Lifespan Development Lives in Context 1st Edition by Tara L. Kuther Test Bank

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Lifespan Development Lives in Context 1st Edition by Tara L. Kuther Test Bank

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Chapter 08: Test Bank
Socioemotional Development in Early Childhood

Multiple Choice

1. Eriksons third stage of psychosocial development is:
a. initiative versus guilt.
b. autonomy versus shame and doubt.
c. trust versus mistrust.
d. industry versus inferiority.
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.1
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood
Question Type: MC

2. The task of the psychosocial stage initiative versus guilt involves:
a. the development of motivation and drive to achieve.
b. the development of learning what one is good at.
c. the development of purposefulness and pride in ones accomplishments.
d. the development of independence and ability to engage in self-help skills.
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.1
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood
Question Type: MC

3. Kevins parents have set the rule that he must clean up his toys every night as part of his bedtime routine. One night, he fell asleep before he cleaned up. He woke up crying after he realized that he didnt put his toys away before bedtime. What stage is Kevin illustrating?
a. Initiative versus guilt
b. Autonomy versus shame and doubt
c. Trust versus mistrust
d. Industry versus inferiority
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.1
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood
Question Type: MC

4. When children fail to develop a sense of initiative in early childhood, they develop an overly critical conscience, resulting in:
a. the inability to get along with peers.
b. rigid moral values that cause difficulty in understanding others perspectives.
c. lower academic performance.
d. a reduction in motivation to exert the effort to master new tasks.
Ans: d
Learning Objective: 8.1
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood
Question Type: MC

5. When children demonstrate independence and act purposefully, they are primed to develop a healthy sense of:
a. perspective.
b. self-esteem.
c. direction.
d. morality.
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.1
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood
Question Type: MC

6. Which of the following is not an outcome of developing a sense of initiative?
a. Confident self-image
b. More control over their emotions
c. Social skills
d. Academic ability
Ans: d
Learning Objective: 8.1
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood
Question Type: MC

7. Abigails teacher has witnessed a change in the complexity of Abigails play. Abigail used to love to stack blocks and then push them over. Recently, Abigail has begun to build houses with the blocks instead of just a stack to knock over. She asks her teacher to keep her houses each time she builds one and not put away the blocks so she can show her father when he picks her up. According to Erikson, what is Abigail developing?
a. Initiative
b. Industry
c. Trust
d. Generativity
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.1
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood
Question Type: MC

8. A childs self-description is called a(an):
a. self-esteem.
b. self-concept.
c. identity.
d. self-understanding.
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.2
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Self-Concept
Question Type: MC

9. Jenny tells everyone that she is 4 years old and is blonde with blue eyes. Sometimes she tells people that she has a black dog and a white cat. She also tells people how high she can jump. What is this called?
a. Self-esteem
b. Identity
c. Self-concept
d. Self-understanding
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.2
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Self-Concept
Question Type: MC

10. Rick is a boy who collects toy cars. His mother donated some of his cars to his preschool. When Rick is introduced to a new child at his preschool, he immediately tells the child which cars are his at school (the ones donated from his mom) and talks about his collection of cars at home. What does this describe?
a. Selfishness
b. An inability to share
c. Self-concept
d. Pride
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.2
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Self-Concept
Question Type: MC

11. How old are children when they begin to include emotions and attitudes in their self-descriptions?
a. By 2 years of age.
b. By 5 years of age.
c. By 3.5 years of age.
d. By 6 years of age.
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.2
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Self-Concept
Question Type: MC

12. Young children tend to be overly optimistic about their skill level. Which of the following is not a reason that young children have an overoptimistic perspective on their skills?
a. Cognitive development
b. Secure attachment with caregivers
c. Easy temperament
d. Positive feedback for their task-related efforts
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.2
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Self-Concept
Question Type: MC

13. A persons general emotional evaluation of ones own worth is called:
a. self-esteem
b. self-concept.
c. self-understanding.
d. self-fulfillment.
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.2
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Self-Concept
Question Type: MC

14. Children around the age of _____ tend to describe themselves in more abstract ways, shifting from concrete descriptions of behavior to trait-like psychological constructs.
a. 4
b. 5
c. 7
d. 9
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.2
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Self-Concept
Question Type: MC

15. The concern or sorrow for another person is called:
a. sympathy.
b. empathy.
c. goodness of fit.
d. social referencing.
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.3
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Empathy and Prosocial Behavior
Question Type: MC

16. Maddie really wants to paint at the easel. She walks up to Jeffrey who is painting and takes his paint brush. What type of aggression is Maddie engaging in?
a. Focused aggression
b. Interfering aggression
c. Inhibited aggression
d. Instrumental aggression
Ans: d
Learning Objective: 8.3
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Aggression
Question Type: MC

17. When does instrumental aggression typically occur?
a. When interacting with parents
b. During play
c. When the child is tired
d. During meal times
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.3
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Aggression
Question Type: MC

18. Which theory addresses the advancement of perspective taking that allows for greater empathetic and prosocial behavior?
a. Behaviorism
b. Psychoanalytic theory
c. Theory of mind
d. Information processing theory
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.3
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Empathy and Prosocial Behavior
Question Type: MC

19. Andrews parents are very strict. They expect Andrew to obey them, and he is not allowed to question what they say or he is punished. His parents yell at him often and when he disobeys they spank him. What type of parenting style describes Andrews parents?
a. Uninvolved
b. Authoritative
c. Permissive
d. Authoritarian
Ans: d
Learning Objective: 8.4
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Authoritarian Parenting
Question Type: MC

20. Jons parents are warm and sensitive. They hug him and praise him every day. His parents also are strict in rule setting. When Jon got his first bicycle, they sat down with him and talked about safety and the rules associated with bike riding. They asked Jon what he thought would be a fair distance to ride away from the house and together came up with a route he could take. What type of parenting style describes Jons parents?
a. Uninvolved
b. Authoritative
c. Permissive
d. Authoritarian
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.4
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Authoritative Parenting
Question Type: MC

21. Parents who focus on their own needs rather than those of the child have a(an):
a. uninvolved parenting style.
b. authoritarian parenting style.
c. authoritative parenting style.
d. permissive parenting style.
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.4
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Uninvolved Parenting
Question Type: MC

22. Parents who permit their children to make their own decisions at an early age, often before they are able, engage in a(an):
a. uninvolved parenting style.
b. authoritarian parenting style.
c. authoritative parenting style.
d. permissive parenting style.
Ans: d
Learning Objective: 8.4
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Permissive Parenting
Question Type: MC

23. What characteristic do preschoolers who are raised by permissive parents tend to exhibit?
a. Anger and defiance
b. Overwhelmed by challenging tasks
c. Confidence
d. Socioemotional immaturity
Ans: d
Learning Objective: 8.4
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Permissive Parenting
Question Type: MC

24. Which parenting style results in a child displaying confidence, cooperation, self-esteem, social skills, and high academic achievement?
a. Uninvolved parenting style.
b. Authoritarian parenting style.
c. Authoritative parenting style.
d. Permissive parenting style.
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.4
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Authoritative Parenting
Question Type: MC

25. Parents who are warm, accepting, indulgent, and have few rules and expectations for their children exhibit the:
a. uninvolved parenting style.
b. authoritarian parenting style.
c. authoritative parenting style.
d. permissive parenting style.
Ans: d
Learning Objective: 8.4
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Permissive Parenting
Question Type: MC

26. Which parenting style results in a parent most likely responding to a childs question of why with the answer because I say so?
a. Uninvolved parenting style
b. Authoritarian parenting style
c. Authoritative parenting style
d. Permissive parenting style
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.4
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Authoritarian Parenting
Question Type: MC

27. Parents who emphasize behavioral control and obedience over warmth engage in the:
a. uninvolved parenting style.
b. authoritarian parenting style.
c. authoritative parenting style.
d. permissive parenting style.
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.4
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Authoritarian Parenting
Question Type: MC

28. The methods a parent uses to teach and socialize children toward acceptable behavior is called:
a. guided direction.
b. social referencing.
c. discipline.
d. pragmatics.
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.5
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Discipline
Question Type: MC

29. According to the experts, how do children learn best?
a. When they are punished for misbehavior.
b. When they are reinforced for good behavior.
c. When they see others being punished for misbehavior.
d. When they are allowed to make decisions on their own.
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.5
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Discipline
Question Type: MC

30. Removing a child from the situation for a short period of time is called:
a. time out.
b. isolation.
c. distraction.
d. redirection.
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.5
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Discipline
Question Type: MC

31. MacKenzie is a 2-year-old who gets along well with her peers. When she saw another child upset because he didnt have a cookie, she gave him her cookie. Her mother gave her a hug and told her how proud she was of her for sharing her cookie. MacKenzie experienced a form of:
a. redirection.
b. reinforcement.
c. punishment.
d. distraction.
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.5
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Discipline
Question Type: MC

32. Which of the following child behaviors is not associated with corporal punishment?
a. Helplessness
b. Hyperactivity
c. Passivity
d. Fear of the parent
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.5
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Physical Punishment
Question Type: MC

33. Michelle is a parent of a 2-year-old boy. At dinnertime, she always gives him choices such as would you like broccoli or carrots. She tries to help him become aware of the consequences of his actions. When he pulls his cats tail, she always talks to him about gentle touches and how pulling the cats tail hurts and will make the cat run away from him. What type of discipline does Michelle use?
a. Corporal punishment
b. Redirection
c. Inductive discipline
d. Reinforcement
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.5
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Inductive Disciplinary Methods
Question Type: MC

34. Which disciplinary method is most likely going to result in the parent modeling effective conflict resolution for their child?
a. Corporal punishment
b. Redirection
c. Inductive discipline
d. Reinforcement
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.5
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Inductive Disciplinary Methods
Question Type: MC

35. Which discipline technique is most likely to result in a child showing higher rates of emotional and social problems than other children?
a. Corporal punishment
b. Redirection
c. Inductive discipline
d. Reinforcement
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.5
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Physical Punishment
Question Type: MC

36. Who is most likely to be a perpetrator of child maltreatment?
a. Biological parents
b. Boyfriend or girlfriend of a childs parent
c. Babysitter
d. Relatives other than parents
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.6
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Child Maltreatment
Question Type: MC

37. What age of child is most likely to die from child maltreatment?
a. Over age 7
b. 57 years of age
c. 35 years of age
d. Under age 3
Ans: d
Learning Objective: 8.6
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Child Maltreatment
Question Type: MC

38. Which of the following risk factors for child maltreatment falls under the societal level?
a. Legal definitions of violence and abuse
b. Inadequate housing
c. The availability of social support
d. Low family income
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.6
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment
Question Type: MC

39. Vicky is a parent who does not know a lot about child development. She expects her child to be able to do more than she is developmentally capable of. Vicky has low self-esteem, poor coping skills, and is unhappy most of the time. She yells at her children almost every day. What are Vickys children at risk for?
a. Schizophrenia
b. Unrealistic belief in their abilities
c. Child maltreatment
d. Dyslexia
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.6
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment
Question Type: MC

40. Which of the following is not considered to be a mandated reporter of child maltreatment?
a. Teachers
b. The everyday citizen who witnesses abuse
c. Law enforcement officers
d. Health care workers
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.6
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment
Question Type: MC

41. Margaret is a kindergarten teacher. She has a student who behaves in a very passive manner. The student is overly compliant, misses class often, and has difficulty concentrating. The student is very hesitant to engage with peers and watches everything that goes on as if he is on alert. What should Margaret do?
a. Margaret should report the students behavior to the local child welfare agency because the child is showing signs of child maltreatment.
b. Margaret should not say anything because the child might become more withdrawn and nervous.
c. Margaret should report her concerns regarding the student to her principal.
d. Margaret should call the students parents and report her concerns.
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.6
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment
Question Type: MC

42. Excluding someone from social activities, withdrawing friendship, spreading rumors, or humiliating the person is known as _____ and is more common in _____.
a. overt aggression; boys
b. relational aggression; boys
c. overt aggression; girls
d. relational aggression; girls
Ans: d
Learning Objective: 8.7
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Gender Differences
Question Type: MC

43. Activities, attitudes, skills, and characteristics that are considered appropriate for males or females are:
a. gender stereotypes.
b. gender roles.
c. gender typing.
d. gender beliefs.
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.7
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Gender Differences
Question Type: MC

44. Children as young as _____ will consistently choose same-sex playmates as well as toys and activities associated with their sex.
a. 1 year of age
b. 2 years of age
c. 6 months of age
d. 3 years of age
Ans: d
Learning Objective: 8.7
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Gender Differences
Question Type: MC

45. Which of the following is an example of gender typing?
a. Jessica says that girls are smart and boys are stupid.
b. Andrea says that when she grows up she is going to take care of babies.
c. Connor says that when he gets married his wife is going to stay at home and clean.
d. Andrew thinks all boys are strong.
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.7
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Gender Differences
Question Type: MC

46. Which of the following is an example of a gender stereotype?
a. Danny tells his mom that she cant lift the box because she is weak, but his dad can because he is strong.
b. Jack only plays with boys on the playground.
c. Olivia likes to play with boys and girls when she plays kickball.
d. Hannah always chooses to play with dolls and doesnt like to play with cars.
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.7
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Gender Differences
Question Type: MC

47. Which area shows the largest gender difference between boys and girls?
a. Academic ability
b. Athletic ability
c. Aggression
d. Problem solving
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.7
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Gender Differences
Question Type: MC

48. Which area is a skill that boys are better at than girls?
a. Mathematical computation tasks
b. Spatial tasks
c. Fine motor skills
d. Verbal tasks
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.7
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Gender Differences
Question Type: MC

49. The view that males have adapted to become more aggressive and competitive because these traits were advantageous in securing a mate and having babies is consistent with a _____ explanation of gender differences.
a. cognitive-developmental explanation.
b. contextual explanation.
c. biological explanation.
d. psychoanalytic explanation.
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.8
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Biological Explanations
Question Type: MC

50. A childs understanding that gender does not change, he or she will always be the same regardless of appearance, activities, or attitudes, is called:
a. gender stability.
b. gender constancy.
c. gender schema.
d. gender difference.
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.8
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Cognitive-Developmental Explanations
Question Type: MC

51. Lauren (a girl) told her grandma that she is a boy because she likes to wear boy shirts and wants to be a football player. Lauren does not yet understand:
a. gender stability.
b. gender constancy.
c. gender schema.
d. gender difference.
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.8
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Cognitive-Developmental Explanations
Question Type: MC

52. Alex says that he is a boy but when he grows up he is going to be a girl. Alex does not yet understand:
a. gender stability.
b. gender constancy.
c. gender schema.
d. gender difference.
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.8
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Cognitive-Developmental Explanations
Question Type: MC

53. The cognitive-developmental explanation of gender role development that emphasizes information processing and environmental influences is called:
a. gender preference theory.
b. theory of mind.
c. gender schema theory.
d. information processing theory.
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.8
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Cognitive-Developmental Explanations
Question Type: MC

54. The ability of infants as young as 3 to 4 months of age to distinguish between male and female faces as shown by habituation and preferential looking studies reflects which explanation of gender role development?
a. Cognitive-developmental explanation
b. Contextual explanation
c. Biological explanation
d. Psychoanalytic explanation
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.8
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Cognitive-Developmental Explanations
Question Type: MC

55. Jeffrey tells other children to get out of his yard in a mean voice. His friends cheer him on and praise him for being tough. When his sister asks him to stop being mean, he ignores her. Jeffreys behavior is consistent with which explanation of gender role development?
a. Cognitive-developmental explanation
b. Contextual explanation
c. Biological explanation
d. Psychoanalytic explanation
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.8
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Peers
Question Type: MC

56. Which theoretical perspective is consistent with a contextual explanation of gender role development?
a. Social learning theory
b. Psychoanalytic theory
c. Ethological theory
d. Theory of mind
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.8
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Contextual Explanations
Question Type: MC

57. Rough-and-tumble play includes all of the following except:
a. self-control.
b. fine motor control.
c. emotional regulation.
d. social skills.
Ans: b
Learning Objective: 8.9
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Play and Childrens Development
Question Type: MC

58. Rough-and-tumble play peaks at the age of:
a. 24 years of age.
b. 46 years of age.
c. 68 years of age.
d. 810 years of age.
Ans: d
Learning Objective: 8.9
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Play and Childrens Development
Question Type: MC

59. Amanda is sitting next to Ben in the block area. They are both building their own tower. They are not talking to one another and they are not sharing blocks. Amanda and Ben are engaging in:
a. parallel play.
b. associative play.
c. cooperative play.
d. solitary play.
Ans: a
Learning Objective: 8.9
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Types of Play
Question Type: MC

60. Natalie and Greta are pretending to be superheroes. They are on the playground finding victims to save (which are really just their peers that they are pretending to save). They are able to get five other children to join along. Natalie, Greta, and their peers are engaging in:
a. parallel play.
b. associative play.
c. cooperative play.
d. solitary play.
Ans: c
Learning Objective: 8.9
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Types of Play
Question Type: MC

True/False

1. If children do not develop a sense of initiative in early childhood, Erikson says they will instead develop guilt.
Ans: True
Learning Objective: 8.1
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood
Question Type: TF

2. Taking on adult roles through play is an activity primarily seen in the United States and not typically observed in other societies.
Ans: False
Learning Objective: 8.1
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood
Question Type: TF

3. Three-year-olds are able to accurately assess their abilities when describing themselves.
Ans: False
Learning Objective: 8.2
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Self-Concept
Question Type: TF

4. Childrens conceptions of themselves are described in great detail in all cultures.
Ans: False
Learning Objective: 8.2
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Self-Concept
Question Type: TF

5. Young children maintain their positive views about themselves because they do not compare their performance with that of other children.
Ans: True
Learning Objective: 8.2
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Self-Concept
Question Type: TF

6. Empathy is the capacity to understand another persons emotion.
Ans: True
Learning Objective: 8.3
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Empathy and Prosocial Behavior
Question Type: TF

7. Most childrens levels of aggression increase from 24 months of age to third grade.
Ans: False
Learning Objective: 8.3
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Aggression
Question Type: TF

8. The most common form of aggression seen in early childhood is instrumental aggression.
Ans: True
Learning Objective: 8.3
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Aggression
Question Type: TF

9. Preschoolers who view high amounts of violence on television tend to show higher levels of aggression and poorer school achievement in adolescence.
Ans: True
Learning Objective: 8.3
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Box 8.1: Lives in Context: Television and Childrens Development
Question Type: TF

10. The most positive developmental outcomes are associated with the authoritarian parenting style.
Ans: False
Learning Objective: 8.4
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Authoritative Parenting
Question Type: TF

11. Spanking is against the law in some countries.
Ans: True
Learning Objective: 8.5
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Physical Punishment
Question Type: TF

12. If a parent uses physical punishment, the possible negative effects on the child can be reduced if the parent also displays warmth to the child on other occasions.
Ans: False
Learning Objective: 8.5
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Physical Punishment
Question Type: MC

13. The effects of child maltreatment are dependent on culture.
Ans: False
Learning Objective: 8.6
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Child Maltreatment
Question Type: TF

14. Children who are born premature are not at greater risk for child maltreatment.
Ans: False
Learning Objective: 8.6
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Risk Factors for Child Maltreatment
Question Type: TF

15. Boys and girls are more alike than they are different.
Ans: True
Learning Objective: 8.7
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Gender Differences
Question Type: TF

16. As women have entered the workforce and men have taken a more active role in the home, gender roles have become more flexible in Western societies.
Ans: True
Learning Objective: 8.7
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Gender Differences
Question Type: TF

17. Mothers tend to show more discomfort with sex-atypical behavior in boys than fathers do.
Ans: False
Learning Objective: 8.8
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Parents
Question Type: MC

18. Girls engage in more sociodramatic play than boys.
Ans: True
Learning Objective: 8.9
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Play and Childrens Development
Question Type: TF

19. Children in collectivist societies tend to play games that emphasize cooperation.
Ans: True
Learning Objective: 8.9
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Play and Childrens Development
Question Type: TF

20. Children from collectivist societies are more likely to play competitive games such as dodgeball, follow the leader, and hide and seek.
Ans: False
Learning Objective: 8.9
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Play and Childrens Development
Question Type: TF

Short Answer

1. According to Erikson, children in the third psychosocial stage of initiative versus guilt learn about themselves and their social world through:
Ans: play.
Learning Objective: 8.1
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood
Question Type: SA

2. Young children maintain their positive views about themselves because they do not yet engage in:
Ans: social comparison.
Learning Objective: 8.2
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Self-Concept
Question Type: SA

3. Sharing a toy, giving another child a hug when he or she is crying, or asking a new child if he or she would like to play are all examples of:
Ans: prosocial behavior.
Learning Objective: 8.3
Cognitive Domain: Application
Answer Location: Empathy and Prosocial Behavior
Question Type: SA

4. Children from _____ cultures in which childrens relationships with others are stressed, people live in extended families, and work is shared tend to promote prosocial values and behavior more than other types of cultures.
Ans: collectivist
Learning Objective: 8.3
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Empathy and Prosocial Behavior
Question Type: SA

5. Harsh punishment is a common characteristic of the _____ parenting style.
Ans: authoritarian
Learning Objective: 8.5
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Physical Punishment
Question Type: MC

6. The finding that there are more male characters than female characters in books is an example of how books can influence:
Ans: gender typing.
Learning Objective: 8.8
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Media
Question Type: SA

7. When children play alongside each other but exchange toys and talk about each others activities, they are engaging in what form of play?
Ans: Associative play; associative
Learning Objective: 8.9
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Types of Play
Question Type: SA

8. The most advanced form of play is:
Ans: cooperative play; cooperative
Learning Objective: 8.9
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Types of Play
Question Type: SA

9. Which type of motor skills are exercised through rough-and-tumble play?
Ans: Gross motor; gross motor skills; large motor; large motor skills
Learning Objective: 8.9
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Play and Childrens Development
Question Type: SA

10. When children play alongside each other but do not interact, they are engaging in what type of play?
Ans: Parallel play; Parallel
Learning Objective: 8.9
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge
Answer Location: Types of Play
Question Type: SA

Essay

1. In Eriksons third stage of psychosocial development, what benefits does play have on childrens development?
Ans: During play, young children learn about themselves and their social world. They can experiment and practice new skills in a safe context free of criticism. They learn to work cooperatively with other children to achieve common goals. Children also practice taking on adult roles through play: mother, father, doctor, teacher, and police officer. Through play, children also learn how to manage their emotions and develop self-regulation skills.
Learning Objective: 8.1
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension
Answer Location: Psychosocial Development in Early Childhood
Question Type: ESS

2. What is the developmental progression of prosocial behavior from the age of 18 months through 5 years of age?
Ans: Toddlers at the age of 18 months demonstrate prosocial behavior by helping adults instrumentally. They will help adults reach a simple action-based goal such as getting something for them. Between 18 and 24 months of age, toddlers show an increase in prosocial responses to others emotional and physical distress and respond with expressions of concern and comfort. When children reach 3.5 years of age, they show more complex forms of instrumental assistance, such as bringing a needed object to an adult without the adult asking for it. The children have the ability to select an object appropriate to the adults need without direction. Between 3 and 5 years of age, young children show selectivity in prosocial behavior. They share more with children and adults, and closer to the age of 5 will share with peers they dislike. Prosocial behavior increases throughout early childhood and reflects a more advanced understanding of others perspectives and goals.
Learning Objective: 8.3
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Empathy and Prosocial Behavior
Question Type: ESS

3. What is the difference between authoritarian and authoritative parenting?
Ans: Authoritarian parenting emphasizes behavioral control and obedience over warmth. On the other hand, authoritative parents are warm and sensitive to childrens needs but also are firm in their expectations that children conform to appropriate standards of behavior. Children who have authoritarian parents are expected to conform to parental standards without question. Violations are accompanied by forceful and often arbitrary punishment. Children with authoritative parents explain and encourage discussion about the rules they set so that children understand their purpose and what is expected of them. Authoritarian parents might yell, threaten, or spank their children. In an authoritative household, when a rule is violated parents explain what the child did wrong and impose limited, developmentally appropriate punishments that are closely connected to the misdeed. Authoritarian parents tend to not accept childrens involvement in decisions and do not grant much autonomy. On the other hand, authoritative parents value and foster childrens individuality. They encourage their children to have their own interests, opinions, and decisions, but, ultimately, they control the childs behavior.
Learning Objective: 8.4
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Authoritarian Parenting and Authoritative Parenting
Question Type: ESS

4. What is the difference between physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect in terms of the actual abuse, incidence rates, and the child outcomes related to child maltreatment overall?
Ans: Physical abuse refers to any intentional physical injury to the child and can include striking, kicking, burning, or biting the child as well as any action that results in physical impairment of the child. Each year about 18% of cases entail physical abuse. Sexual abuse is more common among older children and refers to inappropriate touching, comments, intercourse, and other forms of sexual activity and tends to constitute 10% of cases. Neglect is defined in terms of deprivation of adequate food, clothing, shelter, or medical care. Child neglect constitutes over three quarters of cases of child maltreatment. Physical abuse can impair brain development and functioning through physical damage and can alter the course of brain development, increasing the childs risk for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, and learning and memory difficulties. The emotional effects of child maltreatment are serious and long lasting. Infants and toddlers who are abused fail to develop secure attachments to their caregivers, have poor coping skills, low self-esteem, and difficulty regulating their emotions and impulses. They show more negative affect, such as anger and frustration, and less positive affect than other children. They are at risk for a range of psychological disorders, including anxiety, eating, dissociative, and depressive disorder. Child maltreatment also has negative implications for cognitive development. Children who have experienced abuse have difficulty making and maintaining friendships and are at greater risk of being bullies or victims of bullies, as they find it difficult to integrate peer groups and often remain isolated.
Learning Objective: 8.6
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Effects of Child Maltreatment
Question Type: ESS

5. What are the benefits of sociodramatic play?
Ans: Children learn from each other and from enacting roles. They learn how to explain their ideas; to regulate emotions as they pretend to be sad, angry, or afraid; and to develop a sense of self-concept as they differentiate themselves from the roles they play. Social interactions in sociodramatic play are an important context for learning as children model higher-level thinking and interaction skills, scaffolding less-skilled peers and helping them to reach their potential. Sociodramatic play helps children explore social rules and conventions, promotes language skills, and is associated with social competence.
Learning Objective: 8.9
Cognitive Domain: Analysis
Answer Location: Play and Childrens Development
Question Type: ESS

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