Marine Biology 8th Edition By Castro -Test Bank

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Marine Biology 8th Edition By Castro -Test Bank

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Marine Biology 8th Edition By Castro -Test Bank

2
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. One of the following is not one of the worlds major ocean basins:
A. Atlantic Ocean
B. Arctic Ocean
C. Indian Ocean
D. Antarctic Ocean
E. Pacific Ocean
2. The worlds smallest and shallowest ocean:
A. Atlantic Ocean
B. Arctic Ocean
C. Indian Ocean
D. Antarctic Ocean
E. Pacific Ocean
3. The worlds largest and deepest ocean:
A. Atlantic Ocean
B. Arctic Ocean
C. Indian Ocean
D. Antarctic Ocean
E. Pacific Ocean
4. Oceanographers often use the name Southern Ocean to refer to the body of water:
A. Around Antarctica
B. In the South Pacific
C. South of the North Sea
D. South of Florida
E. Around the southern tip of Africa
5. Density is:
A. The mass of a substance per unit volume
B. A measure of weight
C. The mass of a substance multiplied by its percentage volume of water
D. A measure of volume
E. The volume occupied by a particular substance in relation to that of water
6. There is evidence that the earth and the rest of the solar system formed about:
A. 5 million years ago
B. 1 billion years ago
C. 4.5 billion years ago
D. 10.5 billion years ago
E. 10 million years ago
7. The solid layer of the earth found below the crust is called the:
A. Inner core
B. Mantle
C. Inner crust
D. Outer core
E. Oceanic crust
8. The earths magnetic field is thought to be caused by movements of liquid metal in which of the earths
layers?
A. Inner core
B. Outer core
C. Oceanic crust
D. Mantle
E. Continental crust
9. The thinnest layer of the earth is the:
A. Inner core
B. Outer core
C. Crust
D. Mantle
10. Which of the following is not true of oceanic crust?
A. It is thinner than continental crust
B. It is denser than continental crust
C. It is geologically younger than continental crust
D. It lies below sea level
E. It consists mostly of granite
11. Which of the following is not true of mid-ocean ridges?
A. Earthquakes and volcanoes are associated with them
B. The sediments get thinner as one moves away from them
C. The rock on the sea floor is older as one moves away from them
D. Sea floor spreading is associated with them
E. All are interconnected
12. Lithospheric plates:
A. Only contain continental crust
B. Only contain oceanic crust
C. Collide with one another at the mid-ocean ridge
D. Float on the upper mantle
E. Are directly connected with the inner core of the earth
13. Trenches are formed where:
A. A plate is lifted by another
B. A plate moves above another
C. A plate splits and opens up
D. Sea floor spreading takes place
E. A plate sinks beneath another
14. The process by which a lithospheric plate descends into the mantle is called:
A. Continental drift
B. Induction
C. Sea floor spreading
D. Subduction
E. Faulting
15. The friction zone along the shear boundary between two lithospheric plates is called a:
A. Fault
B. Rift
C. Trench
D. Mid-ocean ridge
E. Sea
16. An example of an island arch along a trench:
A. Aleutian Islands
B. Hawaiian Islands
C. Australia
D. Galpagos Islands
E. Bermuda
17. Which in not a type of lithospheric plate boundary?
A. Shear boundary
B. Continental margin
C. Trench
D. Mid-ocean ridge
18. The vast single ocean present about 200 million years ago is called:
A. Sinus Borealis
B. Pangaea
C. Tethys
D. Panthalassa
E. Gondwana
19. Lithogenous sediments are those that come from:
A. Plants
B. Living organisms in general
C. Deep-water volcanoes
D. Erosion of land
E. Corals
20. The outer edge of the continental margin is the:
A. Shelf break
B. Continental slope
C. Continental rise
D. Edge of the abyssal plain
E. Continental edge
21. The steepest part of the continental margin is known as the:
A. Shelf break
B. Continental slope
C. Continental rise
D. Edge of the abyssal plain
E. Continental edge
22. The shallow part of the continental margin that is closer to land is known as:
A. Shelf break
B. Continental slope
C. Continental rise
D. Edge of the abyssal plain
E. Continental shelf
23. The west coast of South America is an active margin. As such, it is characterized by all of the following
except:
A. Earthquakes
B. Volcanoes
C. Wide continental shelf
D. Steep and rocky shorelines
E. Steep continental slope
24. The east coast of the United States is a passive margin characterized by:
A. Mountains along the coast
B. Steep and rocky shorelines
C. Narrow continental shelf
D. Offshore trench
E. Gentle continental slope
25. Black smokers form as a result of the accumulation of:
A. Deep-water animals
B. Lava
C. Biogenous sediments
D. Minerals
E. Material released from the formation of trenches
26. How much of the Earths surface is covered by the world ocean?
A. 53%
B. 65%
C. 71%
D. 78%
E. 80%
27. The largest percentage of the world ocean is found in the:
A. Northern hemisphere
B. Southern hemisphere
C. Eastern hemisphere
D. Western hemisphere
E. The ocean is evenly distributed
28. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Oceanic crust is made of a mineral called basalt
B. Oceanic crust is denser than continental crust
C. Oceanic crust is thinner than continental crust
D. Oceanic crust is older than continental crust
E. Chemical differences are seem between oceanic and continental crust
29. Evidence of plate techtonics is provided by:
A. Magnetic anomalies
B. Sea floor spreading
C. Mid ocean ridge
D. All of the above
E. B and C only
30. The type of plate boundary where plates move past each other is called:
A. Island arc
B. Subduction zone
C. Trench
D. Convection zone
E. Shear boundary
31. Sea level naturally fluctuates through geologic time. What is occurring now with regards to sea level?
A. Sea level is falling
B. Sea level is rising
C. Sea level is stable
D. Scientists are not sure
E. Sea level varies by location
32. The most biologically rich part of the ocean is the:
A. Shelf break
B. Continental shelf
C. Continental slope
D. Continental rise
E. Deep-sea floor
2 Key
1. One of the following is not one of the worlds major ocean basins:
A. Atlantic Ocean
B. Arctic Ocean
C. Indian Ocean
D. Antarctic Ocean
E. Pacific Ocean
Castro Chapter 02 #1
2. The worlds smallest and shallowest ocean:
A. Atlantic Ocean
B. Arctic Ocean
C. Indian Ocean
D. Antarctic Ocean
E. Pacific Ocean
Castro Chapter 02 #2
3. The worlds largest and deepest ocean:
A. Atlantic Ocean
B. Arctic Ocean
C. Indian Ocean
D. Antarctic Ocean
E. Pacific Ocean
Castro Chapter 02 #3
4. Oceanographers often use the name Southern Ocean to refer to the body of water:
A. Around Antarctica
B. In the South Pacific
C. South of the North Sea
D. South of Florida
E. Around the southern tip of Africa
Castro Chapter 02 #4
5. Density is:
A. The mass of a substance per unit volume
B. A measure of weight
C. The mass of a substance multiplied by its percentage volume of water
D. A measure of volume
E. The volume occupied by a particular substance in relation to that of water
Castro Chapter 02 #5
6. There is evidence that the earth and the rest of the solar system formed about:
A. 5 million years ago
B. 1 billion years ago
C. 4.5 billion years ago
D. 10.5 billion years ago
E. 10 million years ago
Castro Chapter 02 #6
7. The solid layer of the earth found below the crust is called the:
A. Inner core
B. Mantle
C. Inner crust
D. Outer core
E. Oceanic crust
Castro Chapter 02 #7
8. The earths magnetic field is thought to be caused by movements of liquid metal in which of the earths
layers?
A. Inner core
B. Outer core
C. Oceanic crust
D. Mantle
E. Continental crust
Castro Chapter 02 #8
9. The thinnest layer of the earth is the:
A. Inner core
B. Outer core
C. Crust
D. Mantle
Castro Chapter 02 #9
10. Which of the following is not true of oceanic crust?
A. It is thinner than continental crust
B. It is denser than continental crust
C. It is geologically younger than continental crust
D. It lies below sea level
E. It consists mostly of granite
Castro Chapter 02 #10
11. Which of the following is not true of mid-ocean ridges?
A. Earthquakes and volcanoes are associated with them
B. The sediments get thinner as one moves away from them
C. The rock on the sea floor is older as one moves away from them
D. Sea floor spreading is associated with them
E. All are interconnected
Castro Chapter 02 #11
12. Lithospheric plates:
A. Only contain continental crust
B. Only contain oceanic crust
C. Collide with one another at the mid-ocean ridge
D. Float on the upper mantle
E. Are directly connected with the inner core of the earth
Castro Chapter 02 #12
13. Trenches are formed where:
A. A plate is lifted by another
B. A plate moves above another
C. A plate splits and opens up
D. Sea floor spreading takes place
E. A plate sinks beneath another
Castro Chapter 02 #13
14. The process by which a lithospheric plate descends into the mantle is called:
A. Continental drift
B. Induction
C. Sea floor spreading
D. Subduction
E. Faulting
Castro Chapter 02 #14
15. The friction zone along the shear boundary between two lithospheric plates is called a:
A. Fault
B. Rift
C. Trench
D. Mid-ocean ridge
E. Sea
Castro Chapter 02 #15
16. An example of an island arch along a trench:
A. Aleutian Islands
B. Hawaiian Islands
C. Australia
D. Galpagos Islands
E. Bermuda
Castro Chapter 02 #16
17. Which in not a type of lithospheric plate boundary?
A. Shear boundary
B. Continental margin
C. Trench
D. Mid-ocean ridge
Castro Chapter 02 #17
18. The vast single ocean present about 200 million years ago is called:
A. Sinus Borealis
B. Pangaea
C. Tethys
D. Panthalassa
E. Gondwana
Castro Chapter 02 #18
19. Lithogenous sediments are those that come from:
A. Plants
B. Living organisms in general
C. Deep-water volcanoes
D. Erosion of land
E. Corals
Castro Chapter 02 #19
20. The outer edge of the continental margin is the:
A. Shelf break
B. Continental slope
C. Continental rise
D. Edge of the abyssal plain
E. Continental edge
Castro Chapter 02 #20
21. The steepest part of the continental margin is known as the:
A. Shelf break
B. Continental slope
C. Continental rise
D. Edge of the abyssal plain
E. Continental edge
Castro Chapter 02 #21
22. The shallow part of the continental margin that is closer to land is known as:
A. Shelf break
B. Continental slope
C. Continental rise
D. Edge of the abyssal plain
E. Continental shelf
Castro Chapter 02 #22
23. The west coast of South America is an active margin. As such, it is characterized by all of the
following except:
A. Earthquakes
B. Volcanoes
C. Wide continental shelf
D. Steep and rocky shorelines
E. Steep continental slope
Castro Chapter 02 #23
24. The east coast of the United States is a passive margin characterized by:
A. Mountains along the coast
B. Steep and rocky shorelines
C. Narrow continental shelf
D. Offshore trench
E. Gentle continental slope
Castro Chapter 02 #24
25. Black smokers form as a result of the accumulation of:
A. Deep-water animals
B. Lava
C. Biogenous sediments
D. Minerals
E. Material released from the formation of trenches
Castro Chapter 02 #25
26. How much of the Earths surface is covered by the world ocean?
A. 53%
B. 65%
C. 71%
D. 78%
E. 80%
Castro Chapter 02 #26
27. The largest percentage of the world ocean is found in the:
A. Northern hemisphere
B. Southern hemisphere
C. Eastern hemisphere
D. Western hemisphere
E. The ocean is evenly distributed
Castro Chapter 02 #27
28. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
A. Oceanic crust is made of a mineral called basalt
B. Oceanic crust is denser than continental crust
C. Oceanic crust is thinner than continental crust
D. Oceanic crust is older than continental crust
E. Chemical differences are seem between oceanic and continental crust
Castro Chapter 02 #28
29. Evidence of plate techtonics is provided by:
A. Magnetic anomalies
B. Sea floor spreading
C. Mid ocean ridge
D. All of the above
E. B and C only
Castro Chapter 02 #29
30. The type of plate boundary where plates move past each other is called:
A. Island arc
B. Subduction zone
C. Trench
D. Convection zone
E. Shear boundary
Castro Chapter 02 #30
31. Sea level naturally fluctuates through geologic time. What is occurring now with regards to sea level?
A. Sea level is falling
B. Sea level is rising
C. Sea level is stable
D. Scientists are not sure
E. Sea level varies by location
Castro Chapter 02 #31
32. The most biologically rich part of the ocean is the:
A. Shelf break
B. Continental shelf
C. Continental slope
D. Continental rise
E. Deep-sea floor
Castro Chapter 02 #32
2 Summary
Category # of Question
s
Castro Chapter 02 32

 

10
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. All of the following are examples of abiotic factors except one:
A. Salinity
B. Predation
C. Substrate
D. Temperature
E. Light
2. An example of a community is:
A. One giant kelp individual
B. A kelp forest plus all of the physical factors affecting it
C. All physical factors affecting a kelp forest
D. A kelp forest plus all organisms living in it
E. Several giant kelp individuals living in one particular area
3. Exponential growth in a population may be slowed as a result of:
A. Reduction in light
B. Reduction of nutrients
C. Reduction of predators
D. A and B only
E. B and C only
4. The type of interaction that results when a resource is in short supply and one organism uses the resource
at the expense of the other is called:
A. Population explosion
B. Predation
C. Resource partitioning
D. Self-regulation
E. Competition
5. Competitive exclusion can be best defined as:
A. When one species overcompetes and eliminates another
B. The creation of a separate ecological niche by a new species
C. The division of resources
D. When one species shares limiting resources with another
E. When competition results in the elimination of particular limiting resources
6. The ecological niche of a species refers to:
A. Habitat
B. Position of the organism in the food web
C. Role in the community
D. Mode of reproduction and food habits
E. Behavior in relation to other species in the community
7. Predation can be best defined as:
A. A plant taking in nutrients
B. An animal eating another animal
C. An animal eating a plant
D. An animal eating any other organism
E. A plant carrying out photosynthesis
8. One of these is an example of coevolution:
A. A seaweed evolving better ways to capture sunlight energy
B. A seaweed evolving a mechanism allowing it to take in a particular nutrient
C. A limpet getting adapted to live along coasts exposed to heavier wave action
D. A limpet evolving a behavior that allows it to escape from a seastar predator
E. A seastar becoming adapted to move higher up along rocky shores during low tides
9. Zooxanthellae live within the tissues of corals and both organisms benefit from the association. This is
known as:
A. Mutualism
B. Predation
C. Commensalism
D. Parasitism
E. Cleaning symbiosis
10. Cleaning symbiosis is an example of symbiosis because the partners involved in the association:
A. Are not harmed
B. Are both harmed if we closely study their association
C. Both have coevolved into a close association
D. One is harmed while the other is not
E. One species benefits while the other is unaffected
11. The following is a synonym of autotrophs:
A. Consumer
B. Primary producer
C. Heterotroph
D. Animal
E. Predator
12. The difference between food webs and food chains is that food webs:
A. Consist of only one trophic level
B. Include primary producers as well as consumers
C. Do not take into account predators
D. Only outline feeding relationships among consumers
E. Are more complex
13. The next level in a food web beyond the producers would be the:
A. Top predators
B. Secondary consumers
C. Carnivores
D. Primary consumers
E. Parasites
14. Which of the following could be a tertiary consumer?
A. A seaweed
B. A grazer
C. A carnivore
D. An autotroph
E. A herbivore
15. On the average, what percentage of energy in a particular trophic level is passed on to the next trophic
level?
A. 1%
B. 2%
C. 5%
D. 10%
E. 15%
16. The pyramid of biomass shows the:
A. Transfer of energy between each trophic level
B. Energy in each trophic level
C. Weight of organisms in an trophic level
D. Weight of organisms in entire food web
E. Number of individuals in each trophic level
17. The detritus in the water includes:
A. Dead organic matter
B. Waste products dissolved in water
C. All of the plankton
D. Smallest plankton-feeding fishes
E. Smallest algae
18. A fundamental role of decomposers:
A. Releasing nutrients to be used by autotrophs
B. Causing diseases
C. Providing food for carnivores
D. Releasing oxygen
E. Providing energy for autotrophs
19. Net primary productivity is best defined as:
A. The total amount of biomass created by producers
B. The total amount of biomass created by producers after energy loss to metabolism is factored
C. The total biomass of producers in the water in a given habitat
D. The total biomass of producers in the ocean
E. None of the above
20. In the dark-light bottle experiment, one of the following is measured in the dark bottle:
A. Photosynthesis
B. Respiration
C. Decomposition
D. Photosynthesis plus respiration
E. Chlorophyll concentration
21. The amount of chlorophyll in the water is a direct estimate of:
A. Primary production
B. Respiration
C. Standing stock of phytoplankton
D. Oxygen utilization
E. Release of nutrients
22. In the carbon cycle, seaweeds and plants play a fundamental role by:
A. Increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of decomposition
B. Decreasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of respiration
C. Increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of photosynthesis
D. Decreasing the amount of detritus
E.
Both increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of respiration, and decreasing it as a
result of photosynthesis
23. Nitrogen fixation is performed at sea by:
A. Seaweeds
B. Cyanobacteria
C. Phytoplankton
D. Zooplankton
E. All of the above choices are correct
24. Sessile organisms are part of the:
A. Benthos
B. Nekton
C. Plankton
D. Pelagic type of organisms
E. Zooplankton only
25. The subtidal zone is the area:
A. Between low and high tide
B. Beyond the continental shelf
C. Between the intertidal zone and the edge of the continental shelf
D. Where pelagic organisms live
E. Above the highest tide
26. Competive exclusion may be affected by:
A. Abundance of a resource
B. Disturbances to habitat
C. Temperature changes
D. All of the above
E. B and C only
27. Self-regulating of population numbers acts only when the population is:
A. Large
B. Small
C. Stable
D. Threatened
E. Declining
28. Which of the following is an example of intraspecific competition?
A. Two species of barnacles competing for space on a rocky shoreline
B. Two species of dolphins feeding on the same population of fish
C. Two individuals in a population of clownfish attempt to use the same anemone as habitat
D. Two species of fish attempt to use the same rocky ledge as habitat
E. Two species of seals fight over space on a beach to rear their young
29. A populations carrying capacity is:
A. Affected by the growth rate of the population
B. The number of individuals a habitat can support with available resources
C. A constant that has been predetermined for all habitats
D. The number of individuals in a habitat
E. Determined by comparing birth rate and death rate in a population
30. In competitive exclusion, which of the following is true?
A. Two species cannot coexist in a habitat
B. One species is a better competitor for resources
C. Leads to intraspecific competition
D. Results from intraspecific completion
E. Leads to population growth for both competitors
31. A disadvantage of resource partitioning is:
A. Size of competing populations increase exponentially and consume all resources
B. Size of competing populations may decrease
C. Resources become more plentiful
D. Competing populations coexist without affecting each other
E. No disadvantages exist
32. In a salt marsh, a fish eats decaying material from around the base of Spartina grass plants. A snail
scrapes algae from the stalks of the Spartina grass. These species can coexist because they have:
A. The same niche, but different habitat
B. The same habitat and the same niche
C. The same habitat, but different niche
D. Different habitats and different niches
E. None of the above
33. The term trophic refers to:
A. Competition
B. Feeding
C. Symbiosis
D. Reproduction
E. Habitat
34. A chiton increases the abundance of its prey, a corraline algae, by feeding on the algae which stimulates
growth of that algae. This is an example of:
A. Directional selection
B. Stabilizing selection
C. Competitive exclusion
D. Trophic cascade
E. Indirect interaction
35. An algae begins to produce chemical defenses after it has been grazed upon by a herbivore. This is an
example of:
A. inducible defense
B. Dependent defense
C. Reactive defense
D. deliberate defense
E. Designed defense
36. Organisms that are classified as benthic would most likely be found in the:
A. Neritic zone
B. Pelagic zone
C. Oceanic zone
D. Hadal zone
E. Epipelagic zone
10 Key
1. All of the following are examples of abiotic factors except one:
A. Salinity
B. Predation
C. Substrate
D. Temperature
E. Light
Castro Chapter 10 #1
2. An example of a community is:
A. One giant kelp individual
B. A kelp forest plus all of the physical factors affecting it
C. All physical factors affecting a kelp forest
D. A kelp forest plus all organisms living in it
E. Several giant kelp individuals living in one particular area
Castro Chapter 10 #2
3. Exponential growth in a population may be slowed as a result of:
A. Reduction in light
B. Reduction of nutrients
C. Reduction of predators
D. A and B only
E. B and C only
Castro Chapter 10 #3
4. The type of interaction that results when a resource is in short supply and one organism uses the
resource at the expense of the other is called:
A. Population explosion
B. Predation
C. Resource partitioning
D. Self-regulation
E. Competition
Castro Chapter 10 #4
5. Competitive exclusion can be best defined as:
A. When one species overcompetes and eliminates another
B. The creation of a separate ecological niche by a new species
C. The division of resources
D. When one species shares limiting resources with another
E. When competition results in the elimination of particular limiting resources
Castro Chapter 10 #5
6. The ecological niche of a species refers to:
A. Habitat
B. Position of the organism in the food web
C. Role in the community
D. Mode of reproduction and food habits
E. Behavior in relation to other species in the community
Castro Chapter 10 #6
7. Predation can be best defined as:
A. A plant taking in nutrients
B. An animal eating another animal
C. An animal eating a plant
D. An animal eating any other organism
E. A plant carrying out photosynthesis
Castro Chapter 10 #7
8. One of these is an example of coevolution:
A. A seaweed evolving better ways to capture sunlight energy
B. A seaweed evolving a mechanism allowing it to take in a particular nutrient
C. A limpet getting adapted to live along coasts exposed to heavier wave action
D. A limpet evolving a behavior that allows it to escape from a seastar predator
E. A seastar becoming adapted to move higher up along rocky shores during low tides
Castro Chapter 10 #8
9. Zooxanthellae live within the tissues of corals and both organisms benefit from the association. This is
known as:
A. Mutualism
B. Predation
C. Commensalism
D. Parasitism
E. Cleaning symbiosis
Castro Chapter 10 #9
10. Cleaning symbiosis is an example of symbiosis because the partners involved in the association:
A. Are not harmed
B. Are both harmed if we closely study their association
C. Both have coevolved into a close association
D. One is harmed while the other is not
E. One species benefits while the other is unaffected
Castro Chapter 10 #10
11. The following is a synonym of autotrophs:
A. Consumer
B. Primary producer
C. Heterotroph
D. Animal
E. Predator
Castro Chapter 10 #11
12. The difference between food webs and food chains is that food webs:
A. Consist of only one trophic level
B. Include primary producers as well as consumers
C. Do not take into account predators
D. Only outline feeding relationships among consumers
E. Are more complex
Castro Chapter 10 #12
13. The next level in a food web beyond the producers would be the:
A. Top predators
B. Secondary consumers
C. Carnivores
D. Primary consumers
E. Parasites
Castro Chapter 10 #13
14. Which of the following could be a tertiary consumer?
A. A seaweed
B. A grazer
C. A carnivore
D. An autotroph
E. A herbivore
Castro Chapter 10 #14
15. On the average, what percentage of energy in a particular trophic level is passed on to the next trophic
level?
A. 1%
B. 2%
C. 5%
D. 10%
E. 15%
Castro Chapter 10 #15
16. The pyramid of biomass shows the:
A. Transfer of energy between each trophic level
B. Energy in each trophic level
C. Weight of organisms in an trophic level
D. Weight of organisms in entire food web
E. Number of individuals in each trophic level
Castro Chapter 10 #16
17. The detritus in the water includes:
A. Dead organic matter
B. Waste products dissolved in water
C. All of the plankton
D. Smallest plankton-feeding fishes
E. Smallest algae
Castro Chapter 10 #17
18. A fundamental role of decomposers:
A. Releasing nutrients to be used by autotrophs
B. Causing diseases
C. Providing food for carnivores
D. Releasing oxygen
E. Providing energy for autotrophs
Castro Chapter 10 #18
19. Net primary productivity is best defined as:
A. The total amount of biomass created by producers
B. The total amount of biomass created by producers after energy loss to metabolism is factored
C. The total biomass of producers in the water in a given habitat
D. The total biomass of producers in the ocean
E. None of the above
Castro Chapter 10 #19
20. In the dark-light bottle experiment, one of the following is measured in the dark bottle:
A. Photosynthesis
B. Respiration
C. Decomposition
D. Photosynthesis plus respiration
E. Chlorophyll concentration
Castro Chapter 10 #20
21. The amount of chlorophyll in the water is a direct estimate of:
A. Primary production
B. Respiration
C. Standing stock of phytoplankton
D. Oxygen utilization
E. Release of nutrients
Castro Chapter 10 #21
22. In the carbon cycle, seaweeds and plants play a fundamental role by:
A. Increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of decomposition
B. Decreasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of respiration
C. Increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of photosynthesis
D. Decreasing the amount of detritus
E.
Both increasing the amount of dissolved carbon dioxide as a result of respiration, and decreasing it
as a result of photosynthesis
Castro Chapter 10 #22
23. Nitrogen fixation is performed at sea by:
A. Seaweeds
B. Cyanobacteria
C. Phytoplankton
D. Zooplankton
E. All of the above choices are correct
Castro Chapter 10 #23
24. Sessile organisms are part of the:
A. Benthos
B. Nekton
C. Plankton
D. Pelagic type of organisms
E. Zooplankton only
Castro Chapter 10 #24
25. The subtidal zone is the area:
A. Between low and high tide
B. Beyond the continental shelf
C. Between the intertidal zone and the edge of the continental shelf
D. Where pelagic organisms live
E. Above the highest tide
Castro Chapter 10 #25
26. Competive exclusion may be affected by:
A. Abundance of a resource
B. Disturbances to habitat
C. Temperature changes
D. All of the above
E. B and C only
Castro Chapter 10 #26
27. Self-regulating of population numbers acts only when the population is:
A. Large
B. Small
C. Stable
D. Threatened
E. Declining
Castro Chapter 10 #27
28. Which of the following is an example of intraspecific competition?
A. Two species of barnacles competing for space on a rocky shoreline
B. Two species of dolphins feeding on the same population of fish
C. Two individuals in a population of clownfish attempt to use the same anemone as habitat
D. Two species of fish attempt to use the same rocky ledge as habitat
E. Two species of seals fight over space on a beach to rear their young
Castro Chapter 10 #28
29. A populations carrying capacity is:
A. Affected by the growth rate of the population
B. The number of individuals a habitat can support with available resources
C. A constant that has been predetermined for all habitats
D. The number of individuals in a habitat
E. Determined by comparing birth rate and death rate in a population
Castro Chapter 10 #29
30. In competitive exclusion, which of the following is true?
A. Two species cannot coexist in a habitat
B. One species is a better competitor for resources
C. Leads to intraspecific competition
D. Results from intraspecific completion
E. Leads to population growth for both competitors
Castro Chapter 10 #30
31. A disadvantage of resource partitioning is:
A. Size of competing populations increase exponentially and consume all resources
B. Size of competing populations may decrease
C. Resources become more plentiful
D. Competing populations coexist without affecting each other
E. No disadvantages exist
Castro Chapter 10 #31
32. In a salt marsh, a fish eats decaying material from around the base of Spartina grass plants. A snail
scrapes algae from the stalks of the Spartina grass. These species can coexist because they have:
A. The same niche, but different habitat
B. The same habitat and the same niche
C. The same habitat, but different niche
D. Different habitats and different niches
E. None of the above
Castro Chapter 10 #32
33. The term trophic refers to:
A. Competition
B. Feeding
C. Symbiosis
D. Reproduction
E. Habitat
Castro Chapter 10 #33
34. A chiton increases the abundance of its prey, a corraline algae, by feeding on the algae which
stimulates growth of that algae. This is an example of:
A. Directional selection
B. Stabilizing selection
C. Competitive exclusion
D. Trophic cascade
E. Indirect interaction
Castro Chapter 10 #34
35. An algae begins to produce chemical defenses after it has been grazed upon by a herbivore. This is an
example of:
A. inducible defense
B. Dependent defense
C. Reactive defense
D. deliberate defense
E. Designed defense
Castro Chapter 10 #35
36. Organisms that are classified as benthic would most likely be found in the:
A. Neritic zone
B. Pelagic zone
C. Oceanic zone
D. Hadal zone
E. Epipelagic zone
Castro Chapter 10 #36
10 Summary
Category # of Question
s
Castro Chapter 10 36

 

18
Student: ___________________________________________________________________________
1. An anthropogenic impact is one caused by:
A. Physical factors in the environment
B. Organisms that are part of marine communities
C. The destruction of primary producers
D. Organisms that live in neighboring marine communities
E. Human activities
2. Trawling is particularly destructive to:
A. Soft bottom communities
B. Coral reefs
C. Sandy beaches
D. Salt marshes
E. Abyssal plains
3. Pollution is best described as:
A. Adding substances or energy that harm the environment
B. Changing the population growth of species
C. The decrease in the quality of the environment as a result of natural events
D. Substances or materials that are toxic to humans decreasing the quality of the human environment
E. Can be broken down by bacteria
4. The problem of hypoxic, or dead zones, in the ocean is caused by:
A. Oil pollution
B. Lead pollution
C. Eutrophication
D. Thermal pollution
E. Pesticides
5. Eutrophication is a type of pollution caused by:
A. Lead
B. DDT
C. Mercury
D. Nitrogen
E. PCBs
6. People can contract hepatitis from eating raw shellfish because shellfish:
A. Are normal carriers of the hepatitis virus
B. Keep alive the viruses in the water kept within the shell
C. Filter the virus from sewage-contaminated water
D. Keep the virus alive in its nervous system
E. Are most likely spoiled
7. Sludge is best defined as:
A. Raw sewage
B. Semi-liquid material that results from sewage treatment
C. Industrial sewage
D. Water removed during sewage treatment
E. Decay bacteria in sewage
8. Accumulation of sludge on the bottom of the ocean is responsible for:
A. Anoxic, or oxygen-lacking, conditions
B. Drastic changes in salinity
C. Deposit feeders being replaced by filter feeders
D. Drastic changes in temperature
E. Increase in the number of sharks and other predators
9. The two most persistent sources of oil pollution in the marine environment are:
A. Tanker and blowout accidents
B. Tar balls and tanker accidents
C. Natural seepage and urban runoff
D. Urban wastes and normal operation of tankers
E. Blowout accidents and urban wastes
10. The most harmful oil spills in terms of large-scale damage to the marine environment:
A. Blowout of offshore rigs
B. Discharge of oil during the unloading of tankers
C. Sinking or collision of tankers
D. Runoff from coastal cities
E. Natural seepage
11. A substance that is biodegradable:
A. Evaporates very slowly
B. Forms tar balls or other solid residues
C. Can be broken down only by special chemicals
D. Sinks to the bottom
E. Can be broken down by bacteria
12. After oil spills, what type of marine animals is most likely to die of exposure?
A. Migrating fishes like salmon
B. Cetaceans
C. Sea urchins
D. Filter-feeding fishes
E. Seabirds
13. Chlorinated hydrocarbons are found most commonly in:
A. Fertilizers
B. Sewage
C. Oil
D. Aerosol containers
E. Pesticides
14. A persistent chemical is one that is:
A. Toxic
B. Non-biodegradable
C. A thermal pollutant
D. Insoluble in water
E. Resistant to detergents
15. Persistent chemicals are particularly harmful to the environment because they:
A. Are toxic to plants and other autotrophs
B. Are not soluble in seawater
C. Interfere with the oxygen intake of organisms
D. Are toxic since they are radioactive
E. Accumulate in organisms that are higher in the food chain
16. Which of the following is not a effect of oil spills on the marine environment?
A. Phytoplankton blooms
B. Increase susceptibility to disease in fish
C. Decreased ability to stay warm in birds
D. Interferes with normal reproduction
17. Which of the following organisms are expected to show the highest concentration of DDT and other
chlorinated hydrocarbons in its tissues?
A. Filter-feeding fishes
B. Carnivorous fishes
C. Phytoplankton
D. Sea lions
E. Zooplankton
18. Chlorinated hydrocarbons reach the marine environment by way of:
A. Fertilizers used in farms along the shore
B. Thermal pollution
C. Land-nesting seabirds
D. River runoff
E. Underwater volcanic eruptions
19. PCBs are characterized by being:
A. Persistent
B. Easily biodegradable
C. Radioactive
D. Responsible for global warming
E. Responsible for eutrophication
20. One of the following has been implicated in abnormal sexual behavior in seabirds:
A. Sewage pollution
B. Chlorinated hydrocarbons
C. Thermal pollution
D. Heavy metals
E. Eutrophication
21. Furans are pollutants that belong among the:
A. PCBs
B. Chlorinated hydrocarbons
C. Heavy metals
D. Thermal pollutants
E. Radioactive wastes
22. Heavy metals include all of the following except:
A. Lead
B. PCBs
C. Mercury
D. Cadmium
E. Copper
23. Mercury has been directly linked with one of the following health problems in humans:
A. Hepatitis
B. Cancer
C. Neurological disorders and paralysis
D. Digestive disorders
E. Respiratory problems
24. One of the following is known to be responsible for thermal pollution:
A. Radioactive fallout
B. Sewage
C. Excessive use of fertilizers
D. Solid waste
E. Power plants
25. A threatened species is one that is:
A. In immediate danger of extinction
B. At risk of extinction since its members are low in number
C. Not at risk even if its members are low in number
D. At great risk since it only exists in zoos or marine parks
E. Within a few years of disappearing forever
26. The Steller sea cow was brought to extinction by:
A. The destruction of kelp beds
B. The occupation of land by whalers
C. Whalers hunting for meat
D. The filling in of estuaries
E. Increase in sediments in the water brought about by the cutting of nearby forests
27. Introduced species are known to be transported into a new location by way of:
A. Ocean currents
B. Plankton brought in by currents
C. Transplanted oysters
D. Natural migration
E. Young individuals brought in by currents
28. Sustainable development refers to development that:
A. Remains stable year after year
B. Safeguards natural resources for future generations of people
C. Does not alter ocean currents, salinity or any other physical or chemical factors in the environment
D. Does not significantly affect the growth of wildlife
E. Changes depending on the importance given by future generations of the use of particular resources
29. Efforts to restore kelp forests include:
A. Transplantation of sea urchins
B. Cutting kelp just below the surface of the water
C. Transplanting young kelp
D. Seeding with fertilizers
E. Growing kelp along floating rafts
30. Artificial reefs are known to:
A. Improve fishing
B. Increase pollution
C. Increase beach erosion
D. Bring unwanted introduced species
E. Change weather patterns
31. Reduced light availability for zooxanthellae is most related to which of these human induced factors?
A. Increased sedimentation
B. Thermal pollution
C. Increased harvesting
D. Acidification
E. Pesticides
32. Which of the following is not true regarding coral bleaching?
A. Can be the result of increased temperatures
B. Bleaching events are increasing
C. Bleaching results in total loss of zooxanthellae
D. Bleached corals do not grow
E. Bleached corals are vulnerably to disintegration
33. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides would be likely to be found in the greatest concentrations in the
tissues of:
A. Phytoplankton
B. Zooplankton
C. Plankton-eating fishes
D. Carnivorous fishes
E. Seals and sea lions
18 Key
1. An anthropogenic impact is one caused by:
A. Physical factors in the environment
B. Organisms that are part of marine communities
C. The destruction of primary producers
D. Organisms that live in neighboring marine communities
E. Human activities
Castro Chapter 18 #1
2. Trawling is particularly destructive to:
A. Soft bottom communities
B. Coral reefs
C. Sandy beaches
D. Salt marshes
E. Abyssal plains
Castro Chapter 18 #2
3. Pollution is best described as:
A. Adding substances or energy that harm the environment
B. Changing the population growth of species
C. The decrease in the quality of the environment as a result of natural events
D. Substances or materials that are toxic to humans decreasing the quality of the human environment
E. Can be broken down by bacteria
Castro Chapter 18 #3
4. The problem of hypoxic, or dead zones, in the ocean is caused by:
A. Oil pollution
B. Lead pollution
C. Eutrophication
D. Thermal pollution
E. Pesticides
Castro Chapter 18 #4
5. Eutrophication is a type of pollution caused by:
A. Lead
B. DDT
C. Mercury
D. Nitrogen
E. PCBs
Castro Chapter 18 #5
6. People can contract hepatitis from eating raw shellfish because shellfish:
A. Are normal carriers of the hepatitis virus
B. Keep alive the viruses in the water kept within the shell
C. Filter the virus from sewage-contaminated water
D. Keep the virus alive in its nervous system
E. Are most likely spoiled
Castro Chapter 18 #6
7. Sludge is best defined as:
A. Raw sewage
B. Semi-liquid material that results from sewage treatment
C. Industrial sewage
D. Water removed during sewage treatment
E. Decay bacteria in sewage
Castro Chapter 18 #7
8. Accumulation of sludge on the bottom of the ocean is responsible for:
A. Anoxic, or oxygen-lacking, conditions
B. Drastic changes in salinity
C. Deposit feeders being replaced by filter feeders
D. Drastic changes in temperature
E. Increase in the number of sharks and other predators
Castro Chapter 18 #8
9. The two most persistent sources of oil pollution in the marine environment are:
A. Tanker and blowout accidents
B. Tar balls and tanker accidents
C. Natural seepage and urban runoff
D. Urban wastes and normal operation of tankers
E. Blowout accidents and urban wastes
Castro Chapter 18 #9
10. The most harmful oil spills in terms of large-scale damage to the marine environment:
A. Blowout of offshore rigs
B. Discharge of oil during the unloading of tankers
C. Sinking or collision of tankers
D. Runoff from coastal cities
E. Natural seepage
Castro Chapter 18 #10
11. A substance that is biodegradable:
A. Evaporates very slowly
B. Forms tar balls or other solid residues
C. Can be broken down only by special chemicals
D. Sinks to the bottom
E. Can be broken down by bacteria
Castro Chapter 18 #11
12. After oil spills, what type of marine animals is most likely to die of exposure?
A. Migrating fishes like salmon
B. Cetaceans
C. Sea urchins
D. Filter-feeding fishes
E. Seabirds
Castro Chapter 18 #12
13. Chlorinated hydrocarbons are found most commonly in:
A. Fertilizers
B. Sewage
C. Oil
D. Aerosol containers
E. Pesticides
Castro Chapter 18 #13
14. A persistent chemical is one that is:
A. Toxic
B. Non-biodegradable
C. A thermal pollutant
D. Insoluble in water
E. Resistant to detergents
Castro Chapter 18 #14
15. Persistent chemicals are particularly harmful to the environment because they:
A. Are toxic to plants and other autotrophs
B. Are not soluble in seawater
C. Interfere with the oxygen intake of organisms
D. Are toxic since they are radioactive
E. Accumulate in organisms that are higher in the food chain
Castro Chapter 18 #15
16. Which of the following is not a effect of oil spills on the marine environment?
A. Phytoplankton blooms
B. Increase susceptibility to disease in fish
C. Decreased ability to stay warm in birds
D. Interferes with normal reproduction
Castro Chapter 18 #16
17. Which of the following organisms are expected to show the highest concentration of DDT and other
chlorinated hydrocarbons in its tissues?
A. Filter-feeding fishes
B. Carnivorous fishes
C. Phytoplankton
D. Sea lions
E. Zooplankton
Castro Chapter 18 #17
18. Chlorinated hydrocarbons reach the marine environment by way of:
A. Fertilizers used in farms along the shore
B. Thermal pollution
C. Land-nesting seabirds
D. River runoff
E. Underwater volcanic eruptions
Castro Chapter 18 #18
19. PCBs are characterized by being:
A. Persistent
B. Easily biodegradable
C. Radioactive
D. Responsible for global warming
E. Responsible for eutrophication
Castro Chapter 18 #19
20. One of the following has been implicated in abnormal sexual behavior in seabirds:
A. Sewage pollution
B. Chlorinated hydrocarbons
C. Thermal pollution
D. Heavy metals
E. Eutrophication
Castro Chapter 18 #20
21. Furans are pollutants that belong among the:
A. PCBs
B. Chlorinated hydrocarbons
C. Heavy metals
D. Thermal pollutants
E. Radioactive wastes
Castro Chapter 18 #21
22. Heavy metals include all of the following except:
A. Lead
B. PCBs
C. Mercury
D. Cadmium
E. Copper
Castro Chapter 18 #22
23. Mercury has been directly linked with one of the following health problems in humans:
A. Hepatitis
B. Cancer
C. Neurological disorders and paralysis
D. Digestive disorders
E. Respiratory problems
Castro Chapter 18 #23
24. One of the following is known to be responsible for thermal pollution:
A. Radioactive fallout
B. Sewage
C. Excessive use of fertilizers
D. Solid waste
E. Power plants
Castro Chapter 18 #24
25. A threatened species is one that is:
A. In immediate danger of extinction
B. At risk of extinction since its members are low in number
C. Not at risk even if its members are low in number
D. At great risk since it only exists in zoos or marine parks
E. Within a few years of disappearing forever
Castro Chapter 18 #25
26. The Steller sea cow was brought to extinction by:
A. The destruction of kelp beds
B. The occupation of land by whalers
C. Whalers hunting for meat
D. The filling in of estuaries
E. Increase in sediments in the water brought about by the cutting of nearby forests
Castro Chapter 18 #26
27. Introduced species are known to be transported into a new location by way of:
A. Ocean currents
B. Plankton brought in by currents
C. Transplanted oysters
D. Natural migration
E. Young individuals brought in by currents
Castro Chapter 18 #27
28. Sustainable development refers to development that:
A. Remains stable year after year
B. Safeguards natural resources for future generations of people
C. Does not alter ocean currents, salinity or any other physical or chemical factors in the environment
D. Does not significantly affect the growth of wildlife
E. Changes depending on the importance given by future generations of the use of particular
resources
Castro Chapter 18 #28
29. Efforts to restore kelp forests include:
A. Transplantation of sea urchins
B. Cutting kelp just below the surface of the water
C. Transplanting young kelp
D. Seeding with fertilizers
E. Growing kelp along floating rafts
Castro Chapter 18 #29
30. Artificial reefs are known to:
A. Improve fishing
B. Increase pollution
C. Increase beach erosion
D. Bring unwanted introduced species
E. Change weather patterns
Castro Chapter 18 #30
31. Reduced light availability for zooxanthellae is most related to which of these human induced factors?
A. Increased sedimentation
B. Thermal pollution
C. Increased harvesting
D. Acidification
E. Pesticides
Castro Chapter 18 #31
32. Which of the following is not true regarding coral bleaching?
A. Can be the result of increased temperatures
B. Bleaching events are increasing
C. Bleaching results in total loss of zooxanthellae
D. Bleached corals do not grow
E. Bleached corals are vulnerably to disintegration
Castro Chapter 18 #32
33. Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides would be likely to be found in the greatest concentrations in the
tissues of:
A. Phytoplankton
B. Zooplankton
C. Plankton-eating fishes
D. Carnivorous fishes
E. Seals and sea lions
Castro Chapter 18 #33
18 Summary
Category # of Question
s
Castro Chapter 18 33

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