Managment Occupation Health And Safety 5th Edition by Kevin Kelloway Test Bank

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Managment Occupation Health And Safety 5th Edition by Kevin Kelloway Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

Managment Occupation Health And Safety 5th Edition by Kevin Kelloway Test Bank

Chapter 2-Legislative Framework

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What are the two types of WHMIS labels?
a. supplier and manufactured labels
b. supplier and workplace labels
c. workplace and manufactured labels
d. consumer and workplace labels

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p. 34

 

  1. WHMIS contains class and division hazard symbols for different types of hazards (e.g., Class B are flammable materials, which are symbolized by a circle with a flame inside). What does a circle with a skull and crossbones inside represent?
a. Class D (poisonous and infectious material)
b. Class C (oxidizing material)
c. Class E (corrosive material)
d. Class F (dangerously reactive material)

 

ANS: a

PTS: 1

REF: p. 35

 

  1. Which federal legislation sets guidelines for the presentation of information in the material safety data sheet?
a. the Hazardous Products Act
b. the Workplace Hazardous Materials Act
c. the Workers Compensation Act
d. the Hazardous Materials Act

 

ANS: a

PTS: 1

REF: p.33, 37

 

  1. The Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS) contains class and division hazard symbols for different types of hazards (e.g., Class B are Flammable Materials, which are symbolized by a circle with a flame inside). What does a circle with a large T with a dot on the end represent?
a. Class B (Flammable and Combustible Material)
b. Class C (Oxidizing Material)
c. Class D (Poisonous and Infectious Material; other toxic effects)
d. Class E (Corrosive Material)

 

ANS: c

PTS: 1

REF: p.35

 

  1. Employees who are successfully educated and trained in WHMIS should be able to answer which of the following key questions?
a. What are the hazards of the product you are using and what should you do in case of an emergency or spill?
b. What chemicals do not fall under WHMIS??
c. What chemicals can be safely mixed together
d. How to write an MSDS

 

ANS: a

PTS: 1

REF: p. 41

 

  1. Which of the following WHMIS requirements must employers follow?
a. Keep MSDSs on-site for all controlled products and make sure controlled products are properly labelled.
b. Ensure MSDSs and written safe work procedures for each controlled product are kept locked in a secure location.
c. Ensure that only employees with MSDS and WHIMIS training are hired
d. Ensure MSDS labels are attached to hazardous material containers

 

ANS: a

PTS: 1

REF: p. 37

 

  1. Under WHMIS, which of the following must an employer do?
a. train customers on controlled products
b. keep MSDSs on-site for all controlled products and ensure controlled products are properly labelled
c. send copies of all MSDSs to the government for record keeping
d. use only an ABC-type fire extinguisher to control a chemical fire.

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p. 37-38

 

  1. Occupational health and safety is legislated under a variety of mechanisms, including all of the following EXCEPT which one?
a. acts
b. regulations
c. enforcements
d. guidelines

 

ANS: c

PTS: 1

REF: p. 24

 

  1. A supervisors duties include all of the following EXCEPT which one?
a. taking every reasonable precaution to ensure the protection of workers
b. preparing and signing the OH&S policy
c. providing written instructions if applicable
d. advising workers of possible hazards

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p.29

 

  1. A workers duties include all of the following EXCEPT which one?
a. advising co-workers of possible hazards
b. properly using the safety equipment and clothes provided
c. reporting hazards, such as defective equipment to the supervisor
d. complying with the OH&S regulations

 

ANS: a

PTS: 1

REF: p.29-30

 

  1. An employee expressed her concerns to her supervisor that fumes emitting from her computer were causing her headaches. She requested the supervisors permission to stop working immediately. However, the supervisor insisted that she continue working. What did the supervisors behaviour violate?
a. the employees right to refuse unsafe work
b. the employees right to report unsafe conditions
c. the employees right to participate in health and safety programs
d. the employees right to a safe workplace

 

ANS: a

PTS: 1

REF: p. 31

 

  1. Federal and provincial legislation allows for the rights of workers including which of the following?
a. the right to know, the right to rehabilitation, and the right to refuse unsafe work
b. the right to participate, the right to rehabilitation, and the right to refuse unsafe work
c. the right to know, the right to participate, and the right to refuse unsafe work
d. the right to know, the right to be compensated for injury, and the right to refuse unsafe work

 

ANS: c

PTS: 1

REF: p. 25, 30, 31

 

  1. When can the right to refuse be exercised?
a. only when a worker has proof that he or she is endangered
b only when a worker believes that he or she is endangered
c. only when a worker is told by the certified worker that he or she is endangered
d. only when a worker believes dangerous circumstances as defined by the OH&S Act

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p.31

 

  1. Under Ontario OH&S legislation, what does the word prescribed mean?
a. something to be undertaken because of legal or employer requirement such as a rule or law
b. as issued by a doctor
c. requiring strict times on compliance
d. part of WCB laws

 

ANS: a

PTS: 1

REF: p. 27

 

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. The Hazardous Products Act defines a hazardous product and controls its use by requiring disclosure of the substance(s) and its concentration in a manufactured product.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 33

 

  1. One of the most widely understood elements of the WHMIS program is that controlled substances need labelling.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p.34

 

  1. A supplier label must be attached to the container holding a hazardous product when it is delivered to the workplace.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p.34

 

  1. The workplace label must contain a product identifier, safe-handling instructions, and the location of a material safety data sheet.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 35

 

  1. The objective of MSDSs is to identify potentially harmful ingredients in products that the worker may be handling.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p.37

 

  1. If a release of a potentially hazardous substance occurs outside the building, or if the potentially hazardous substance is released into the sewer, storm system, water, or air, it falls under the jurisdiction of the authority enforcing environmental legislation.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 42

 

  1. A corporation and its management can never be criminally prosecuted if found negligent in providing an appropriate standard of occupational health and safety in the workplace that results in an employee injury or death.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 45

 

  1. WHMIS is a safety program providing information about the use of hazardous products in the workplace.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p.33

 

  1. Suppliers must provide a WHMIS label and transport the controlled product in appropriate containers for each controlled product that they sell.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p.34

 

  1. A WHMIS label is a technical bulletin that provides detailed hazard and precautionary information for a controlled product.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p.34

 

  1. An MSDS adds to the information provided on the WHMIS label.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p.37

 

  1. Employers must educate and train workers to recognize six hazard symbols and know what they mean.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p.35

 

  1. A regulation is a federal, provincial, or territorial law that constitutes the general concepts for occupational health and safety.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 24

 

  1. Guidelines and policies are specific rules, but are not legally enforceable.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 24

 

  1. Regulations enacted under the statute or act establish the specific framework within which the employer will conduct business in order to comply with the law.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p.25

 

  1. The primary function of a joint health and safety committee is to provide a collaborative atmosphere where labour and management can work together to create a safer and healthier workplace.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p.30

 

  1. Small businesses with more than 9 and fewer than 20 regular employees must have a joint health and safety committee.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 31

 

  1. Supervisors are responsible for providing and maintaining the land and premises being used as a workplace in a manner that ensures the health and safety of anyone at or near the workplace.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p.29

 

  1. In Canada, the word ensure has little legal meaning.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p.26

 

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Describe the occupational health and safety roles, duties, and responsibilities of employers, owners, and human resource managers.

 

ANS:

It is the employers legal obligation to ensure the workplace is safe. Employers are responsible for ensuring the health and safety of all workers and any other workers at a workplace where the employers work is being carried out. This involves establishing an occupational health and safety program (described below), providing a healthy and safe working environment, and providing instruction and training to supervisors and workers. Business owners are responsible for providing and maintaining the land and premises being used as a workplace in a manner that ensures the health and safety of anyone at or near the workplace.

 

According to the BC Workers Compensation Act, an employer must meet the standard of due diligence. To meet this standard, an employer must take all reasonable care to protect the well-being of workers. An ongoing occupational health and safety program that controls specific hazards in the workplace forms the basis of due diligence. An employer that has all the occupational health and safety program elements required by the regulation in effect and working well is acting with due diligence. The minimum occupational health and safety program elements are outlined below:

 

  • Statement of aims and responsibilities
  • Inspection of premises, equipment, and work
  • Written instructions
  • Management safety committee meetings
  • Investigation of accidents/incidents
  • Maintenance of records and statistics
  • Instruction and supervision of workers

 

Refer to the WCB Occupational Health and Safety Regulations and the booklet Effective Health and Safety ProgramsThe Key to A Safe Workplace and Due Diligence http://www.worksafebc.com/publications.

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 27-29

 

  1. What is the standard of due diligence? Describe the essential elements for an effective OH&S program and why they are critical in showing due diligence.

 

ANS:

Due diligence means taking all reasonable care to protect the well-being of workers or co-workers. An occupational health and safety program that controls workplace hazards is the basis of due diligence and generally includes the following minimum elements: statement of aims and responsibilities; inspection of premises, equipment, and work; written instructions; management meetings; investigation of accidents/incidents; maintenance of records and statistics; and instruction and supervision of workers.

 

Refer to the WCB publications Effective Health and Safety ProgramsThe Key to A Safe Workplace and Due Diligence and the Summary of OH&S Requirements for Small Business http://www.worksafebc.com/publications.

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 42

 

  1. What does WHMIS stand for? List and describe the three central elements of a WHMIS program.

 

ANS:

WHMIS is the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System, a nationwide program providing information about the use of hazardous materials (controlled products) in the workplace. Labels, Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS), and worker education and training are the three communication elements of WHMIS. Labels on controlled products alert workers to potentially hazardous products, MSDSs provide workers with detailed information on the hazardous ingredients and safe handling of the product, and education provides employees with the information and practices that they need to know to work safety with controlled products.

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 33-34

 

  1. List the three main WHMIS participants and how they are involved in implementing WHMIS into the workplace.

 

ANS:

Suppliers must provide a Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS) and WHMIS label for each controlled product they sell or produce. An MSDS is a technical bulletin that provides detailed hazard and precautionary information for a controlled product. An MSDS supplements the alert information provided on the WHMIS label. Employers must keep MSDSs on site for all controlled products, ensure controlled products are properly labelled, ensure employees know the location of MSDSs and written safe work procedures for each controlled product, and ensure that employees are educated and trained so they understand the information on MSDSs and WHMIS labels. Employees must learn the information provided and follow safe work procedures.

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 34, 37, 41

 

  1. A human resource manager can assess if employees are successfully educated and trained in WHMIS by ensuring that they can answer four key questions. What are these four questions?

 

ANS:

a) What are the hazards of the product you are using?
b) How do you protect yourself?
c) What should you do in case of an emergency or spill?
d) Where do you get more information on this product?

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 33-41

 

 

PROBLEM

 

  1. What would be an HRMs planned response if she received work refusals from a few employees who felt that their workplace was unsafe? How could she balance the workers right to refuse unsafe work against staffing needs?

 

ANS:

An employee may refuse to carry out any task he or she believes is unduly hazardous to the health and safety of any person; in this case, he or she must inform the employer. The employer/HRM must immediately investigate and correct the situation without delay. The employer/HRM is required to develop and implement an exposure control plan to address the specific risks and hazards faced by workers in these work settings. Employees need to be educated and provided specific information from specialists and experts concerning health and safety issues about their workplace. They need to be shown how to prevent unsafe conditions and provided with examples of safe work practices. Objective and immediate communication channels and staff forums need to be established where employees can talk about these concerns and what they feel uncomfortable about. All fears, concerns, social issues, and discomfort, biases, and beliefs need to be dealt with until the employees feel safe. The critical issue in this situation is that the employees were afraid to enter their workplace. They believed that their workplace was unsafe, whether it was or was not safe. Unless the employer/HRM conducts a thorough investigation, educates the employees, and implements an exposure control plan in which the employees feel safe, the work refusal will continue. The organization may need to include controls that may not be necessary but make the employees feel safe. If a worker refuses to perform a task that he or she believes is unsafe, the employer can suggest another approach, but cannot discipline, reduce the workers wages, change working hours, or suspend the worker. The regulation also provides the following rights to employees: job-protected leave, no penalties for emergency leave, and payment for those not working because of quarantines (Workers Compensation Board of BC Occupational Health and Safety Regulation: Section 3.12 to 3.13).

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 31-32

 

Chapter 4-Hazard Recognition, Assessment, and Control

 

MULTIPLE CHOICE

 

  1. What is the first step in all risk assessments?
a. choosing a qualitative approach
b. the identification of hazards
c. choosing a quantitative approach
d. conducting the risk assessment

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p. 89

 

  1. Injury prevention focuses on all of the following EXCEPT which one?
a. recognizing the source of the hazard (i.e., the potential energy source)
b. eliminating the hazard
c. protecting workers from exposure to the energy source (e.g., through personal protective equipment)
d. contacting the Ministry of Labour

 

ANS: d

PTS: 1

REF: p. 80

 

  1. Which of the following is a common term used to describe an injury that has resulted from continuous and repetitive actions?
a. RSI
b. CTD
c. MSI
d. IRS

 

ANS: a

PTS: 1

REF: p. 83

 

  1. What is an example of repetitive strain disorder?
a. Raynauds syndrome
b. tinnitus
c. sprain
d. abrasive injury

 

ANS: d

PTS: 1

REF: p. 83

 

  1. What is classified as a hazard?
a. any condition or changing set of circumstances that has the potential to cause an injury
b. the likelihood that the hazard will lead to injury or the probability of harm actually occurring
c. the first unsafe act or undesired event that could start the accident sequence
d. a systematic examination of all aspects of the work undertaken to consider what could cause injury or harm

ANS:  a

PTS: 1

REF: p. 79

 

  1. The origins of RSIs would be linked to which of the following conditions?
a. force application to hinge joints
b. repetition
c. high dBA ratings
d. pinch points

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p. 83-84

 

  1. According to the text, hazard identification includes which of the following factors?
a. mechanical risk, situational, and environmental
b. risk, human, situational, and environmental
c. ergonomic, human, situational, and environmental
d. ergonomic, human, situational, and mechanical

 

ANS: c

PTS: 1

REF: p. 85-87

 

  1. Which of the following are examples of unsafe acts?
a. improper illumination
b. poor design
c. improper use of personal protective equipment
d. defective equipment

 

ANS: c

PTS: 1

REF: p. 86

 

  1. Which of the following are examples of unsafe conditions or situational factors?
a. use of defective equipment
b. poor indoor air quality
c. failure to wear personal protective equipment
d. alcohol and drug abuse

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p. 86

  1. The factors influencing the HR professionals decision in determining the type of hazard identification program include all of the following EXCEPT which one?
a. source of the request for information
b. costs associated with the program
c. nature of the hazards
d. WSIB/WCB policy communications

 

ANS: d

PTS: 1

REF: p. 87-92

 

  1. How is risk determined?
a. by likelihood of exposure
b. Probability Consequences  Exposure
c. Probability Hazard score
d. Consequence Exposure

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p. 89

 

  1. What is another term for situational factors?
a. unsafe conditions
b. unsafe acts
c. at-risk hazards
d. human factors

 

ANS: a

PTS: 1

REF: p. 86

 

  1. What does RAC stand for?
a. risk, awareness, and control
b. risk, assessment, and control
c. recognition, assessment, and control
d. recognition, assessment, and contact

 

ANS: c

PTS: 1

REF: p. 92

 

  1. What is Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)?
a. the third line of defence in occupational health and safety
b. the second line of defence in occupational health and safety
c. the first line of defence in occupational health and safety
d. items to be worn at all times

 

ANS: a

PTS: 1

REF: p. 109

 

  1. CIUB is an acronym to describe which type of injury?
a. overuse type injuries
b. overt traumatic type injuries
c. overexertion
d. awkward working position injuries

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p. 80

 

  1. Which of the following is NOT an example of an engineering control?
a. lighting
b. noise-cancelling hearing protection
c. exhaust fans
d. a better-designed screwdriver

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p. 93-96

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of process modification?
a. machine guarding
b. illumination
c. heat stress testing
d. preventative maintenance

 

ANS: d

PTS: 1

REF: p. 96-99

 

  1. According to the text, what is the definition of a kickback?
a. a way to ensure workers do not report health and safety violations
b. an action of having a work piece suddenly thrown backward into the operator
c. an example of a postcontact control
d. an example of an administrative control

 

ANS: b

PTS: 1

REF: p. 99

 

  1. What does a complete hazard control system include?
a. environmental, situation,  and human controls
b. engineering, process modifications, follow up
c. precontact, contact, and postcontact control
d. only engineering and administrative controls

 

ANS: c

PTS: 1

REF: p. 92

 

  1. Which of the following is an example of a lockout?
a. turning off a stove, and placing a sign that says Do not use
b. placing a restricted-access sign on a piece of equipment
c. turning off equipment and securing the fuse box so no one has access to it
d. isolating the electrical controls on one piece of equipment

 

ANS: c

PTS: 1

REF: p. 106

 

TRUE/FALSE

 

  1. An event is any condition or changing set of circumstances that has the potential to cause an injury.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 79

 

  1. An incident is any observable human activity, which is an unwanted event or occurrence, that might have a negative impact on the people, property, or process involved.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 79

 

  1. A hazard is any activity that may occur on a day-to-day basis as a direct or indirect result of some human or human-related undertaking.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 79

 

  1. Injury is any trauma, physical or mental, direct or indirect, acute or chronic, experienced.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 80

 

  1. Overexertion injuries typically result from coming into contact with an energy source.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 80-81

 

  1. Hazard identification and control should focus on identifying and controlling sources of energy that can result in injury as well as conditions of work that may lead to overexertion.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 92

 

  1. The most common injuries can be placed into three broad categories:  overt traumatic, overexertion, and unforeseen accidents.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 79-80

 

  1. Overexertion and poor posture are the primary cause of lower back pain.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 81

 

  1. Over a five-year period, one-third of the compensation claims in British Columbia resulted from ergonomics-related injuries.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 85

 

  1. British Columbia was the first province to pass ergonomics legislation.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 85

 

  1. The goal of an ergonomics program is to design a work system where the work methods are matched with the physical and behavioural characteristics of the worker to reduce risk.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 85

 

  1. A situational factor is when a person causes an accident by poor judgment.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 86

 

  1. A human factor generally refers to a deviation from standard job procedures that increases a workers exposure to a hazard.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 86

 

  1. Situational factors are known as unsafe conditions that exist when a company does not provide proper equipment, tools, or facilities, or when its operations are unsafe.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 86

 

  1. A walk-through survey is a systematic survey procedure undertaken by safety personnel who record their observations of unsafe practices on a sampling document.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 87

 

  1. Job specifications are the requirements necessary to perform the various functions of the job, such as weight to be lifted or education level.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 88

 

  1. Hazard analysis is an orderly, analytical technique that examines a system for the most probable hazards having the severest consequences for the purpose of establishing corrective or control mechanisms.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 89

 

  1. Once risks have been identified, the hazard of an incident, accident, or injury must be determined.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 89-90

 

  1. Risk is the probability of an injury expressed as a percentage.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 89

 

  1. Risk = Probability Consequences Exposure

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 89

 

  1. Exposure is the chance or likelihood that an event will occur.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 90

 

  1. Probability is how regularly, or the number of times, a contact is made with the event.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 89

 

  1. Consequences are the results or severity of the injury.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 91

 

  1. The Young Worker Awareness Program in Ontario is funded by the Workplace Safety and Insurance Board.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 101

 

  1. Falls do not represent a significant source of injury in the workplace.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

DREF: p. 80

 

  1. Lower back pain accounts for more than 50% of all musculoskeletal complaints.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 81

 

  1. The definition of machine guarding is protection for workers from the hazards and energies created by moving machinery.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 98

 

  1. Engineering control refers to the modification of work processes, equipment, and materials to reduce exposure to hazards.

 

ANS: T

PTS: 1

REF: p. 93

 

  1. The only factor that defines a confined space is the lack of exit or entrance.

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 106

 

  1. Risk = Probability Consequences Outcome

 

ANS: F

PTS: 1

REF: p. 89

 

 

SHORT ANSWER

 

  1. Ergonomics-related issues are becoming increasingly prominent and important. About one-third of all WCB claims for time off work are for injuries due to overexertion and repetitive motions. Define ergonomics and describe the provincial legislation relevant to RSIs/MSIs. How can an HRM recognize the signs, symptoms, and potential health effects of RSIs/MSIs? What are the factors that contribute to the risk of RSIs/MSIs, and how can a HRM identify these risk factors? What steps can an HRM take to prevent RSIs/MSIs in the workplace?

 

ANS:

Refer to the WCB publications Preventing Musculoskeletal Injury: A Guide for Employers and Joint Committees and Understanding the Risks of Musculoskeletal Injury (MSI): An Educational Guide for Workers on Sprains, Strains, and other MSIs at: http://www.worksafebc.com/publications/

 

Musculoskeletal injury (MSI) often begins with discomfort in muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, nerves, blood vessels, or related soft tissue including a sprain, strain, and inflammation that may be caused or aggravated by work. MSI usually develops when a stressful action is performed again and again. It is often a form of discomfort and reported too late for intervention. Early symptoms can progress into serious conditions such as back strain, tendonitis, and carpal tunnel syndrome, which can have long-term health effects. The risk factors commonly relate to physical demands such as repetition, force exerted (e.g., lifting, pushing, pulling, and carrying) and posture (e.g., length of time spent sitting or standing). Other factors include duration, speed, layout of the workstation (e.g., reaching and heights), characteristics of objects handled (e.g., size, weight), and environmental conditions (e.g., temperature). MSIs can be treated more effectively if they are recognized and treated early. Education that teaches employees the early signs of MSI and how to identify risk factors is critical to reducing MSI injuries. The provision of this education as well as employee access to immediate medical treatment is a critical role for HRMs.

 

Ergonomics considers how the design of jobs, equipment, and tools affects employees health. The goal of ergonomics is to try to design workstations and job tasks to fit       people.

 

The purpose of the ergonomic (MSI) sections 4.46 to 4.53 of the BC Occupational Health and Safety Regulation is to eliminate or, if that is not possible, to minimize the risk of musculoskeletal injury to workers. The ergonomic regulation specifically requires that the employer demonstrate that it is attempting to decrease injury at the workplace. The role of the employer and HRM is to ensure that the WCB regulations are met and structure a program that:

 

  • Identifies hazards (physical demands, workstation design)
  • Assesses risk and controls hazards including
    • Engineering controls (arrangement, design, or alteration of the physical environment, equipment, tools, and materials)
    • Administrative controls (scheduling of resources and staffing to improve how the work is organized and performed such as training, job rotation, scheduling work breaks, variety of tasks, and reducing long work shifts)

 

The employer and HRM must work collaboratively with many individuals (e.g., OH&S committees, physiotherapists, supervisors, and unions) to monitor, record, and evaluate the effectiveness of the measures taken to comply with the ergonomics (MSI) requirements. Health and safety committee minutes, first aid, accident, and inspection reports are valuable sources of information. Observing jobs and asking employees questions through regular inspections helps early intervention efforts. Have workers mentioned sore necks, backs, shoulders, or wrists? Are employees feeling tired, uncomfortable, or in pain? Is the location of supplies, tools, and equipment convenient for workers to efficiently perform job tasks? Consider the employees ideas for solutions that would make their job tasks safer and easier. Some other interventions may include giving rest periods, rotating job duties, and/or training on how to use equipment and perform duties safely. Control measures need to be reviewed and evaluated to determine their effectiveness.

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 79-85, 92-101

 

  1. Define and give examples of the two types of overt injuries. What are some prevention strategies that an HRM can implement to prevent these two overt injuries?

 

ANS:

Overt injuries result from individuals coming in contact with objects and equipment (an energy source). Examples of overt injuries are cuts, fractures, and burns. Overt injury prevention focuses on recognizing the source of the hazard, eliminating the hazard, and protecting workers from exposure to the energy source.

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 80-84

 

  1. List the three basic causes for overexertion or repetitive strain injuries. Give an example of an injury caused by each one.

 

ANS:

  1. a) Force (e.g., lifting); back pain
  2. b) Working in awkward positions; back strain
  3. c) Repetition; carpal tunnel syndrome

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 83

 

  1. Define and describe one form of hazard analysis.

 

ANS:

Hazard analysis is an orderly, analytical technique that examines a system for the most probable hazards having the severest consequences, to establish corrective or control mechanisms. The most common form of hazard analysis is the analytical tree. There are two types: a positive tree (shows graphically how a job should be done) and a fault tree (provides an illustration of things that can go wrong)

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 87-92

 

  1. Define the terms in the following risk assessment equation.

 

Risk = Probability Consequences Exposure

 

ANS:

Risk is the probability of an injury expressed as a percentage. Probability refers to the chance or likelihood that an event will happen. Consequences is a subjective ranking system that can be used to classify the degree of hazard consequence. Exposure refers to how regularly, or the number of times, a contact is made with the event.

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 89

 

PROBLEM

 

  1. How does an owner, HRM, or manager find hazards? What should owners, HRMs, or managers be particularly mindful of when assessing hazards?

 

ANS:

Someone Tells Them

The Workers Compensation Act requires all workers to report hazards to the supervisor or employer.

Safety Committee

The Workers Compensation Act states that a joint committee is required to identify situations that may be unhealthy or unsafe for workers and advise on effective systems for responding to those situations.

Inspections

The Workers Compensation Act states that every employer must ensure that regular inspections are made of all workplaces, including buildings, structures, grounds, excavations, tools, equipment, machinery and work methods and practices, at intervals that will prevent the development of unsafe working conditions.

Incident Investigations

The Workers Compensation Act states that an investigation must be carried out by persons knowledgeable about the type of work involved and, if they are reasonably available, with the participation of the employer or a representative of the employer and a worker representative.

First Aid Records, Reports, and Audits

Accident, injury, and claims records along with first aid records from the workplace and the industry provide information on what type of injuries and occupational diseases are associated with the jobs or tasks being assessed.

Walk-through Survey

This is a survey in which a safety professional walks through a worksite and notes hazards.

Safety Sampling

Safety sampling is a systematic survey procedure undertaken by safety personnel who record their observations of unsafe practices on a sampling document.

Publications

Trade or industry magazines and WorkSafeBC publications describe incidents and accident trends that apply to workplaces. These can be an excellent source of information and increase the HRMs ability to identify and eliminate hazards in the workplace.

 

Hazard alerts appear in trade and industry magazines.

 

Analysis of the Plant, Tasks, and Jobs

HRMs should always consider whether a specific hazard they have identified or have been alerted to requires immediate attention to prevent possible injury. This immediate action could involve stopping work in the area or ensuring the hazard is controlled without delay

 

PTS: 1

REF: p. 87-89

 

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