Making Sense of the Social World Methods of Investigation 5th Edition by Daniel F. Chambliss Russell K. Schutt Test Bank

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Making Sense of the Social World Methods of Investigation 5th Edition by Daniel F. Chambliss Russell K. Schutt Test Bank

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Test Bank
Chapter 4: Conceptualization and Measurement

1. Concepts have meanings that are understood well by almost all members of a population.
A) True
*B) False
Answer Location: What Do We Have in Mind?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

2. Concepts that do not vary are known as constants.
*A) True
B) False
Answer Location: What Do We Have in Mind?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

3. Nominal and ordinal level closed-ended questions must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive.
*A) True
B) False
Answer Location: How Much Information Do We Really Have?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

4. Operationalization is the process of defining what exactly a researcher means by a key concept.
A) True
*B) False
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

5. Age in years is a good example of a nominal level of measurement.
A) True
*B) False
Answer Location: How Much Information Do We Really Have?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

6. Whether the SAT can accurately predict college GPA is a question of its concurrent validity.
A) True
*B) False
Answer Location: Did We Measure What We Wanted to Measure?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

7. An open-ended question is designed with explicit response choices.
A) True
*B) False
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

8. Reliability is a prerequisite for measurement validity.
*A) True
B) False
Answer Location: Did We Measure What We Wanted to Measure?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

9. A scale is an index in which different items are given different weights.
*A) True
B) False
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

10. Interitem reliability should occur when using multiple indicators of a single concept.
*A) True
B) False
Answer Location: Did We Measure What We Wanted to Measure?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

11. The ordinal level of measurement has the highest mathematical precision.
A) True
*B) False
Answer Location: How Much Information Do We Really Have?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

12. Textual analysis is a research method for systematically analyzing and making inferences from text.
A) True
*B) False
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

13. Codes can be created by using key words from the text that is being analyzed.
*A) True
B) False
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

14. Samples of individuals who use social media such as Facebook are representative of the whole population.
A) True
*B) False
Answer Location: What Do We Have In Mind?
Question Type: TF
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

Use the following directions to answer questions 1618:

In each set, match a concept from Group A to a definition or example from Group B.

15. Measurement Procedures

Group A
1. Available data
2. Constructing questions
3. Direct observations
4. Content analysis
5. Triangulation

Group B
a. Systematically analyzing and making inferences from text
b. Using more than one procedure to measure the same variable
c. Using the General Social Survey to test hypotheses
d. Writing a survey or conducting interviews
e. Riding in police cars to determine policecitizen interactions
f. Applying an experimental stimulus to one group and no stimulus to another

Answers:
1c
2d
3e
4a
5b

Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

16. Levels of Measurement
Note that levels of measurement may be used more than once.
Group A
1. An index of political participation with a range from 5 to 45
2. Age, defined as child, young adult, adult, and senior
3. Gender: male or female
4. Number of siblings
5. Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit
6. Score on exam
7. Military rank
8. Citizenship: U.S. citizen or not U.S. citizen

Group B
a. Nominal
b. Ordinal
c. Interval
d. Ratio

Answers:
1c
2b
3a
4d
5c
6d
7b
8a

Answer Location: How Much Information Do We Really Have?
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

17. Measurement Validity

Group A
1. Face validity
2. Criterion validity
3. Construct validity

Group B
a. A measure obviously pertains to the meaning of the concept being measured more than to other concepts.
b. A measure is validated by relating to other measures specified by a theory.
c. The results of one measure match those obtained with a more direct or an already validated measure of the same phenomena.

Answers:
1a
2c
3b

18. Age, gender, authoritarianism, depression, and safety are all examples of:
A) Indicators
*B) Concepts
C) Constants
D) Indexes
E) Scales

Answer Location: Did We Measure What We Wanted to Measure?
Cognitive Domain: Knowledge

19. Scott defines minority owned in his study of businesses in Northeastern City as being those businesses that are currently owned by women or African Americans. What has he done?
A) Made an ecological fallacy
B) Made a reductionism fallacy
*C) Conceptualization
D) Operationalization
E) Triangulation
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Application

20. The General Social Survey only asked currently married people about their marital happiness. Thus, in any study of marital happiness using GSS data, what must be a constant?
A) The independent variable
B) The dependent variable
C) The direction of association
*D) Marital status
E) All control variables
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Application

21. What is wrong with the response categories for the following question: What is your class status: freshman, sophomore, junior, or senior?
A) Not mutually exclusive
*B) Not exhaustive
C) Not a numerical level of measurement
D) Not reliable
E) Both A and B
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Application

22. What is wrong with the response categories for the following question: How often to you attend live music concerts: never, 12 times per week, 25 times per week, or 5 or more times per week?
A) Not mutually exclusive
B) Not exhaustive
C) Not a numerical level of measurement
D) Not reliable
*E) Both A and B
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

23. Open-ended questions are used most commonly by which type of researcher?
A) Researchers who study diverse people
*B) Researchers who study small numbers of people
C) Researchers who use quantitative measures
D) Researchers who do descriptive analysis
E) Researchers who want a representative sample
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

24. Which of the following is a synonym for the social scientific meaning of the work operation?
*A) Measurement
B) Mechanism
C) Context
D) Process analysis
E) Variable
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

25. Construct validity measures how well something is measured in comparison with:
A) A population
B) A target population
C) A measure taken later in time
*D) Dimensions of a theoretical concept
E) Dimensions of reliability
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

26. Interobserver reliability occurs when different observers:
*A) Measure the same phenomena in the same way
B) Agree on a definition of measurement
C) Administer an instrument
D) Contribute to the conceptualization process
E) Measure some phenomena concurrently
Answer Location: Did We Measure What We Wanted to Measure?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

27. When conducting a survey, researchers may often create two versions of the questionnaire. They may vary the order of the questions or slight wording of the questions. They then divide the sample into two equal subsamples and administer each version. When surveys are collected, the answers on the two different questionnaires are compared to determine:
A) Test-retest reliability
B) Criterion validity
C) Alternate-forms reliability
*D) Construct validity
E) Content validity
Answer Location: Did We Measure What We Wanted to Measure?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

28. When researchers measure an unchanging phenomenon at two different times, the degree to which the two measurements are related is called:
*A) Test-retest reliability
B) Criterion validity
C) Predictive validity
D) Interitem reliability
E) Alternate-forms reliability
Answer Location: Did We Measure What We Wanted to Measure?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

29. Reliability refers to which of the following?
A) That a measurement captures what it intends to measure
B) That a measurement includes all dimensions of a concept
C) That a measurement is free of error
D) That a measurement is based on empirical reality
*E) That a measure yields consistent scores
Answer Location: Did We Measure What We Wanted to Measure?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

30. Which level of measurement is the most mathematically precise?
A) Interval.
B) Nominal.
*C) Ordinal.
D) Ratio.
E) All levels of measurement are equally precise.
Answer Location: How Much Information Do We Really Have?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

31. Which of the following is an example of a variable measured at the ratio level of measurement?
*A) Income in dollars
B) An index of depression with a potential range of 10 to 100
C) A persons ethnicity
D) Military rank
E) Socioeconomic status measured as high, medium, and low
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

32. Which of the following is an example of a variable measured at the interval level of measurement?
A) Age in years.
B) Income in dollars.
*C) Temperature in degrees Fahrenheit.
D) Acres of land planted in food crops.
E) None of the above are measured at the interval level.
Answer Location: How Much Information Do We Really Have?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

33. Which of the following is an example of a variable measured at the ordinal level of measurement?
A) Military rank.
B) Birth order of siblings.
C) Age measured as child, teen, adult, and elderly.
D) Order in which subjects complete a given task.
*E) All of the above are measured at the ordinal level.
Answer Location: How Much Information Do We Really Have?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

34. Which of the following is an example of a variable measured at the nominal level of measurement?
*A) Location in which respondent was born
B) Religiosity measured as not religious, somewhat religious, and very religious
C) Time in seconds in which a subject completes a given task
D) Number of respondents first cousins
E) Level of education in years completed
Answer Location: How Much Information Do We Really Have?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

35. Using more than one measure of the same variable, such as using a survey and direct observation, is known as:
A) Validation
B) Reliability
C) Conceptualization
*D) Triangulation
E) Operationalization
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

36. Which of the following is true about indexes but false about scales?
A) Multiple items are combined to determine scores.
*B) Items are given equal weight when summing or averaging.
C) Items can be written in a matrix format.
D) They are designs to measure concepts.
E) Previous developed items promote comparability between studies.
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

37. Counting the number of articles devoted to womens anxiety in womens magazines in 1930, 1950, 1970, and 1990 is an example of:
A) A survey
B) An obtrusive measure
C) An unobtrusive measure
*D) A content analysis
E) Using available data
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

38. Which of the following is not a type of unobtrusive measure?
A) Archives
B) Contrived observation
*C) Indexes
D) Physical trace evidence
E) Simple observations
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

39. Questions that allow a respondent to select from a predetermined set of responses are called:
A) Closed-ended questions
B) Fixed-choice questions
C) Open-ended questions
*D) Both A and B
E) Both A and C
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

40. John wants to analyze how female characters are portrayed in various cartoon shows. What type of analysis would John most likely employ?
*A) Content analysis
B) Deductive analysis
C) Inductive analysis
D) Contextual analysis
E) Cartoon analysis
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

41. Which of the following would not be analyzed using content analysis?
A) Romance novels
*B) Interview transcripts
C) Science fiction films
D) Womens magazines
E) Newspaper articles
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

42. Which of the following is considered a form of new social media?
A) Facebook
B) MySpace
C) Twitter
D) Reddit
*E) All of the above
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: MC
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

43. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using single questions rather than multidimensional index scores to measure concepts?
Answer: Creating an index is not just a matter of writing a few questions that seem to focus on a concept. Questions that seem to you to measure a common concept might seem to respondents to concern several different issues. The only way to know that a given set of questions does, in fact, form an index is to administer the questions to people like those you plan to study. If a common concept is being measured, then peoples responses to the different questions should display some consistency. Because of the popularity of survey research, indexes already have been developed to measure many concepts, and some of these indexes have proved to be reliable in a range of studies. Usually it is much better to use such an index than it is to try to form a new one. Use of a preexisting index both simplifies the work of designing a study and facilitates the comparison of findings from other studies.
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: Essay
Cognitive Domain: Comprehension

44. Develop a conceptualized definition of terrorism, making certain to consider the potential dimensions of the concept (and therefore construct validity). Write an index that measures this concept with closed ended questions.
Answer: Concept: A mental image that summarizes a set of similar observations, feelings, or ideas. Index: A composite measure based on summing, averaging, or otherwise combining the responses to multiple questions that are intended to measure the same concept.
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: Short Answer
Cognitive Domain: Application

45. What is triangulation? Why is triangulated measurement superior to single forms of measurement?
Answer: TriangulationThe use of two or more different measures of the same variable. It can strengthen measurement considerably. When we achieve similar results with different measures of the same variable, particularly when they are based on such different methods as survey questions and field-based observations, we can be more confident of the validity of each measure.
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: Short Answer
Cognitive Domain: Application

46. What is the difference between conceptualization and operationalization? After defining these terms, demonstrate this difference by conceptualizing and operationalizing one of the following concepts: happiness, prejudice, deviance, environmentalism, justice, poverty. Discuss potential measurement procedures for the concept.
Answer: Conceptualization is the process of matching up terms (family, sex, happiness, or power) to clarified definitions for them. It is figuring out what are the social things you will be talking about. It is especially important to define clearly concepts that are abstract or unfamiliar. When we refer to concepts like social capital, whiteness, or dissonance, we cannot count on others knowing exactly what we mean. Even experts may disagree about the meaning of frequently used concepts if they base their conceptualizations on different theories. That is OK. The point is not that there can be only one definition of a concept; rather, we have to specify clearly what we mean when we use a concept, and we should expect others to do the same. Operationalization is the process of specifying the operations that will indicate the value of cases on a variable. Measures can be based on activities as diverse as asking people questions, reading judicial opinions, observing social interactions, coding words in books, checking census data tapes, enumerating the contents of trash receptacles, or drawing urine and blood samples. Experimental researchers may operationalize a concept by manipulating its value; for example, to operationalize the concept of exposure to antidrinking messages, some subjects may listen to a talk about binge drinking while others do not. We will focus here on the operations of using published data, asking questions, observing behavior, and using unobtrusive means of measuring peoples behavior and attitudes.
Answer Location: What Do We Have in Mind?
Question Type: Essay
Cognitive Domain: Application

47. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using existing data sources for research? What is the General Social Survey (GSS), and why is it so useful for social research?
Answer: Data can be collected in a wide variety of ways; indeed, much of this book describes different technologies for data collection. But some data are already gathered and ready for analysis. Government reports, for instance, are rich, accessible sources of social science data. Organizations ranging from nonprofit service groups to private businesses also compile a wealth of figures that may be available to some social scientists. Data from many social science surveys are archived and made available for researchers who were not involved in the original survey project.
Before we assume that available data will be useful, we must consider how appropriate they are for our concepts of interest, whether other measures would work better, or whether our concepts can be measured at all with these data. For example, many organizations informally (and sometimes formally) use turnoverthat is, how many employees quit each yearas a measure of employee morale (or satisfaction). If turnover is high (or retention rates are low), then morale must be bad and needs to be raised. But obviously, factors other than morale affect whether people quit their jobs. When a single chicken-processing plant is the only employer in a small town, other jobs are hard to find, and people live on low wages, then turnover may be very low even among miserable workers. In the dot-com companies of the late 1990s, turnover was high despite amazingly good conditions, salary, and morale because the industry was so hungry for good workers that companies competed ferociously to attract them. Maybe the concepts morale and satisfaction, then, cannot be measured adequately by the most easily available data (that is, turnover rates). We also cannot assume that available data are accurate, even when they seem to measure the concept. Official counts of homeless persons have been notoriously unreliable because of the difficulty of locating homeless persons on the streets, and government agencies have at times resorted to guesstimates by service providers. Even available data for such seemingly straightforward measures as counts of organizations can contain a surprising amount of error. For example, a 1990 national church directory reported 128 churches in a Midwest county; an intensive search in that county in 1992 located 172 churches (Hadaway, Marler, & Chaves 1993:744).Still, when legal standards, enforcement practices, and measurement procedures have been taken into account, comparisons among communities become more credible. However, such adjustments may be less necessary when the operationalization of a concept is seemingly unambiguous, as with the homicide rate: after all, dead is dead, right? And when a central authority imposes a common data collection standard, as with the FBIs Uniform Crime Reports, data become more comparable across communities. But even here, a careful review of measurement operations is still important because (for instance) procedures for classifying a death as a homicide can vary between jurisdictions and over time. Another rich source of already-collected data is survey data sets archived and made available to university researchers by the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (1996). One of its most popular survey data sets is the General Social Survey (GSS). The GSS is administered regularly by the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) at the University of Chicago to a sample of more than 1,500 Americans (annually until 1994; biennially since then). GSS questions vary from year to year, but an unchanging core of questions includes measures of political attitudes, occupation and income, social activities, substance abuse, and many other variables of interest to social scientists. This data set can easily be used by college students to explore a wide range of interesting topics. However, when surveys are used in this way, after the fact, researchers must carefully evaluate the survey questions. Are the available measures sufficiently close to the measures needed that they can be used to answer the new research question?
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: Essay
Cognitive Domain: Analysis

48. Construct a short survey of five questions designed to measure political attitudes. At least one question must be open ended, one must be closed-ended, and one must be an index or a scale. Discuss an alternative procedure to measure political attitudes, and how the survey would compare with this alternative procedure in terms of validity.
Answer: Closed-ended (fixed-choice) question: A survey question that provides Preformatted response choices for the respondent to circle or check; Open-ended question: A survey question to which the respondent replies in his or her own words, either by writing or by talking; Scale: A composite measure based on combining the responses to multiple questions pertaining to a common concept after these questions are differentially weighted, such that questions judged on some basis to be more important for the underlying concept contribute more to the composite score
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: Short Answer
Cognitive Domain: Analysis

49. Propose measures of job satisfaction at the nominal, ordinal, and interval or ratio levels. Discuss the relative merits of each. Suggest procedures for establishing validity and reliability of all three of your job satisfaction measures. Explain your rationale for each procedure.
Answer: Nominal level of measurementVariables whose values have no mathematical interpretation; they vary in kind or quality but not in amount. Ordinal level of measurementA measurement of a variable in which the numbers indicating a variables values specify only the order of the cases, permitting greater than and less than distinctions. Interval level of measurementA measurement of a variable in which the numbers indicating a variables values represent fixed measurement units but have no absolute, or fixed, zero point. Ratio level of measurementA measurement of a variable in which the numbers indicating the variables values represent fixed measuring units and an absolute zero point.
Answer Location: How Much Information Do We Really Have?
Question Type: Short Answer
Cognitive Domain: Analysis

50. You must develop a measure of student satisfaction with your school. Propose measurement procedures using available data, questions, and observations. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the three measurement approaches.
Answer: Data can be collected in a wide variety of ways; indeed, much of this book describes different technologies for data collection. But some data are already gathered and ready for analysis. Government reports, for instance, are rich, accessible sources of social science data. Organizations ranging from nonprofit service groups to private businesses also compile a wealth of figures that may be available to some social scientists. Data from many social science surveys are archived and made available for researchers who were not involved in the original survey project. Asking people questions is the most common, and probably most versatile, operation for measuring social variables. Do you play on a varsity team? What is your major? How often, in a week, do you go out with friends? How much time do you spend on schoolwork? Most concepts about individuals can be measured with such simple questions. In this section, we will introduce some options for writing questions, explain why single questions can sometimes be inadequate measures, and then examine the use of multiple questions to measure a concept. In principle, questions, asked perhaps as part of a survey, can be a straightforward and efficient means by which to measure individual characteristics, facts about events, level of knowledge, and opinions of any sort. In practice, survey questions can easily result in misleading or inappropriate answers. All questions proposed for a survey must be screened carefully for their adherence to basic guidelines and then tested and revised until the researcher feels some confidence that they will be clear to the intended respondents (Fowler 1995). Some variables may prove to be inappropriate for measurement with any type of question. We have to recognize that memories and perceptions of the events about which we might like to ask can be limited.
Direct observation is often the method of choice for measuring behavior in natural settings, as long as it is possible to make the requisite observations. Direct observation avoids the problems of poor recall and self-serving distortions that can occur with answers to survey questions. It also allows measurement in a context that is more natural than an interview. But observations can be distorted, too. Observers do not see or hear everything, and what they do see is filtered by their own senses and perspectives. Moreover, in some situations, the presence of an observer may cause people to act differently from the way they would otherwise (Emerson 1983). If you set up a video camera in an obvious spot on campus to monitor traffic flows, then you may well change the flowjust because people will see the camera and avoid it (or come over to make faces).
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: Essay
Cognitive Domain: Analysis

51. When are open-ended questions more appropriate than closed-ended questions? Describe scenarios where each would be appropriate for studying one of the following concepts: deviance, romance, educational quality, economic development.
Answer: Closed-ended (fixed-choice) questionA survey question that provides preformatted response choices for the respondent to circle or check. Open-ended questionA survey question to which the respondent replies in his or her own words, either by writing or by talking.
Answer Location: How Will We Know When Weve Found It?
Question Type: Short Answer
Cognitive Domain: Application

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