Life The Science of Biology 9e by david Sadava david hillis craig heller test bank

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Life The Science of Biology 9e by david Sadava david hillis craig heller test bank

Description

Test File
to accompany
Life: The Science of Biology, Ninth Edition
Sadava Hillis Heller Berenbaum

Chapter 3: Proteins, Carbohydrates, and Lipids

TEST FILE QUESTIONS
(By Catherine Ueckert)

Multiple Choice

1. Large molecules that contain carbon and are held together by covalent bonds are categorized as
a. proteins.
b. polymers.
c. nucleic acids.
d. macromolecules.
e. monomers.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.0 Molecular fossils
Page: 3839
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

2. Which of the following is not a macromolecule?
a. RNA
b. DNA
c. Vitamin D, E, or K
d. A protein
e. Salt
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.0 Molecular fossils
Page: 39
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

3. The bonds that form between the atoms of polymeric macromolecules are _______ bonds.
a. hydrogen
b. peptide
c. disulfide
d. covalent
e. ionic
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.0 Molecular fossils
Page: 39
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

4. Which of the following does not represent a correct monomer/polymer pairing?
a. Monosaccharide/polysaccharide
b. Amino acid/protein
c. Triglyceride/cellulose
d. Nucleotide/nucleic acid
e. Monosaccharide/oligosaccharide
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 39
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

5. The amino and carboxyl functional groups tend to form bases and acids by attracting or dropping
a. a neutron.
b. a proton.
c. an electron.
d. a proton and an electron.
e. a neutron and a proton.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 40
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

6. Aldehydes and ketones are very similar in that they both contain
a. phosphorus atoms.
b. sulfur atoms.
c. a carbonyl group (C=O).
d. nitrogen atoms.
e. two R groups.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 40
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

7. Molecules containing a large number of hydroxyl groups are
a. basic.
b. highly stable structurally.
c. involved in reactions forming more complex molecules.
d. nonpolar.
e. highly soluble in water.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 40
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

8. Which of the following functional groups is the most polar?
a. Hydroxyl
b. Aldehyde
c. Keto
d. Carboxylic acids
e. Sulfhydryl
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 40
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

9. An essential functional group involved in cellular energy transfer is the _______ group.
a. phosphate
b. amino
c. sulfhydryl
d. hydroxyl
e. saccharide
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 40
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

10. Which of the following statements regarding the carbon atoms in a molecule and its functional groups is false?
a. They determine how the molecule interacts with other molecules in the environment.
b. They determine the shape of the molecule.
c. They determine the specific properties of the molecule.
d. They may have interactions with specific functional groups on the same molecule.
e. They are antagonistic to each other, thereby creating multiple forces that drive chemical reactions.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 40
Blooms Category: 5. Evaluating

11. In condensation reactions, the atoms that make up a water molecule are derived from
a. oxygen.
b. only one of the reactants.
c. both of the reactants.
d. carbohydrates.
e. enzymes.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 41
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

12. Polymerization reactions in which polysaccharides are synthesized from monosaccharides
a. require the formation of phosphodiester bonds between the amino acids.
b. occur in the nucleus of the cell.
c. are hydrolysis reactions.
d. depend upon van der Waals forces to hold the amino acids together.
e. result in the formation of water.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 4142
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

13. During the formation of a peptide linkage, a(n) _______ is formed.
a. molecule of water
b. disulfide bridge
c. hydrophobic bond
d. hydrophilic bond
e. ionic bond
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 41 and 44
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

14. Polysaccharides, polypeptides, and polynucleotides
a. contain simple sugars.
b. are broken down in hydrolysis reactions.
c. are found in cell membranes.
d. contain nitrogen.
e. have molecular weights less than 30,000 daltons.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 42
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

15. Which of the following is responsible for making every amino acid unique?
a. Amino group
b. Hydrogen
c. Carboxyl group
d. R group
e. Carbon
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 42
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

16. Enzymes are
a. DNA.
b. lipids.
c. carbohydrates.
d. proteins.
e. amino acids.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 42
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

17. A protein can best be defined as a polymer
a. of amino acids.
b. containing one or more polypeptide chains.
c. containing 20 amino acids.
d. containing 20 peptide linkages.
e. containing double helices.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 42
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

18. Which of the following statements about proteins is true?
a. They are insoluble in water.
b. They are the structural units of glycogen.
c. They possess glycosidic linkages between amino acids.
d. Some function as enzymes.
e. They are involved in information storage.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 42
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

19. Which of the following amino acids does not have an optical isomer?
a. Arginine
b. Cysteine
c. Alanine
d. Glycine
e. Methionine
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 43
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

20. Leucine and valine do not interact with water; therefore, they
a. are hydrophilic.
b. are nonpolar.
c. have sulfur atoms in their side chains.
d. are electrically charged.
e. form only left-hand isomers.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 43
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

21. Aspartate and glutamate are highly soluble in water; therefore, they
a. are hydrophobic.
b. have sulfur atoms in their side chains.
c. have electrically charged side chains.
d. are nonpolar.
e. form only left-hand isomers.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 43
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

22. The side chain of leucine is a hydrocarbon. In a folded protein, where would you expect to find leucine?
a. In the interior of a cytoplasmic enzyme
b. On the exterior of a protein embedded in a membrane
c. On the exterior of a cytoplasmic enzyme
d. Both a and b
e. Both a and c
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 43
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

23. Amino acids can be classified by the
a. number of monosaccharides they contain.
b. number of carboncarbon double bonds in their fatty acids.
c. number of peptide bonds they can form.
d. number of disulfide bridges they can form.
e. characteristics of their side chains, or R groups.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 43
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

24. What type of amino acid side chains would you expect to find on the surface of a protein embedded in a cell membrane?
a. Cysteine
b. Hydrophobic
c. Hydrophilic
d. Charged
e. Polar, but not charged
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 43
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

25. Peptide chains have a(n) _______ and a(n) _______ end.
a. start; stop
b. +;
c. N terminus; C terminus
d. 5; 3
e. A; Z
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 44
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

26. An amino acid that is small enough to fit into tight corners of protein molecules is
a. proline.
b. glycine.
c. cysteine.
d. asparagine.
e. glutamine.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 44
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

27. What is the theoretical number of different proteins that you could make from 50 amino acids?
a. 5020
b. 20 50
c. 2050
d. 1050
e. 250
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 45
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

28. There are _______ different types of tripeptides (molecules with three amino acids linked together) that can exist using the 20 common amino acids.
a. 3
b. 20
c. 60
d. 900
e. 8,000
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 45
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

29. The shape of a folded protein is often determined by
a. its tertiary structure.
b. the sequence of its amino acids.
c. whether the peptide bonds have or linkages.
d. the number of peptide bonds.
e. the base-pairing rules.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 45
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

30. The amino acids of the protein keratin are arranged in a helix. This secondary structure is stabilized by
a. covalent bonds.
b. peptide bonds.
c. glycosidic linkages.
d. polar bonds.
e. hydrogen bonds.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 45
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

31. The tertiary structure of a protein is determined by its
a. interactions among R groups.
b. right-handed coil.
c. hydrogen bonding.
d. branching.
e. glycosidic linkages.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 46
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

32. A pleated sheet organization in a polypeptide chain is an example of _______ structure.
a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. quaternary
e. coiled
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 46
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

33. Quaternary structure is found in proteins
a. composed of subunits.
b. of membranes.
c. of the quadruple complex.
d. that change over time.
e. None of the above
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 47
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

34. A(n) _______ protein is a protein that has become nonfunctional due to the loss of its three-dimensional structure.
a. permanent
b. reversible
c. denatured
d. hydrolyzed
e. environmentalized
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 47
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

35. Which of the following protein structures is destroyed by denaturation?
a. Primary
b. Secondary
c. Tertiary
d. Both b and c
e. All of the above
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 48
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

36. Knowledge that incorrect folding of a protein can be deleterious to cell functioning is being used to design drugs to treat
a. rickets.
b. cancerous tumors.
c. hemophilia.
d. diabetes.
e. high blood pressure.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 4849
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

37. A type of protein that functions by helping other proteins fold correctly is called a
a. foldzyme.
b. renaturing protein.
c. chaperone protein.
d. hemoglobin.
e. denaturing protein.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 49
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

38. A molecule with the formula C16H30O15 is a
a. hydrocarbon.
b. carbohydrate.
c. lipid.
d. protein.
e. nucleic acid.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 49
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

39. The atoms that make up carbohydrates are
a. C, H, and N.
b. C and H.
c. C, H, and P.
d. C, H, and O.
e. C, H, O, and N.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 49
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

40. The difference between - and -glucose is
a. in the number of covalent bonds present.
b. in the placement of OH and H atoms.
c. in the type of R group attached to the terminal carbon.
d. that -glucose is polar, whereas -glucose is nonpolar.
e. that -glucose is a pentose, whereas -glucose is a hexose.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 50
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

41. Glucose and fructose both have the formula C6H12O6, but the atoms in these two compounds are arranged differently. Glucose and fructose are therefore
a. isomers.
b. polysaccharides.
c. oligosaccharides.
d. pentoses.
e. steroids.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 50
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

42. The monomers that make up polymeric carbohydrates like starch are called
a. nucleotides.
b. trisaccharides.
c. monosaccharides.
d. nucleosides.
e. fatty acids.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 50
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

43. A simple sugar with the formula C5H10O5 can be classified as a
a. hexose.
b. polysaccharide.
c. disaccharide.
d. pentose.
e. lipid.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 50
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

44. DNA and RNA both include
a. pentoses.
b. hexoses.
c. fructoses.
d. maltoses.
e. amyloses.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 50
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

45. A type of molecule very often drawn with a single six-sided ring structure is
a. sucrose.
b. an amino acid.
c. glucose.
d. a fatty acid.
e. a steroid.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 50
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

46. Lactose, or milk sugar, which is composed of one glucose unit and one galactose unit, can be classified as a
a. disaccharide.
b. hexose.
c. pentose.
d. polysaccharide.
e. monosaccharide.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 51
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

47. Maltose and lactose are similar in that they both are
a. simple sugars.
b. amino acids.
c. insoluble in water.
d. disaccharides.
e. hexoses.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 51
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

48. Sucrose, known as common table sugar, is a
a. hexose.
b. lipid.
c. disaccharide.
d. glucose.
e. simple sugar.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 51
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

49. Starch and glycogen, which are both polysaccharides, differ structurally in that glycogen _______, whereas starch _______.
a. is highly branched; is moderately branched
b. consists of parallel strands; is highly branched
c. consists of a combination of branching and parallel strands; is moderately branched
d. is moderately branched; consists of parallel strands
e. is highly branched; consists of parallel strands
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 52
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

50. Why does a starchy food, like bread, become hard and stale when it dries out?
a. Cellulose molecules aggregate in the absence of water.
b. In the absence of water, unbranched starch forms hydrogen bonds between polysaccharides, which then aggregate.
c. The release of carbon dioxide causes the bread to harden.
d. Water and heat cause the polysaccharide chains to bind together.
e. Mold growth interferes with linkages, causing the bread to harden.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 52
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

51. Starch and glycogen, which are both polysaccharides, differ in their functions in that starch is _______, whereas glycogen _______.
a. the main component for plant structural support; is an energy source for animals
b. a structural material found in plants and animals; forms external skeletons in animals
c. the principle energy storage compound of plants; is the main energy storage of animals
d. a temporary compound used to store glucose; is a highly stable compound that stores complex lipids
e. is the main energy storage of animals; a temporary compound used to store glucose
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 5253
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

52. Starch and glycogen are different in that only one of them
a. is a polymer of glucose.
b. contains ribose.
c. is made in plants.
d. is an energy storage molecule.
e. can be digested by humans.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 5253
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

53. Two important polysaccharides made up of glucose monomers are _______ and _______.
a. guanine; cytosine
b. RNA; DNA
c. sucrose; lactose
d. cellulose; starch
e. testosterone; cortisone
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 5253
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

54. A molecule that has an important role in long-term storage of energy is
a. a steroid.
b. RNA.
c. glycogen.
d. an amino acid.
e. hexose.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 53
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

55. In animals, glucose is stored in the compound
a. cellulose.
b. amylose.
c. glycogen.
d. fructose.
e. cellobiose.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 53
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

56. The main function of cellulose, the most abundant organic compound on Earth, is
a. to store genetic information.
b. as a storage compound for energy in plant cells.
c. as a storage compound for energy in animal cells.
d. as a component of biological membranes.
e. to provide mechanical strength to plant cell walls.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 53
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

57. Chitin is a polymer of
a. galactosamine.
b. glucose.
c. glucosamine.
d. glycine.
e. All of the above
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 53
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

58. Lipids are
a. insoluble in water.
b. important for energy storage.
c. hydrophobic.
d. important constituents of biological membranes.
e. All of the above
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 54
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

59. Fatty acids are molecules that
a. contain fats bonded to a glycerol.
b. are composed of hydrogen, carbon, and a carboxyl group.
c. are carbohydrates linked to a hydrocarbon chain.
d. contain glycerol and a carboxyl group.
e. are always saturated.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 54
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

60. A fat contains fatty acids and
a. glycerol.
b. a base.
c. an amino acid.
d. a phosphate.
e. None of the above
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 54
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

61. Which of the following is not a function in which lipids play an important role?
a. Vision
b. Storing energy
c. Membrane structure
d. Storing genetic information
e. Chemical signaling
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 5457
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

62. Which of the following statements about lipids is false?
a. They are readily soluble in water.
b. They help capture light energy.
c. They release large amounts of energy when broken down.
d. They form two layers when mixed with water.
e. They act as an energy storehouse.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 5457
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

63. You have isolated an unidentified liquid from a sample of beans. You add the liquid to a beaker of water and shake vigorously. After a few minutes, the water and the other liquid separate into two layers. To which class of large biological molecules does the unknown liquid most likely belong?
a. Carbohydrates
b. Lipids
c. Proteins
d. Enzymes
e. Nucleic acids
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 5457
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

64. A molecule that has an important role in limiting what gets into and out of cells is
a. glucose.
b. maltose.
c. phospholipid.
d. fat.
e. phosphohexose.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 55
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

65. Lipids form the barriers surrounding various compartments within an organism. Which property of lipids makes them a good barrier?
a. Many biologically important molecules are not soluble in lipids.
b. Lipids are polymers.
c. Lipids store energy.
d. Triglycerides are lipids.
e. Lipids release large amounts of energy when broken down.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 55
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

66. You look at the label on a container of shortening and see the words hydrogenated vegetable oil. This means that during processing, the number of carboncarbon double bonds in the oil was decreased. What is the result of decreasing the number of double bonds?
a. The oil now has a lower melting point.
b. The oil is now solid at room temperature.
c. There are more kinks in the fatty acid chains.
d. The oil is now a derivative carbohydrate.
e. The fatty acid is now a triglyceride.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 55
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

67. The portion of a phospholipid that contains the phosphorous group has one or more electric charges. That makes this region of the molecule
a. hydrophobic.
b. hydrophilic.
c. nonpolar.
d. unsaturated.
e. saturated.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 55
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

68. Unsaturated fatty acids do not pack together due to
a. kinks in the hydrocarbon-chain ribozymes.
b. glycosidic linkage proteases.
c. peptide-bond chaperonins.
d. disulfide bridges.
e. van der Waals-force triglycerides.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 55
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

69. In a biological membrane, the phospholipids are arranged with the fatty acid chains facing the interior of the membrane. As a result, the interior of the membrane is
a. hydrophobic.
b. hydrophilic.
c. charged.
d. polar.
e. filled with water.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 55
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

70. Molecules that are both attracted to water and repel water are called
a. hydrophilic.
b. hydrophobic.
c. amphipathic.
d. amphoric.
e. glycosidic.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 55
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

71. Cholesterol is soluble in ether, an organic solvent, but it is not soluble in water. Based on this information, to which class of biological macromolecules does cholesterol belong?
a. Nucleic acids
b. Carbohydrates
c. Proteins
d. Enzymes
e. Lipids
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 56
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

72. Steroids are classified as lipids because they
a. have a ring structure similar to glucose.
b. are composed of amino acids.
c. are composed of nonpolar and hydrophobic molecules.
d. are composed of molecules that are bound together with glycosidic linkages.
e. form alpha and beta isomers.
Answers: c
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 56
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

73. Waxes are formed by
a. adding water to fatty acids.
b. removing water from fatty acids.
c. combining fatty acids with alcohol.
d. condensing fatty acids with glycerol.
e. combining fatty acids with vitamin A.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 57
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

Fill in the Blank

1. Starch is a polymer of glucose subunits. The subunits of any polymer are called _______.
Answer: monomers
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 39
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

2. The functional group written as COOH is called the _______ group.
Answer: carboxyl
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 40
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

3. The compound inositol has six hydroxyl groups attached to a six-carbon backbone. Thus inositol can be classified as a(n ) _______.
Answer: alcohol
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 40
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

4. The reaction HAOH + HBOH HABOH + H2O represents a _______.
Answer: condensation reaction
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 41
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

5. All amino acids have a hydrogen atom, an amino group, and a _______ group.
Answer: carboxyl
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 42
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

6. In proteins, amino acids are linked together by _______ bonds.
Answer: peptide
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 44
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

7. The linear arrangement of amino acids in the polypeptide chain is referred to as the _______ structure of the protein.
Answer: primary
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 44
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

8. van der Waals forces can form between _______ side chains in proteins.
Answer: hydrophobic
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 47
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

9. The covalent bond formed between the sulfur atoms of two cysteine side chains is called a _______.
Answer: disulfide bridge
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 47
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

10. Carbohydrates made up of two simple sugars are called _______.
Answer: disaccharides
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 50
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

11. All living cells contain the monosaccharide _______.
Answer: glucose
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 50
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

12. The bonds that link sugar monomers in a starch molecule are _______ bonds.
Answer: glycosidic
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 50
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

13. The highly branched polysaccharide that stores glucose in the muscles and the liver of animals is _______.
Answer: glycogen
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 53
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

14. Glucosamine and galactosamine are monosaccharides in which a hydroxyl group has been replaced by a(n) _______ group.
Answer: amino
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 53
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

15. A(n) _______ linkage connects the fatty acid molecule to glycerol.
Answer: ester
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 54
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

16. Fatty acids with more than one carboncarbon double bond are called _______.
Answer: polyunsaturated
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 55
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

17. The fluidity and melting point of fatty acids are partially determined by the number of _______ bonds.
Answer: unsaturated (or carbon double)
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 55
Blooms Category: 1. Understanding

18. Cholesterol is classified as a(n) _______.
Answer: lipid
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 56
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

19. Vitamins D, E, and F have a multiple-ring structure and are classified as _______.
Answer: lipids
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 56
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

Diagram

1. The three amino acids shown in the diagram below

a. are hydrophilic.
b. are hydrophobic.
c. have polar side chains.
d. form disulfide bridges.
e. are smaller than other amino acids.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 43
Blooms Category: 3. Applying

STUDY GUIDE QUESTIONS
(By Ed Dzialowski)

Knowledge and Synthesis

1. Which of the following statements about polymers is false?
a. Polymers are synthesized from monomers during condensation.
b. Polymers are synthesized from monomers during dehydration.
c. Polymers consist of at least two types of monomers.
d. Both a and c
e. Both b and c
Answer: e
Feedback: Polymers are synthesized via condensation and broken down via hydrolysis. They may be made of a single type of monomer or from multiple types of monomers.
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 39

2. A macromolecule with many hydrogen and peptide bonds is most likely a
a. carbohydrate.
b. lipid.
c. protein.
d. nucleic acid.
e. vitamin.
Answer: c
Feedback: Proteins consist of amino acids joined by peptide bonds. Higher levels of structure are stabilized by hydrogen bonds.
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 44

3. An helix is an example of the _______ level of protein structure.
a. primary
b. secondary
c. tertiary
d. quaternary
e. hepternary
Answer: b
Feedback: helices are examples of secondary structure and are maintained by hydrogen bonds between the amino acid residues.
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 46

4. Which of the following statement about isomers is true?
a. They all have different chemical formulas but the same arrangement.
b. They are found only in proteins.
c. They can only be structural.
d. They all have the same chemical formula but different arrangements.
e. None of the above
Answer: d
Feedback: Proteins, carbohydrates, or lipids can have the same chemical formula, but the isomer molecules are arranged differently.
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things?
Page: 40

5. Cellulose and starch are composed of the same monomers but have structural and functional differences. Which of the following is the characteristic that accounts for those differences?
a. Different types of glycosidic linkages
b. Different numbers of glucose monomers
c. Different types of bonds holding them together
d. A linear shape in one versus a ring shape in the other
e. None of the above
Answer: a
Feedback: Starch has -glycosidic linkages, whereas cellulose has -glycosidic linkages. This difference accounts for structural and functional differences between the two macromolecules.
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 53

6. Which of the following statements about proteins is false?
a. Enzymes are proteins.
b. They are part of the phospholipid bilayer.
c. Some hormones are proteins.
d. They are structural components of the cell.
e. All of the above are true of proteins.
Answer: b
Feedback: Proteins do not make up the phospholipid bilayer, which is composed of phospholipids. Proteins do perform all of the other functions.
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 42

7. A disulfide bridge is formed by
a. two cysteine side chains.
b. two glycerol linkages.
c. two proline side chains.
d. condensation.
e. hydrolysis.
Answer: a
Feedback: Disulfide bridges are formed when the SH groups of two cysteines interact.
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 44

8. Triglycerides are synthesized from ______ and _______.
a. glycerol; amino acids
b. amino acids; cellulose
c. steroid precursors; starch
d. cholesterol; glycerol
e. fatty acids; glycerol
Answer: e
Feedback: Triglycerides are formed from one glycerol and three fatty acid molecules.
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 54

9. Proteins consists of amino acids linked together by
a. noncovalent bonds.
b. peptide bonds.
c. phosphodiester bonds.
d. van der Waals forces.
e. Both a and b
Answer: b
Feedback: The peptide bond that links amino acids to form proteins is a type of covalent bond.
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 44

10. Which of the following characteristics distinguishes carbohydrates from other macromolecule types?
a. Carbohydrates are constructed of monomers that always have a ring structure.
b. Carbohydrates never contain nitrogen.
c. Carbohydrates consist of a carbon bonded to hydrogen and a hydroxyl group.
d. Carbohydrates contain glycerol.
e. None of the above
Answer: c
Feedback: Carbohydrates always have carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl groups. They may have a variety of other associate molecules in addition to these.
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 4950

11. Which of the following statements about carbohydrates is false?
a. Monomers of carbohydrates have six carbon atoms.
b. Monomers of carbohydrates are linked together during dehydration.
c. Carbohydrates are energy-storage molecules.
d. Carbohydrates can be used as carbon skeletons.
e. All of the above are true.
Answer: a
Feedback: Carbohydrate monomers may have different numbers of carbon atoms. Five-carbon monomers (pentoses) and six-carbon monomers (hexoses) are both common.
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 50

12. The R groups of amino acids located on the surface of protein molecules in the interior of biological membranes would be
a. hydrophobic.
b. hydrophilic.
c. polar.
d. able to form disulfide.
e. electrically charged.
Answer: a
Feedback: The interior of the plasma membrane is hydrophobic; therefore, an embedded protein would have hydrophobic residues.
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 43, 55

13. The characteristic of phospholipids that allows them to form a bilayer is their
a. hydrophilic fatty acid tail.
b. hydrophobic head.
c. hydrophobic fatty acid tail.
d. hydrophilic glycogen acid tail.
e. All of the above
Answer: c
Feedback: Phospholipids are composed of a hydrophilic head and a hydrophobic tail. When they are placed in water, the hydrophobic tails come together in the interior of the bilayer, surrounded by the hydrophilic heads facing outward.
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 55

14. A five-carbon sugar is known as a
a. glutamine.
b. glucose.
c. hexose.
d. pentose.
e. None of the above
Answer: d
Feedback: Five-carbon sugars are known as pentoses and form the backbones for RNA and DNA.
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 50

15. Which of the following statements about lipids is false?
a. Lipids are a major component of the phospholipid bilayer.
b. Lipids provide waterproofing for the surfaces of organisms.
c. Steroid hormones are lipids.
d. A number of vitamins are lipids.
e. All of the above statements are true.
Answer: e
Feedback: Lipids play a role in all of the functions listed.
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 5657

Application

1. Differentiate between primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures as they relate to proteins. If a protein is immersed in an unfavorable pH solution, which structures are most likely to disassociate first, and why?
Answer: See Figure 3.7 in the textbook for diagrams of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The quaternary structure is the least stable and breaks down first in unfavorable conditions. Protein structures continue to denature by unfolding the tertiary structures, then the secondary structures. Primary structure is maintained by covalent bonds and is the last to break down. Disruptions in tertiary and quaternary structures are often reversible. Disruptions in primary or secondary structures are generally irreversible.
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 4547

2. Dietary guidelines encourage people to stay away from saturated fats. What is meant by the term saturated fat? Why is this type of fat of more concern than unsaturated fats in the diet? What is the structural difference between saturated and unsaturated fats?
Answer: Saturated fats contain only single bonds and are saturated with hydrogen, which allows fat molecules to pack together densely. This characteristic is easily seen in that most saturated fats are solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fats contain double bonds that affect the shape of the molecule and are not saturated with hydrogen. This characteristic keeps them from packing together tightly, and they tend to be liquid at room temperature. Saturated fats are dangerous because of this packing ability.
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 5455

3. Complex carbohydrates should be a mainstay of ones diet. What properties of carbohydrates make them excellent food sources?
Answer: Complex carbohydrates are easily broken down into glucose monomers, which provide nearly all cellular energy. By storing glucose monomers in large carbohydrates, the osmotic strain on any given cell is reduced without sacrificing availability of energy.
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 5253

4. Discuss how a proteins three-dimensional structure makes it perfect for acting as a carrier and receptor molecule. In what ways are proteins uniquely suited for this function compared to other macromolecules?
Answer: The three-dimensional nature of proteins allows them to form binding sites. These binding sites are uniquely shaped to interact with other molecules.
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 48

5. How do the different chemical properties of amino acid R groups contribute to the final three-dimensional shape of the molecule?
Answer: The size of the R group, the charge of the R group, and any special binding properties all contribute to the final orientation of a protein molecule.
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 4344

6. Suppose that you have isolated a protein with the following amino acid sequence: RSCFLA. Refer to the diagrams in Table 3.1 of the textbook, and draw this protein. In your drawing, label the N terminus and the C terminus and show all peptide linkages. How many water molecules are generated in the synthesis of this protein?
Answer: Five water molecules are generated.

Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 43

7. Consider the following triglycerides (A and B).

a. In B, circle the remnant of the glycerol portion of the triglyceride.
b. Which triglyceride (A or B) is probably a solid at room temperature? Explain your answer.
c. Which triglyceride (A or B) is probably derived from a plant? Explain your answer.
d. How many water molecules result from the formation of triglyceride B from glycerol and three fatty acids?
Answer:
a.

b. Triglyceride A is probably solid at room temperature. Its fatty acid chains are saturated (no double bonds) and relatively long; both characteristics of solid, animal-derived triglycerides.
c. Triglyceride B is probably derived from a plant. Its fatty acid chains are unsaturated (double bonds) and relatively short; both characteristics of liquid, plant-derived triglycerides.
d. Three water molecules will result. One water molecule results for each of the three fatty acids added to glycerol by a condensation reaction.
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 55

TEXTBOOK SELF-QUIZ

1. The most abundant molecule in the cell is
a. a carbohydrate.
b. a lipid.
c. a nucleic acid.
d. a protein.
e. water.
Answer: e

2. All lipids are
a. triglycerides.
b. polar.
c. hydrophilic.
d. polymers of fatty acids.
e. more soluble in nonpolar solvents than in water.
Answer: e

3. All carbohydrates
a. are polymers.
b. are simple sugars.
c. consist of one or more simple sugars.
d. are found in biological membranes.
e. are more soluble in nonpolar solvents than in water.
Answer: c

4. Which of the following is not a carbohydrate?
a. Glucose
b. Starch
c. Cellulose
d. Hemoglobin
e. Deoxyribose
Answer: d

5. All proteins
a. are enzymes.
b. consist of one or more polypeptide chains.
c. are amino acids.
d. have quaternary structures.
e. are more soluble in nonpolar solvents than in water.
Answer: b

6. Which of the following statements about the primary structure of a protein is not true?
a. It may be branched.
b. It is held together by covalent bonds.
c. It is unique to that protein.
d. It determines the tertiary structure of the protein.
e. It is the sequence of amino acids in the protein.
Answer: a

7. The amino acid leucine
a. is found in all proteins.
b. cannot form peptide linkages.
c. has a hydrophobic side chain.
d. has a hydrophilic side chain.
e. is identical to the amino acid lysine.
Answer: c

8. The quaternary structure of a protein
a. consists of four subunitshence the name quaternary.
b. is unrelated to the function of the protein.
c. may be either alpha or beta.
d. depends on covalent bonding among the subunits.
e. depends on the primary structures of the subunits.
Answer: e

9. The amphipathic nature of phospholipids is
a. determined by the fatty acid composition.
b. important in membrane structure.
c. polar but not nonpolar.
d. shown only if the lipid is in a nonpolar solvent.
e. important in energy storage by lipids.
Answer: b

10. Which of the following statements about condensation reactions is not true?
a. Protein synthesis results from them.
b. Polysaccharide synthesis results from them.
c. They involve covalent bonds.
d. They consume water as a reactant.
e. Different condensation reactions produce different kinds of macromolecules.
Answer: d

BIOPORTAL DIAGNOSTIC QUIZ (Personalized Study Plan Quiz)
(By Richard McCarty)

1. There are a number of functional groups in biological molecules. Which of the following statements about their presence in different classes of molecules is most accurate?
a. Hydroxyl groups are only present in carbohydrates.
b. Aldehyde groups are common in proteins.
c. Amino groups may be found in modified carbohydrates as well as in proteins.
d. Carboxyl groups are found only in small molecules.
e. Sulfhydryl groups are common in fats.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.1 What Kinds of Molecules Characterize Living Things? 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates? 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 40, 43, 53, 54
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

2. Which of the following physiological functions is not usually served by proteins?
a. Catalysis
b. Energy reserve
c. Structural support
d. Defense
e. Hormone binding
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 42
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

3. Which of the following amino acids would, when incorporated into a polypeptide chain (not at the N or C terminus), make the charge of the polypeptide more positive?
a. Alanine
b. Arginine
c. Aspartate
d. Serine
e. Cysteine
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 43
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

4. Which of the following functional groups is not found in an R group of the protein amino acids?
a. SH
b. OH
c. NH2
d. COO
e. CHO
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 43
Blooms Category: 1. Remembering

5. Where would the leucine side chain most likely be found in a protein dissolved in water?
a. In the interior of the protein in contact with nonpolar side chains
b. In the interior of the protein in contact with polar side chains
c. On the exterior of the protein
d. In the interior of the protein in contact with water
e. Either on the interior or exterior of the protein
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 4344
Blooms Category: 4. Analyzing

6. Which of the following biological molecules is/are linked by covalent bonds formed by the removal of the elements of water from the reactants (a kind of condensation reaction)?
a. Oils
b. Waxes
c. Proteins
d. Starch
e. All of the above
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins? 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates? 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 44, 52, 54
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

7. The primary structure of proteins is the _______. The primary structure contains the information necessary for the formation of secondary structure, including the _______ and the _______. Secondary structure of proteins is stabilized by the formation of _______ bonds.
a. amino acid sequence; pleated sheet; helix; disulfide
b. helix; amino acid sequence; pleated sheet; hydrophobic
c. amino acid sequence; helix; pleated sheet; hydrogen
d. amino acid sequence; helix; pleated sheet; peptide
e. pleated sheet; helix; amino acid sequence; hydrogen
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 4445
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

8. Quaternary structure of proteins refers to
a. the arrangement of the proteins atoms in three-dimensional space.
b. whether the chain is an helix or pleated sheet.
c. the number and kind of polypeptide subunits the protein has.
d. the four-fold symmetry of the protein.
e. the lipids or carbohydrates that are attached to the proteins.
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 4748
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

9. Which of the following statements related to protein structure is false?
a. Chaperones may assist in folding proteins.
b. Most of the interactions that stabilize folded proteins are covalent.
c. Helix and -sheets are common secondary structures in proteins.
d. Proper folding is essential to the function of a protein.
e. Some proteins contain more than one polypeptide chain.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 4849
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

10. Molecular chaperones
a. are small molecules
b. are made in decreased amounts after exposure of an organism to high temperatures.
c. are absent in insects.
d. can prevent harmful interactions by improperly folded proteins.
e. bind proteins irreversibly.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.2 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Proteins?
Page: 49
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

11. The building blocks of polysaccharides are _______ and the blocks are covalently linked together by _______ bonds.
a. glycerol and fatty acids; ester
b. amino acids; peptide
c. monosaccharides; glycosidic
d. monosaccharides; ester
e. disaccharides; glycosidic
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 52
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

12. Which of the following statements about starch is false?
a. Starch may be partially branched.
b. Starch is a polymer of glucose.
c. Starch is formed by the condensation of monomers.
d. The properties of starch are very similar to those of cellulose.
e. Starch may be digested by people.
Answer: d
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 5253
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

13. Chitin is
a. a polymer of a sugar.
b. present in the cell walls of plants.
c. a soluble molecule.
d. used as an energy reserve in fungi.
e. a polymer of a modified sugar.
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 53
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

14. The main function of cellulose is
a. to provide mechanical strength to plant cell walls.
b. as a storage compound for energy in plant cells.
c. as a storage compound for energy in animal cells.
d. as a component of biological membranes.
e. to store genetic information.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.3 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Carbohydrates?
Page: 53
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

15. Oils and fats
a. form membranes.
b. are triglycerides.
c. all contain the same fatty acids.
d. are good for you in large amounts.
e. have peptide bonds.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 54
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

16. Cholesterol is soluble in chloroform, an organic solvent, but it is not soluble in water. Based on this information, what class of biological macromolecules does cholesterol belong to?
a. Oligosaccharides
b. Carbohydrates
c. Proteins
d. Enzymes
e. Lipids
Answer: e
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 54
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

17. A fat is most closely related to which of the molecules?
a. A wax
b. A phospholipid
c. An oil
d. Cholesterol
e. A carotenoid
Answer: c
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 54
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

18. Fatty acids are
a. carboxylic acids with long hydrocarbon tails.
b. linked to glycerol in fats by phosphodiester bonds.
c. always saturated.
d. large polymers of monosaccharides.
e. generally present in water soluble proteins.
Answer: a
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 5455
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

19. Oils melt at a lower temperature than fats because
a. oils and fats are not the same kind of molecule.
b. fats contain more saturated fatty acids than oils.
c. fats contain more unsaturated fatty acids than oils.
d. oils are made by plants.
e. fats are common in animals.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 5455

20. A phospholipid differs from a triglyceride in that phospholipids
a. are not derivatives of glycerol.
b. are amphipathic.
c. do not have both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.
d. are used to store energy for the cell.
e. do not contain fatty acids.
Answer: b
Textbook Reference: 3.4 What Are the Chemical Structures and Functions of Lipids?
Page: 5556
Blooms Category: 2. Understanding

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