
b. Virtue-based ethics
c. Rights-based ethics
d. Justice-based ethics

 

 

ANS:  B

The traits include honesty, integrity, and hard work. Its focus is the individual striving for a better life, and is considered virtue-based ethics.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 25, 28

 

  1. What is the first question one should ask when making ethical business decisions?
a. Is it true?
b. Is it legal?
c. Is it balanced?
d. How does it make me feel?

 

 

ANS:  B

When facing a difficult choice, keep in mind that no ethical decision should be based on emotions. Ethical dilemmas should be faced and handled with logic and facts, weighing the alternatives and the consequences, and keeping an objective mind.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 29

 

  1. In the seven-step decision-making model, what is the first step that should be taken?
a. Determine the exact ethical issue involved.
b. Determine the rules, laws, principles, or values are involved.
c. Determine all the facts of the situation.
d. List all possible courses of action.

 

 

ANS:  C

The first step to be taken should be to determine the what, when, where, who, and why of the situation. The other options should be done after the facts are determined.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 29

 

  1. In the Dr. Bernard Lo clinical model method of decision making, one should first:
a. clarify the ethical issue.
b. determine the pros and cons of each option.
c. determine the exact ethical issue involved.
d. gather information.

 

 

ANS:  D

One should first gather the patients mental status, comorbidities, views of the other healthcare providers for the patient, and other issues that might complicate the patients case when making an ethical decision.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 29-30

 

  1. Medical ethics committees formed in very large medical facilities:
a. make decisions with the physicians input only.
b. make decisions based on logic and the codes and standards of the facility.
c. make decisions based on emotions.
d. make decisions with the patients input only.

 

 

ANS:  B

Ethics committees generally see or speak with the patients themselves but focus solely on the facts involved in the situation. This helps them make ethical determinations on the issues or cases brought before them based on logic, on the codes and standards, as opposed to emotions.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 30

 

  1. What is accreditation?
a. Officially recognizing a person or organization for meeting standards established by an industry
b. Obtaining enough continuing education credits
c. Recognizing the achievements of healthcare providers publicly
d. Recognizing a healthcare provider for their years of service

 

 

ANS:  A

Accreditation uses standards of care established by an industry to officially recognize an individual or organization. Many facilities and organizations maintain voluntary participation with accreditation organizations, who routinely examine the organization or facility to verify (as an objective party) that the standards of care and procedures of the organizations are in compliance.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   p. 30

 

  1. An important program each healthcare facility should have is:
a. an open policy to speak to any physician.
b. educational assistance for continuing education.
c. employee benefits that include healthcare.
d. quality assurance programs.

 

 

ANS:  D

These programs are formed to evaluate and ideally prevent situations that arise and cause ethical dilemmas. They evaluate patient satisfaction, complaints, and outcomes of treatment. These programs focus on prevention and improvement of policies and recommend and monitor actions that noncompliant healthcare facilities can take for improvement.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 30

 

  1. What is the principle that ethics should be based on what is consistent and fair to everybody?
a. Beneficence
b. Nonmaleficence
c. Autonomy
d. Justice

 

 

ANS:  D

The four main principles of ethics are doing the most good for the most people, doing the least harm to the least amount of people, giving people the right to make their own decisions, and ensuring justice, which requires consistency and fairness to all involved.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 25, 27

 

  1. What is medical etiquette when dealing with patients?
a. Sharing their file with others
b. Treating them with respect and tolerance
c. Letting their family know what is happening with the patient
d. Treating them like family members

 

 

ANS:  B

The standards of professionalism expected in the medical field need to include showing patients respect and tolerance no matter the circumstances.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 24

 

  1. What is the difference between ethics and laws?
a. Illegal acts are most likely unethical.
b. Unethical acts are illegal.
c. Ethical acts are legal.
d. Legal acts are ethical.

 

 

ANS:  A

As allied health professionals, it is vital that we understand all legal and ethical ramifications of our actions and behaviors. Most would agree that illegal acts are most likely unethical, but there are many unethical behaviors or actions that are not necessarily illegal.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 23

 

 

Chapter 04: Workplace Issues

Test Bank

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. High levels of ______ are essential in the medical field.
a. dependability
b. integrity
c. honesty
d. professionalism

 

 

ANS:  D

Employers need employees who can conduct themselves professionally and appropriately in all circumstances. Some of these professional qualities include being dependable, hard-working, able to work well with others, and able to work without any distractions from personal problems.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 54-55

 

  1. Define professionalism.
a. All the behaviors of the individual
b. Finding humor in tough situations
c. Acting with sympathy for a patient
d. Bringing personal problems into the workplace

 

 

ANS:  A

Professionalism encompasses all the behaviors of an individual, their language used, and their appearance as well.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   pp. 54-55

 

  1. To ensure the efficient and effective care for all patients, a healthcare provider should always treat the patient:
a. with honesty and integrity.
b. with dignity and respect.
c. with smiles and hugs.
d. with dignity and integrity.

 

 

ANS:  B

All healthcare agencies or facilities should proclaim a patients right declaration or mission statement demanding that patients be treated with dignity and respect. Such respect is essential to ensure the efficient and effective care for all our patients.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 55

 

  1. An employee handbook should outline all of the following, except:
a. policies and procedures.
b. hiring and termination.
c. advancement within the organization.
d. coworker responsibilities.

 

 

ANS:  D

All employee handbooks should outline company policy and procedures, and should include specific steps in the process for both hiring and job termination for the organization. Company policy regarding advancement and hiring from within the organization should also be addressed in the handbook.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 55

 

  1. At-will employment means:
a. the employee must be warned before being fired.
b. the employee may perform duties not listed on the job description.
c. the employer may change the employees position at-will.
d. the employer may fire an employee without warning.

 

 

ANS:  D

An employment-at-will is designed so that either party may discontinue the employment agreement at any time. For at-will employees, there is no need to follow protocols for termination; instead, the agreement itself dictates that this type of employee may be discharged without cause.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   p. 55

 

  1. Why are clear and concise expectations important for an employer to provide to an employee on the grounds for immediate dismissal?
a. So the employee knows what things he or she can do wrong without being fired
b. So a patient cannot sue the healthcare provider for questionable care
c. So the employer may terminate an employee without following the corrective action procedures
d. So the employer may fire anybody at any time

 

 

ANS:  C

Some employers identify offenses that would be grounds for immediate dismissal and these include extreme offenses such as HIPAA violations or embezzlement. Again, the importance of clear and defined expectations and the clear and defined measures that would be taken if these are violated is essential for any employer, but especially in the medical field where patients lives are at stake.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 55-56

 

  1. Why are corrective action steps important to be included in an employers policy and procedure manual?
a. So the employee can make the same mistake several times without being fired
b. So the employer can get rid of someone with whom they have a personality conflict
c. So the employer can counsel the employee about his or her performance and help the employee improve
d. So the employee can be trained correctly

 

 

ANS:  C

Many policies include a three-step model for corrective action with employees. Most have an initial verbal warning followed by a written warning, and then a third offense would mean termination. It is a chance for the employer to counsel the employee, and to help the employee improve their performance.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 55-56

 

  1. What would be illegal to ask in an interview?
a. The candidates age
b. The candidates work history
c. The candidates references
d. Why the candidate left their previous job

 

 

ANS:  A

It is illegal to ask the potential employee about age, religion, race, or color; the existence of children; weight and height; the existence of disabilities; arrest records; and maiden name.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   p. 56

 

  1. Qui tam means:
a. you too.
b. who as well.
c. you cannot.
d. who must.

 

 

ANS:  B

Qui tam, in Latin, means who as well and is the term used for a private citizen who exposes and sues a company or organization that is violating the law and/or breaching the contract with the government. Most healthcare cases that are qui tam cases have been fraud and abuse related, but any violation of government regulations or laws can be considered for qui tam.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   pp. 57-58

 

  1. OSHA regulates:
a. physician licensing.
b. privacy for patients.
c. safety in the workplace.
d. discrimination in hiring.

 

 

ANS:  C

All physical hazard spaces, medical waste, and medical biohazards (such as used sharps) must be handled following specific guidelines initiated by OSHA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. OSHA has been established for all kinds of businesses and safeguards employees from potential risks for illness or injury.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   pp. 59-60

 

  1. Which is true about CLIA?
a. It is a governmental agency.
b. It is a professional organization.
c. It is a group of laws.
d. It is a proposed law.

 

 

ANS:  C

The Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act set forth extensive conditions or standards that laboratories must meet to be certified by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. It is not an actual agency but a group of laws.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   p. 60

 

  1. If a hospital performs clinical testing and does not comply with CLIA, what policies might it be violating?
a. Conditions of Participation for Hospitals for Laboratory Services
b. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Act
c. Occupational Safety and Health Act
d. All of the above

 

 

ANS:  D

Several federal regulations apply to clinical facilities located in a hospital, including all of the examples given.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 59-60

 

  1. The primary purpose of a medical record is to:
a. prevent liability lawsuits.
b. provide a format for healthcare professionals to communicate with one another.
c. serve as a reference for previous care the patient has received.
d. plan for future care.

 

 

ANS:  B

The medical record or chart allows healthcare professionals who see the patient at different times to see what others have done to and for the patient.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 60

 

  1. A patient comes to a medical office and demands that she be given her medical record. Which of these statements is false in this situation?
a. The patient is allowed to take her personal medical record.
b. The patient is not allowed to take her medical record because the physical record belongs to the physician or healthcare facility.
c. The patient is the owner of the information in the record.
d. The patient is not the owner of the physical record.

 

 

ANS:  A

The patient owns the information that is recorded in the chart, but the actual pieces of paper comprising the record belong to the physician or healthcare facility.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 63

 

  1. Sue is a nurse providing care for patients. In which of the following situations is she not using the medical record according to the purposes of documentation?
a. Sue uses the information in the record to write a care plan.
b. Sue checks the record to determine whether the patient refused her last medication.
c. Sue looks at the record to confirm the spelling of a drug, which another patient is also taking, so that she can document it in the second patients chart.
d. Sue documents an instance during which the patient refuses to take her medication.

 

 

ANS:  C

Purposes of information in the medical record include identifying the patients problems and strengths, planning care for the patient, recording care for the patient, and providing legal documentation of pertinent information about the patient.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Application          REF:   pp. 60-61

 

  1. All of the following are components of the medical record except:
a. progress notes.
b. plan of care.
c. flow sheets.
d. all of the above.

 

 

ANS:  D

The components of a medical record include a plan of care, the Kardex, progress notes, flow sheets, graphic records, and other information related to the care of the patient.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   p. 61

 

  1. Using the SOAP format, which are objective data?
a. My stomach hurts.
b. Patient given Milk of Magnesia for stomach discomfort.
c. Patient points to lower area of stomach.
d. Stomach pain present.

 

 

ANS:  C

Objective components include the healthcare providers observations.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 61-62

 

  1. Using the SOAP format, which is an assessment?
a. Patient lifts eyelid to show foreign object.
b. I have something in my eye.
c. Patient states eye has been watering for 3 days.
d. Foreign object is in left eye.

 

 

ANS:  D

The assessment is the healthcare providers conclusion about the problem.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 61-62

 

  1. Which healthcare professional is bound to protect the confidentiality of the medical record?
a. The nurse providing patient care
b. The physician and his or her staff
c. The ancillary personnel in the hospital
d. All healthcare personnel

 

 

ANS:  D

The ethical code that emphasizes privacy of information binds all people involved with patient-specific healthcare information.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 63-64

 

  1. Which is a false statement about errors in a medical record?
a. Draw a single line through the error.
b. Write the corrected entry above it.
c. The word error should be written above the wrong entry.
d. Initial and date the correction.

 

 

ANS:  C

Avoid words that indicate negligence such as error, mistaken entry, miscalculation, intentionally, or by accident.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   pp. 62-63

 

  1. The medical record, used to determine whether healthcare professionals met obligations to patients and followed policies and guidelines, is considered which of the following?
a. Ethical document
b. Medical document
c. Legal document
d. Facility policy

 

 

ANS:  C

The record is a legal document and should include a history of care provided to the patient. It belongs to the healthcare facility or physician and cannot be discarded, altered, or destroyed.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 62

 

  1. Which laws pertains to medical record security?
a. OSHA
b. HIPAA
c. CLIA
d. CPR

 

 

ANS:  B

HIPAA, the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, addresses the security, integrity, confidentiality, and availability of individual health information.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   pp. 63-64

 

  1. As a result of increased use of computers in the healthcare setting, the following was established to decrease the potential for breach of confidentiality:
a. OSHA
b. HIPAA
c. ethics
d. CMS

 

 

ANS:  B

The concern over electronic access to medical records is increasing. In 1996, Congress enacted the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA), which called for regulations to establish criteria for a federal standard in authorizing the release of medical information. In February 2000, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services established the final rules for federal criteria.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Knowledge          REF:   p. 64

 

  1. The length of record retention is determined by:
a. the local government.
b. the state government.
c. the federal government.
d. the American Medical Association.

 

 

ANS:  B

Regulations on storing and maintaining records vary among states regarding how long they must be kept. The majority of records are kept approximately 10 years from the final entry of the record. As a result of todays litigious environment, however, most providers do not destroy any medical records.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 65

 

  1. Why is it wise for a physician to never destroy a record?
a. A lawsuit may occur after the record is destroyed.
b. The physician can reviews records periodically to learn from them.
c. A patient may want it years later.
d. A deceased persons family may need it for genetic information.

 

 

ANS:  A

Physicians may keep records indefinitely because of possible litigation. Any vital statistics on a patient must be kept permanently, such as birth or death records, immunization records, and chemotherapy treatment records.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 66

 

  1. How can a lost medical record be damaging to a physician?
a. It shows a patient that his or her physician is careless.
b. It may look like an attempt to hide the record in a lawsuit.
c. It may cause the patient to think something is wrong.
d. The patient may think the physician is lying about his or her condition.

 

 

ANS:  B

Most cases of litigation would tend to not look at a lost record as an accident but as a deliberate attempt to hide a file from discovery. Each physician should try to store the record electronically.

 

DIF:    Cognitive Level: Comprehension   REF:   p. 66

 

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