Life The Science of Biology 10th Edition by David E. Sadava, David M. Hillis , H. Craig Heller, May Berenbaum Test bank

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Life The Science of Biology 10th Edition by David E. Sadava, David M. Hillis , H. Craig Heller, May Berenbaum Test bank

Description

Test Bank
to accompany
Life: The Science of Biology, Tenth Edition
Sadava Hillis Heller Berenbaum

Chapter 4: Nucleic Acids and the Origin of Life

TEST FILE QUESTIONS
(By Grant Hurlburt)

Multiple Choice

1. Which of the following statements concerning genetic information in most cells is true?
a. The entire DNA molecule is copied to RNA during DNA replication.
b. A single DNA nucleotide codes for a single amino acid.
c. The flow of information in a cell is from DNA to RNA to protein.
d. The flow of information in a cell is from protein to RNA to DNA.
e. The flow of information in a cell is from DNA to protein to RNA.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

2. A nucleotide contains a pentose sugar, a phosphate group, and a(n)
a. lipid.
b. acid.
c. nitrogen-containing base.
d. amino acid.
e. glycerol.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

3. The difference between nucleosides and nucleotides is that
a. only nucleotides have nitrogenous bases.
b. a phosphate group is found in nucleotides but not in nucleosides.
c. nucleotides have the pentose sugar ribose; nucleosides have the pentose sugar deoxyribose.
d. in nucleosides the monomers are joined by phosphodiester bonds; in nucleotides the monomers are joined by hydrogen bonds.
e. nucleosides are the monomers of DNA; nucleotides are the monomers of RNA.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

4. The bases of nucleic acids are purines or pyrimidines. Which of the following statements contrasting purines and pyrimidines is true?
a. Purines include the bases cytosine and thymine, whereas pyrimidines include the bases adenine and guanine.
b. Pyrimidines are found in RNA, whereas purines are found in DNA.
c. Purines are double-ring structures, whereas pyrimidines are single-ring structures.
d. Purines have only single bonds in their structure, whereas pyrimidines have both single and double bonds in their structure.
e. Purines consist of hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen, whereas pyrimidines have phosphorus, hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

5. Ribose and deoxyribose are both found in nucleic acids. The difference between ribose and deoxyribose is that
a. deoxyribose has one less oxygen atom.
b. ribose is a pentose sugar, whereas deoxyribose is a hexose sugar.
c. deoxyribose is found in DNA, whereas ribose is found in RNA.
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

6. What is attached to the 5-carbon of deoxyribose in DNA?
a. Adenine
b. Phosphate
c. Guanine
d. Thymine
e. Uracil
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

7. All of the following bases are found in DNA except
a. thymine.
b. adenine.
c. uracil.
d. guanine.
e. cytosine.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

8. The four nitrogenous bases of RNA are abbreviated as
a. A, G, C, and T.
b. A, G, T, and N.
c. A, G, C, and U.
d. A, G, U, and T.
e. G, C, U, and N.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

9. Nucleotides in RNA are connected to one another in the polynucleotide chain by _______ bonds between _______.
a. hydrogen; a sugar and a phosphate group
b. covalent; two phosphates
c. covalent; two sugars
d. hydrogen; two phosphate groups
e. covalent; a sugar and a phosphate group
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

10. Nucleic acids and proteins are both polymers made of a set of monomers. Complete the following analogy: _______ are to nucleotides as side chains are to amino acids.
a. Ribose/deoxyribose sugars
b. Phosphate ions
c. Nitrogenous bases
d. Nucleosides
e. Hydroxyl groups
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

11. The backbone of a nucleic acid molecule is made of
a. nitrogenous bases.
b. alternating sugar and phosphate groups.
c. purines.
d. pyrimidines.
e. nucleosides.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

12. DNA differs from RNA in that
a. RNA contains uracil instead of thymine.
b. RNA is single-stranded; DNA is double-stranded.
c. RNA leaves the nucleus, DNA does not.
d. RNA contains ribose; DNA contains deoxyribose.
e. All of the above
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

13. Which of the following statements about DNA and RNA is false?
a. DNA has thymine, whereas RNA has uracil.
b. DNA usually has two polynucleotide strands, whereas RNA usually has one strand.
c. DNA has deoxyribose sugar, whereas RNA has ribose sugar.
d. DNA is a polymer, whereas RNA is a monomer.
e. In DNA, A pairs with T, whereas in RNA, A pairs with U.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

14. In DNA, bonding of A with T and bonding of C with G are examples of
a. complementary base pairing.
b. a dehydration reaction.
c. a reduction reaction.
d. a hydrophobic interaction.
e. a purinepurine interaction.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

15. What type of bond connects two complementary nucleotides?
a. Hydrogen
b. Ionic
c. Peptide
d. Phosphodiester
e. Covalent
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

16. Single-stranded RNA can fold back on itself, creating three-dimensional structures such as tRNA. The folds are stabilized by _______ bonds.
a. hydrogen
b. ionic
c. phosphodiester
d. peptide
e. glycosidic
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

17. Which the following factors contributes to the strength of the intermolecular interaction between two DNA strands in a double helix?
a. Hydrogen bonds between purines and pyrimidines
b. Phosphodiester bonds between the nitrogenous bases
c. Strong hydrogen bonds between the sugar and phosphate groups
d. Its double-helix shape
e. The direct bonding of the base to the phosphate molecule
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

18. Cytosine is a pyrimidine that forms three hydrogen bonds. Uracil is also a pyrimidine. Based on this information, which of the following statements about uracil is true?
a. It forms three hydrogen bonds and pairs with guanine because it is a two-bond pyrimidine.
b. It forms three hydrogen bonds and pairs with adenine because it is a three-bond purine.
c. It forms three hydrogen bonds and pairs with guanine because it is a three-bond purine.
d. It forms two hydrogen bonds and pairs with adenine because it is a two-bond purine.
e. It forms two hydrogen bonds and pairs with thymine because it is a two-bond pyrimidine.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

19. What is the nucleotide sequence of the complementary strand of the following DNA molecule: A A T G C G A?
a. T T A C G C T
b. A A T G C G A
c. G G C A T A G
d. C C G T T A T
e. A G C G T A A
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

20. The copying of a DNA sequence to make an RNA sequence is called
a. catalysis.
b. energy transduction.
c. translation.
d. transcription.
e. expression.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

21. According to the principle of complementary base pairing, purines always pair with
a. deoxyribose sugars.
b. uracil.
c. pyrimidines.
d. adenine.
e. guanine.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

22. Which of the following processes depends on complementary base pairing?
a. DNA replication
b. Transcription
c. Translation
d. Both a and b
e. All of the above
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

23. Complementary base pairing occurs due to the
a. covalent bonds between bases.
b. pairing of a purine with a pyrimidine.
c. hydrogen bonding sites.
d. Both a and b
e. Both b and c
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

24. The diversity in DNA molecules is due to
a. physical shape differences.
b. differences in size between A-T and G-C base pairs.
c. base sequence differences.
d. hydrogen bonding differences.
e. the fact that any base can pair with any of the other three bases.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

25. The double-helix structure of DNA results from all of the following except
a. complementary base pairings.
b. purines bonding with pyrimidines.
c. the phosphodiester bonds between deoxyribose and phosphate.
d. hydrogen bonding of the two complementary polynucleotide strands.
e. ionic bonding between base pairs.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

26. Complementary base pairing between strands of nucleic acids is limited to particular pairings because of
a. the relative sizes and shapes of purines and pyrimidines.
b. the alternating sugarphosphate groups.
c. evolutionary relationships.
d. the differences found between RNA and DNA.
e. the diversity found in DNA molecules.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

27. DNA carries genetic information in its
a. helical form.
b. sequence of bases.
c. tertiary sequence.
d. sequence of amino acids.
e. phosphate groups.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

28. Consider the following double-stranded DNA region:
5-TGCCAT-3
3-ACGGTA-5
If the lower strand is transcribed, which of the following strands will result?
a. TGCCAT
b. TCGGTA
c. UGCCAU
d. UGCCUA
e. TCGGUT
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

29. If there is an exposed purine during DNA replication,
a. any purine will be joined to it.
b. a specific purine will join to the exposed purine, depending on which purine is exposed.
c. a specific pyrimidine will join to the exposed purine, depending on which purine it is.
d. any pyrimidine will join to it.
e. a phosphate group will join to the exposed purine.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

30. In the DNA double helix, the bases in one strand are complementary to the bases in the other strand. Therefore,
a. a purine in one strand will attach to any pyrimidine in the other strand.
b. the bases in one strand will be the same as those of the other strand.
c. a pyrimidine in one strand will attach to any pyrimidine in the other strand.
d. a purine in one strand will attach to a different purine in the other strand.
e. a purine in one strand will attach to only one type of pyrimidine in the other strand.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

31. What is the sequence of the complementary strand of RNA made from this template sequence?
5-AGC TTC GCT GAA GCT CGG-3
(Note: The spaces between the nucleotides have been inserted in order to make the sequence easier to read.)
a. 5-UCG AAG CGA CUU CGA GCC-5
b. 3-UCG AAG CGA CUU CGA GCC-5
c. 3-TCG AAG CGA CTT CGA GCC-5
d. 5-GGC TCG AAG TCG CTT CGA-5
e. 5-TCG AAG CGA CTT CGA GCC-3
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

32. If pyrimidines could bind to other pyrimidines, and purines could bind to other purines, what would be the effect on the DNA double helix?
a. The width of the double helix would vary rather than being fixed.
b. The phosphodiester bonds would be unable to form.
c. There would be a reduced requirement for phosphates in nucleotides.
d. The DNA backbone would be made of nucleosides.
e. The sugar would have to be ribose instead of deoxyribose.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

33. Complementary base pairing of nucleotides makes which of the following possible?
a. Formation of a double helix in the RNA molecule
b. The copying of RNA from the DNA molecule
c. DNA replication
d. Both b and c
e. All of the above
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

34. Which of the following statements is true?
a. DNA is completely replicated but only partially transcribed.
b. DNA is partially replicated but completely transcribed.
c. RNA is completely replicated but only partially translated.
d. DNA is completely replicated and completely translated.
e. DNA is partially replicated but completely translated.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

35. Which of the following statements about DNA base sequences is false?
a. Similarities in DNA base sequence among species occur because similar functional traits require similar genes.
b. Similarities in DNA base sequence among species are usually consistent with evolutionary patterns determined from similarities in biochemistry and body structure.
c. The chimpanzee and human genomes share 98 percent of their DNA.
d. Similarities in DNA base sequence among species are due to evolutionary relationships.
e. The human genome has about 3 billion base pairs.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

36. With a few exceptions (such as red blood cells and sex cells), most cells contain the entire human genome in their nucleus. Which of the following statements about any cell containing DNA is false?
a. The entire genome is expressed.
b. Only genes with a function in that cell are transcribed.
c. RNA molecules are synthesized from a DNA template.
d. Different genes may be expressed at different times.
e. Cell functioning depends on gene expression.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

37. Which of the following is not a nucleotide?
a. Guanosine triphosphate
b. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate
c. Uridine triphosphate
d. Adenosine diphosphate
e. All of the above are nucleotides.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

38. In 1668, Francesco Redi conducted experiments to investigate the concept of spontaneous generation. He began by putting pieces of meat into identical jars. Some jars were left open to the air, some were sealed, and some were covered with gauze that kept out flies while allowing the meat to be exposed to the air. Redi then observed whether or not fly maggots appeared in the meat. What hypothesis was Redi testing?
a. Spontaneous generation is more likely to occur during the hot days of summer.
b. Maggots do not arise spontaneously, but from eggs laid by adult flies.
c. The type of meat affects whether spontaneous generation occurs.
d. Spontaneous generation can occur only if air is present.
e. Flies will develop from rotting meat if the meat is exposed to air.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

39. The idea of spontaneous generation was disproved through experiments by
a. Stanley Miller.
b. Harold Urey.
c. Francesco Redi and Louis Pasteur.
d. Allan Hills.
e. Johannes van der Waals.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

40. A prerequisite for life as we know it on Earth or any other planet is
a. sunlight.
b. water.
c. amino acids.
d. nitrogen.
e. carbon dioxide.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

41. Life on Earth arose approximately _______ years ago.
a. 6.4 billion
b. 3.54 billion
c. 600 million
d. 2 million
e. 6,000
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

42. The French scientist Louis Pasteur showed that
a. microorganisms can arise only from other microorganisms.
b. an environment without life will remain lifeless.
c. flies arise spontaneously from rotting meat.
d. Both a and b
e. All of the above
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

43. Examination of meteorites suggests that
a. prebiotic synthesis of small molecules of life is not limited to Earth.
b. simple life forms can live on meteorites.
c. comets brought Earth most of its water.
d. meteorites brought living cells to Earth.
e. meteorites are responsible for Earths magnetic field.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

44. Examination of meteorites has revealed that they contain small organic molecules similar to some found in living cells. Which of the following has not been found in meteorites?
a. Purines
b. Water
c. Sugars
d. Pyrimidines
e. All 20 amino acids
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

45. What evidence supports the possibility that life may have come from outside of Earth?
a. Amino acids in a meteorite were found to be a mixture of L- and D-isomers.
b. Macromolecules unique to life have been found in meteorites.
c. Other bodies in the solar system have, or once had, water.
d. Other bodies in the solar system once had simple organic molecules.
e. All of the above
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

46. Which of the following gases was not a component of Earths early atmosphere?
a. Hydrogen
b. Ammonia
c. Water vapor
d. Oxygen
e. Methane
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

47. The most likely source of Earths atmospheric oxygen is
a. volcanic eruptions.
b. lightening striking water vapor.
c. the spontaneous breakdown of fatty acids.
d. photosynthesis by ancient cyanobacteria (blue-green algae).
e. the decay of fossil organisms.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

48. In 1969, scientists shaved off pieces of the Murchison meteorite and found both D- and L-isomers of 10 amino acids, as well as purines, pyrimidines, and sugars. Only L-isomers of amino acids are made by living organisms on Earth. This indicates that
a. Earths amino acids could not have had an extraterrestrial origin.
b. the meteorite was not contaminated by Earths materials.
c. basic chemical building blocks of life have formed extraterrestrially.
d. Both a and b
e. Both b and c
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

49. Why did the MillerUrey hot chemistry experiment not include oxygen in its investigation of the chemical origin of life on Earth?
a. Oxygen is not necessary for life.
b. The scientists assumed the reactions would produce oxygen from water vapor.
c. The scientists assumed that photosynthetic organisms would develop in the apparatus.
d. There is no evidence that oxygen existed in Earths earliest environments.
e. The scientists wanted to avoid contamination of the apparatus by oxygen-consuming bacteria.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

50.51. Miller and Ureys 1954 hot chemistry experiment was based on the assumption that Earths early atmosphere contained water (H2O) vapor, methane, hydrogen, and ammonia. Subsequent research showed that volcanoes released carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) around 4 billion years ago.

50. This discovery suggests that
a. early small molecules of life may have been produced in volcanoes.
b. Earths early environment included these gases as well.
c. these gases were toxic to early life forms.
d. volcanoes may have been responsible for the oxygen production once attributed to cyanobacteria.
e. prebiotic synthesis could not have occurred in ice, since volcanoes would have melted the ice.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

51. In response to this evidence, scientists concluded that
a. no synthesis of prebiotic molecules was possible on early Earth.
b. the experiment needed to be repeated with the inclusion of CO2, SO2, and H2O.
c. the experiment needed to be repeated with the inclusion of CO2, SO2, and H2S.
d. the experiment needed to be repeated with the inclusion of CO2, SO2, and H2S, and excluding the original gases.
e. the experiment needed to be repeated in the vicinity of an active volcano and with the inclusion of CO2, SO2, and H2S.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

52. After the discovery that volcanoes released carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere 4 billion years ago, scientists conducted the MillerUrey experiment with the inclusion of these gases. How did the results differ from the original results?
a. No small or large prebiotic molecules were produced.
b. Vitamin B was produced.
c. Lactic acids were produced.
d. No thymine was produced.
e. Both b and c
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

53. The MillerUrey experiment showed that in an environment with conditions similar to those of Earth,
a. inorganic molecules could react to form organic molecules.
b. RNA could self-replicate.
c. organic molecules could form primitive cells.
d. an oxygen atmosphere could develop.
e. DNA could be synthesized.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

54.55. Changes to the original MillerUrey hot chemistry experiment included adding other gases like carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen (N2), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in the test apparatus, which resulted in the production of more small molecules of life than the original experiment had produced.

54. Which of the following is significant for the synthesis of proteins?
a. All five bases that are present in nucleic acids (i.e., A, T, C, G and U)
b. All of the 20 amino acids
c. Many 3- to 6-carbon sugars
d. Certain fatty acids
e. Both b and d
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

55. Which of the following products were shown to be significant for the evolution of the cellular membrane?
a. All five bases that are present in nucleic acids (i.e., A, T, C, G, and U)
b. All of the 20 amino acids
c. Many 3- to 6-carbon sugars
d. Certain fatty acids
e. Both a and c
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?; 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

56. In Stanley Millers long-term cold chemistry experiment concerning prebiotic synthesis, test tubes containing ammonia gas, water vapor, and cyanide (HCN) were cooled to 78C. When they were opened after 27 years, they contained amino acids and nucleotide bases. This result was interpreted to mean that
a. ice crystals served as templates for molecule formation.
b. even small amounts of liquid water allowed high concentrations of materials to accumulate.
c. cold water geysers on moons of Jupiter and Saturn may be environments for prebiotic synthesis.
d. Both a and b
e. Both b and c
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

57. Which of the following lines of evidence supports the hypothesis that the prebiotic synthesis of molecules could occur in water inclusions within ice on celestial bodies such as Europa, a moon of Jupiter?
a. The internal structure of 3.5-billion-year-old fossilized spheres in Australian rocks
b. The synthesis of prebiotic molecules in a heated solution of gases treated with electrical sparks.
c. The presence of frozen mammoths in frozen soil in the Yukon Territory
d. The synthesis of prebiotic molecules in test tubes containing ammonia gas, water vapor, and cyanide (HCN) cooled to 78C
e. The capacity of RNA to act as a catalyst
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

58. Which of the following was not synthesized by the MillerUrey experiments?
a. Most of the amino acids used in protein synthesis
b. Small carbon sugars
c. Adenine and thymine
d. Ribose
e. Uracil
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

59. The MillerUrey experiments demonstrated that
a. under specific conditions, the basic building blocks of life can form.
b. life on Earth came from other bodies in the solar system.
c. CO2, N2, H2S, and SO2 were probably present in Earths early atmosphere.
d. volcanic eruptions may have released CO2, N2, H2S, and SO2 into Earths early atmosphere.
e. ice is present in meteorites and on Mars.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

60. Which of the following was a limitation of the MillerUrey experiments in the 1950s?
a. The experiments synthesized both D- and L-isomers of amino acids, but the amino acids in living things are always L-isomers.
b. The experimenters assumed that Earths early atmosphere contained only hydrogen gas, methane, ammonia, and water vapor; however, more recent evidence suggests that Earths early atmosphere contained more components.
c. DNA is not self-catalytic.
d. In living organisms today, peptide linkages are catalyzed by ribozymes.
e. The hot temperatures of the experiments denatured some of the proteins that were synthesized.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

61. Which of the following is a plausible explanation for the presence of carbon dioxide in Earths early atmosphere?
a. Volcanic eruptions could have released carbon dioxide into the atmosphere.
b. Cyanobacteria were present on Earth 3.5 billion years ago.
c. Retroviruses could have catalyzed the formation of carbon dioxide.
d. Geysers may have produced Earths early environment.
e. Chemical reactions with water would have resulted in the formation of carbon dioxide.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

62. Hot water containing iron and nickel emerges from below Earths crust at deep ocean hydrothermal vents where there is no oxygen. These metals catalyze the polymerization of amino acids in the absence of oxygen. This evidence supports the hypothesis of
a. the prebiotic synthesis of large molecules in Earths early environment.
b. photosynthesis by cyanobacteria 3.5 billion years ago.
c. the prebiotic synthesis of small molecules in the ice of Europa, a moon of Jupiter.
d. the evolution of whales.
e. an extraterrestrial origin of life.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

63. Which of the following may have facilitated the polymerization of the large molecules of life without biological catalysts?
a. Iron and nickel in anaerobic hot water
b. Evaporation in hot pools at the edges of oceans
c. Ribozymes
d. Early proteins
e. Lightning strikes in an anaerobic environment of methane, ammonia, hydrogen, and water vapor.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

64. Whether abiotically or in an organism, the synthesis of macromolecules
a. occurs with an increase of entropy.
b. is spontaneous.
c. requires energy.
d. results in a more random system.
e. gives off heat.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

65. The RNA world hypothesis is supported by evidence that
a. RNA molecules spontaneously form spheres in water.
b. RNA can act as both genetic material and a catalyst.
c. amino acids can form RNA in particular chemical environments.
d. RNA can act as genetic material but not as a catalyst.
e. RNA monomers can form proteins.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

66. Which of the following supports the hypothesis that DNA could have evolved from RNA?
a. The discovery that retroviruses have an enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis from RNA
b. Evidence of the early emergence on Earth of chemical reactions that resulted in monomers
c. Evidence of the nearly spontaneous formation of lipid micelles on Earth
d. Evidence of the prebiotic chemical generation of cell-like compartments
e. The chemical traces of life found on meteorites
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

67. RNA molecules that act as catalysts are called
a. ribozymes.
b. glycosidic linkages.
c. chaperonins.
d. disulfide bridges.
e. triglycerides.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

68. The discovery that RNA can function as a catalyst supports which of the following statements?
a. Proteins were the first catalysts.
b. An RNA world of early life preceded the existence of DNA.
c. Prebiotic synthesis of the four bases of RNA is not necessary for life.
d. The prebiotic origin of small molecules was in ice on cold moons.
e. The prebiotic origin of small molecules occurred around hydrothermal vents.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

69. Retroviruses, such as HIV, have an enzyme that allows them to catalyze DNA synthesis from an RNA template. This evidence supports the hypothesis that
a. RNA itself cannot be a catalyst.
b. early life consisted of an RNA world.
c. RNA probably came from an extraterrestrial source.
d. chemical evolution led to polymerization.
e. DNA polymers form from RNA monomers.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

70. Which of the following statements about protocells is false?
a. They can act as a system of interacting parts.
b. Their interiors are separated from their exteriors.
c. Their interiors can be chemically distinct from their exteriors.
d. They are able to replicate nucleic acids.
e. They can perform normal cellular metabolic reactions.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

71. Suppose that scientists developed a protocell with a membrane that allowed molecules to cross in or out of the cell. Would this membrane serve the function of a cell membrane?
a. Yes, because it would allow all molecules to cross either way.
b. Yes, because it would maintain an internal environment in the protocell similar to the external environment.
c. Yes, because it would form a complete sphere.
d. No, because it would not maintain an internal environment in the protocell that was different from the external environment.
e. Both a and b
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

72. Because fatty acids are amphipathic, with hydrophobic tails, they
a. form bilayers in water with tails facing inward in the membrane.
b. form bilayers in water with tails facing outward from the membrane.
c. catalyze the synthesis of proteins.
d. catalyze the synthesis of nucleic acids.
e. enable cellular reproduction.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

73. Protocells are
a. organisms like viruses, with a protein coat.
b. the earliest known cells.
c. another name for cyanobacteria.
d. complexes formed in the lab by self-organizing fatty acids.
e. complexes formed from a ribozyme and a substrate.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

74. What is the evidence supporting the claim that ancient rocks contain the fossils of cells?
a. The imprints of chloroplasts can be seen in the rocks.
b. Radioactive tracing of CO2 in the rocks shows similarities to modern cells.
c. Microscopic examination of the rocks shows chains of cells that are similar to modern cyanobacteria.
d. DNA analysis of the rocks shows similarities to modern cells.
e. Pieces of RNA found in the rocks are similar to ribozymes.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

75. William Schopf discovered a fossil cyanobacterium in Australian rocks that are 3.5 billion year old. The specific ratio of carbon isotopes (13C:12C) in the fossil indicated that the organism
a. produced atmospheric oxygen through photosynthesis.
b. produced atmospheric carbon dioxide through photosynthesis.
c. used atmospheric carbon dioxide in photosynthesis.
d. consumed carbohydrates for energy.
e. had an extraterrestrial origin.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

Fill in the Blank

1. Molecules consisting of only a pentose sugar and a nitrogenous base are called _______.
Answer: nucleosides
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

2. Purines have a _______-ring structure; pyrimidines have a _______-ring.
Answer: double; single
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

3. The structural difference between nucleotides and nucleosides is a(n) _______.
Answer: phosphate group
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

4. Adenine and guanine are classified as _______.
Answer: purines
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

5. According to the principle of complementary base pairing, in RNA, adenine always bonds with _______.
Answer: uracil
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

6. The diversity found among DNA molecules is due to the sequence of _______.
Answer: bases
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

7. The process by which DNA makes an exact copy of itself is called _______.
Answer: (DNA) replication
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

8. The process by which an RNA molecule is synthesized from a DNA template is _______.
Answer: transcription
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

9. The process by which an RNA nucleotide sequence is read to make a sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide is called _______.
Answer: translation
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

10. The complete set of DNA in a living organism is called its _______.
Answer: genome
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

11. Closely related living species should have (more/less) _______ similar DNA sequences than species that are more distantly related.
Answer: more
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

12. The sequences of DNA that encode specific proteins and are transcribed into RNA are called _______.
Answer: genes
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

13. Origination of life from inanimate matter is referred to as _______.
Answer: spontaneous generation
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

14. Redi worked with _______ to disprove the idea of spontaneous generation.
Answer: flies
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

15. Astronomers believe that the solar system began forming 4.6 billion years ago, when a star exploded to form bodies called _______.
Answer: planetesimals
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

16. Evidence to support the possibility that life may have come from outside Earth includes the meteorites that contain _______, the basic monomers of proteins.
Answer: amino acids
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

17. _______ is the theory that lifes simple molecules formed in Earths primitive environment.
Answer: Chemical evolution
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

18. Some RNA molecules can act as catalysts. Catalytic RNA, or _______, can catalyze a variety of chemical reactions on their nucleotides.
Answer: ribozymes
Textbook Reference: 4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

19. A laboratory model of a prebiotic structure that resembles modern cells is called a _______.
Answer: protocell
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

20. William Schopfs discovery of chemical evidence of photosynthesis indicated that he had found chains and clumps of _______ in rocks in Australia that are 3.5 billion years old.
Answer: cyanobacteria
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

Diagram

1.2. Refer to the figure below showing two strands of DNA.

1. Using the information in the figure, which of the following statements about uracil is true?
a. It has a double ring and forms two hydrogen bonds.
b. It has a single ring and forms two hydrogen bonds.
c. It has a double ring and forms three hydrogen bonds.
d. It has a single ring and forms three hydrogen bonds.
e. The question cannot be answered from the figure.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

2. According to the figure, how many hydrogen bonds would there be in a DNA sequence of 10 base pairs in which there are five A-T and five C-G pairs?
a. 5
b. 10
c. 15
d. 25
e. 18
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

3.4. Refer to the figure below illustrating Louis Pasteurs experiment on spontaneous generation.

3. In the experiment shown in the figure, why was the neck broken on one flask but not the other?
a. To ensure that conditions were the same in both experimental setups.
b. To prevent contaminants from getting in through the neck
c. To allow dust to enter into the broken flask but not the unbroken one
d. Both a and c
e. All of the above
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

4. The experiment depicted in the figure supports which of the following hypotheses?
a. Amino acids are the building blocks of life.
b. Some forms of life can arise by spontaneous generation.
c. Oxygen is needed for life.
d. Life comes from decaying matter.
e. Life comes from preexisting life.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

5.6. Refer to the figure below showing the MillerUrey experiment.

5. The experiment shown in the figure, which was performed in the 1950s,
a. showed that the Earths early environment had an atmosphere of N2, NH3, CH4, H2O, and H2.
b. showed that Earths early atmosphere consisted of a combination of gases that is different from the one that exists today.
c. proved that carbon dioxide was present in Earths early atmosphere.
d. demonstrated prebiotic synthesis of small molecules of life.
e. led to no meaningful conclusions, because there was no lightning in Earths early environment.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

6. Research conducted later than the MillerUrey experiment showed that volcanic activity 4 billion years ago injected other gases, such as SO2, into Earths early environment. This information led to the conclusion that
a. the original MillerUrey experiment did not produce meaningful data.
b. a modified experiment should be performed in which other gases were added to the initial heated solution.
c. the experiment required a longer running time to see whether the other gases would be produced.
d. the beaker of condensed liquid and compounds should be heated in the presence of the additional gases.
e. the MillerUrey experiment did not require modification, since cellular life existed earlier than 4 billion years ago.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

7.8. Refer to the figure below illustrating the RNA world hypothesis.

7. Which of the following statements about the hypothetical evolutionary model shown in the figure is true?
a. It supports the hypothesis that proteins appeared on Earth before nucleic acids.
b. It would be impossible in reality, since RNA is synthesized from DNA.
c. It would require prebiotic synthesis of fatty acids.
d. It is consistent with the activity of modern retroviruses that synthesize DNA.
e. It is inconsistent with the hypothesis that nucleic acids were the first catalysts.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

8. Which of the following statements concerning the figure is false?
a. It shows that complementary base pairing is required for replication of RNA.
b. It shows that modern RNA is necessary for the synthesis of proteins.
c. It shows that complementary base pairing is required for synthesis of DNA.
d. It shows that one of the initial functions of RNA was information storage.
e. It shows that RNA cannot evolve into DNA, since only three of the four bases are the same.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

9.10. Refer to the figure below showing a simplified timeline of the origin of life.

9. According to the figure, which of the following events must have been occurring between the existence of the RNA world and the evolution of the first cells?
a. The production of oxygen by cyanobacteria
b. The formation of cell membranes
c. The prebiotic synthesis of fatty acids
d. Photosynthesis
e. Both b and c
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

10. According to the figure, what event could have occurred before the evolution of RNA?
a. Formation of DNA
b. Evolution of cells
c. Prebiotic synthesis of amino acids
d. Development of ribozymes
e. RNA catalysis of proteins
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

DIAGNOSTIC QUIZ QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)
(By Grant Hurlburt)

1. DNA structure depends on base pairing of its four nucleotides, A, C, T, and G. Nucleotide A pairs with T and nucleotide C pairs with G. This forms a four-letter DNA alphabet. Because DNA codes for amino acids in sets of three nucleotides, there are 4 cubed (43), or 64 possible combinations, coding for 20 different amino acids. What is the best explanation for why there is no selective advantage for DNA to have five nucleotides (e.g., A, C, T, G, and E) with C pairing with either G or functionally equivalent E?
a. There would be a five-letter alphabet with 125 combinations, which is too numerous.
b. It would be impossible to form the DNA molecule because it must have an equal number of Cs and Gs.
c. Replication would be inaccurate because sometimes C would bond with G, and sometimes C would bond with E.
d. Because G and E have the same role, there would still be four functional letters of the alphabet.
e. It is impossible, because there are not five known nucleotides in the cell.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

2. Which of the following correctly describes a difference between DNA and RNA?
a. DNA is single-stranded, whereas RNA is double-stranded.
b. DNA occurs in the nucleus, whereas RNA only occurs outside the nucleus.
c. DNA contains a ribose, whereas RNA contains a deoxyribose sugar.
d. DNA is replicated, whereas RNA is translated.
e. DNA contains four nucleotides, whereas RNA contains three.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

3. Nucleotides are composed of
a. one or more amino acids.
b. nucleic acids.
c. one or more phosphates, a sugar, and a base.
d. a base and at least one phosphate.
e. fatty acids and a base.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

4. In the double stranded structure of DNA,
a. the two strands are held together by covalent bonds.
b. the monomers in each strand are linked together by hydrogen bonds.
c. both strands run in the same direction.
d. the two strands are held together by hydrogen bonds.
e. the monomers in each strand are linked together by ionic bonds.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

5. Yeast is cultured in the presence of radioactive phosphate, and the following biological molecules are purified from the cells. Which of the purified molecules should be most radioactive?
a. RNA
b. Amino acids
c. A polysaccharide
d. Fats
e. Proteins
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

6. One function of nucleic acids is to
a. code for protein synthesis.
b. form a cell membrane.
c. catalyze all of the chemical reactions within a cell.
d. carry out photosynthesis.
e. code for fatty acid synthesis.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

7. Replication is the synthesis of _______, while transcription is the synthesis of _______.
a. an RNA copy of DNA; an exact copy of DNA
b. an exact copy of DNA; proteins
c. an exact copy of RNA; an exact copy of DNA
d. proteins; an RNA copy of DNA
e. an exact copy of DNA; an RNA copy of DNA
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

8. The DNA sequence ATT CGT TCA is equivalent to which of the following RNA sequences?
a. UAA GCA AGU
b. ATT CGT TCA
c. TAA GCA AGT
d. UGA ACG AAU
e. AUU CGT UCA
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

9. Nucleotides are joined together in a single strand of DNA
a. by hydrogen bonds.
b. by carboncarbon bonds.
c. through van der Waals interactions.
d. by glycosidic linkages.
e. by phosphodiester bonds.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

10. Which of the following gasses is not thought to have been added to the atmosphere by extensive volcanic eruptions early in Earths history?
a. Hydrogen sulfide
b. Nitrogen
c. Sulfur dioxide
d. Carbon dioxide
e. Oxygen
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

11. In 1969, Australian scientists analyzed the structure of an uncontaminated portion of a meteorite. They found a number of the molecules that are necessary for life, including purines, pyrimidines, sugars, and ten amino acids. This result supports which of the following statements?
a. The small molecules of life occur elsewhere than Earth.
b. Life on Earth may have originated from extraterrestrial molecules.
c. The question of how life originated from nonbiological precursors remains to be answered.
d. a and b only
e. a, b, and c
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

12. It is noteworthy that the Miller-Urey experiments produced ribose sugars because they are
a. vital nutrients.
b. essential components of proteins.
c. essential components of a nucleic acid.
d. essential components of lipids.
e. essential monomers of all carbohydrates.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

13. Many organic molecules are easily destroyed by oxygen in modern Earths atmosphere. This finding
a. indicates that an abiotic origin of small biological molecules is impossible.
b. explains why spontaneous abiotic synthesis of small biological molecules is not commonly seen in small pools and lakes.
c. indicates that small biological molecules must be generating on the moon.
d. indicates that life could never have originated on Earth.
e. indicates that all life on Earth must have had an extraterrestrial origin.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

14. The cold chemistry experiment of Miller showed prebiotic synthesis in test tubes containing ammonia gas, water vapor, and cyanide (HCN) cooled to 78oC. This is the temperature of the ice that covers Europa, one of Jupiters moons. This result is most consistent with which of the following statements?
a. Earth was at a temperature of 78oC 3.5 billion years ago.
b. Life did not form on Earth until the formation of widespread glaciers.
c. There is a possible extraterrestrial origin of life on Earth.
d. Basic molecules of life can originate on a cold moon with water.
e. Both c and d
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.2 How and Where Did the Small Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

15. It has been hypothesized that early life consisted of an RNA worlda world before DNA. Which of the following does not support this hypothesis?
a. Retroviruses have an enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of DNA from RNA.
b. Protein enzymes catalyze the great majority of reactions in living cells.
c. Ribozymes catalyze formation of peptide linkages.
d. Adding a short RNA sequence to a mixture of nucleotides causes formation of RNA polymers 7 million times faster than without the short sequence.
e. An artificial ribozyme catalyzes assembly of short RNAs into a longer molecule that is a copy of itself.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

16. Hydrothermal vents deep in the ocean, where hot water emerges from beneath Earths crust, lack oxygen gas and contain metals such as iron and nickel. In laboratory experiments, these metals have been shown to
a. spontaneously form double-layered spheres.
b. catalyze formation of nucleic acids.
c. polymerize sugar molecules.
d. catalyze formation of amino acids.
e. convert light energy into energy.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.3 How Did the Large Molecules of Life Originate?
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

17. Fossilized remains in ancient geological formations indicate that cells first appeared
a. about 4.5 billion years ago.
b. about 3.5 billion years ago.
c. about 5 thousand years ago.
d. in ancient volcanoes.
e. before water arrived on Earth.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

18. The cell membrane
a. encloses a distinct chemical environment.
b. catalyzes chemical reactions.
c. carries genetic information.
d. is usually formed of protein molecules.
e. exists due to the specific gravity of water.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

19. Fatty acids have hydrophilic heads and hydrophobic tails. This allows them to
a. self-organize into a single layer surrounding a sphere of water.
b. form a double-layered membrane with heads facing out and a layer of water between the tails.
c. act as catalysts for chemical reactions.
d. act as information carriers for proto-cells.
e. self-organize into a double layer surrounding a sphere of water.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

20. William Schopf found fossils in ancient Australian rocks with an internal structure unlikely to occur through abiotic processes. Additional evidence that these were fossil cyanobacteria includes
a. a carbon isotope ratio (13C:12C) consistent with translation of DNA.
b. a carbon isotope ratio (13C:12C) consistent with photosynthetic activity.
c. fossilized DNA.
d. fossilized RNA.
e. micrometeorites from Mars with amino acids.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.4 How Did the First Cells Originate?
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

LEARNINGCURVE QUESTIONS (from BioPortal)
(By Grant Hurlburt)

1. Nucleotides
a. are the monomers of DNA and RNA.
b. are normally present in polysaccharides.
c. are composed of amino acids.
d. do not contain a sugar.
e. contain sulfur.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Difficulty: Easy
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

2. Unlike DNA, RNA contains
a. cytosine.
b. uracil.
c. thymine.
d. guanine.
e. adenine.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Difficulty: Easy
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

3. Unlike RNA, DNA contains
a. cytosine.
b. uracil.
c. thymine.
d. guanine.
e. adenine.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Difficulty: Easy
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

4. In a DNA double helix, a given purine can be paired with
a. only one type of purine.
b. only one type of pyrimidine.
c. either one of two types of purine.
d. either one of two types of pyrimidine.
e. either a purine or a pyrimidine.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Difficulty: Hard
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

5. DNA differs from RNA in that
a. the nitrogenous bases of DNA have one more oxygen atom.
b. the nitrogenous bases of DNA have one less oxygen atom.
c. the pentose sugar of DNA has one less oxygen atom.
d. the pentose sugar of DNA has one more oxygen atom.
e. DNA has no phosphate groups, but RNA has them.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Difficulty: Medium
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

6. Refer to the figure below. (Click to enlarge.)

Which of the following statements about the single-stranded RNA molecule is false?
a. The RNA molecule contains at least one pyrimidine nitrogen-containing base.
b. The pentose sugars are ribose.
c. At least one of the ribonucleotides can form a base pair with a complementary deoxyribonucleotide.
d. At least one of the ribonucleotides can form two hydrogen bonds with a complementary base.
e. The RNA molecule cannot form complementary hydrogen bonds with other RNA molecules.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Difficulty: Hard
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

7. Which of the following occurs in a pyrimidine?
a. A nitrogen in a pair of six-sided rings
b. A pentose sugar in a pair of six-sided rings
c. A nitrogen in a single six-sided ring
d. A pentose sugar in a single six-sided ring
e. A phosphate in a pair of six-sided rings
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Difficulty: Hard
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

8. Which of the following is not part of an RNA nucleotide?
a. Adenine
b. Phosphate
c. Ribose sugar
d. Deoxyribose sugar
e. Purine
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Difficulty: Easy
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

9. Information flows from _______ only during cell reproduction.
a. DNA to RNA
b. RNA to amino acid sequences
c. existing DNA to newly formed DNA
d. proteins to existing DNA
e. proteins to RNA
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Difficulty: Medium
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

10. In a cell, the correct sequence of the flow of information from storage to function is
a. protein to DNA to RNA.
b. DNA to RNA to protein.
c. protein to RNA to DNA.
d. DNA to protein to RNA.
e. RNA to protein to DNA.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Difficulty: Easy
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

11. Which of the following is not a nucleotide or nucleic acid?
a. ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
b. GTP (guanosine triphosphate)
c. DNA
d. RNA
e. Alanine
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Difficulty: Easy
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

12. All of the following are part of a DNA nucleotide except
a. adenine.
b. phosphate.
c. purine.
d. deoxyribose sugar.
e. ribose sugar.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 4.1 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Nucleic Acids?
Difficulty: Easy
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

13. Which statement concerning the function of DNA is true?
a. DNA is a purely informational molecule.
b. Folded single-strand DNA can act as a catalyst.
c. DNA replication occurs when RNA copies a DNA sequence.
d. Reproduction of DNA results in synthesis of a molecule consisting of two new strands.
e. RNA replication occurs when a gene codes for a polypeptide sequence.

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