Memmlers The Human Body in Health and Disease, 12th edition Barbara Janson Cohen Test Bank

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Memmlers The Human Body in Health and Disease, 12th edition Barbara Janson Cohen Test Bank


Memmlers The Human Body in Health and Disease, 12th edition Barbara Janson Cohen Test Bank

Chapter 2


1. The element that is combined with oxygen in water is _______________.



2. The atomic number is based on the number of ____________.



3. A negatively charged particle orbiting the nucleus of an atom is called a(n) ________________.



4. An uncharged particle in the nucleus of an atom is a(n) ________________.



5. A unit formed by the union of two or more atoms is a(n) ______________.



6. A mixture in which the components separate unless shaken is a(n) ________________.



7. A substance in which another substance is dissolved is called a(n) ________________.



8. The universal solvent is ____________.



9. A charged atom or group of atoms is called a(n) ____________.



10. A bond formed by the sharing of electrons between elements is called a(n) ________________ bond.



11. A negatively charged ion is a(n) ________________.



12. Compounds that release ions in solution are called ____________.



13. An acid is a substance that donates a(n) ______________ ion to another substance.



14. The _________of a solution is based on its concentration of the element hydrogen.



15. A substance with a pH of 8.5 is ________________.



16. A substance with a pH 4.0 of is ______________ acidic than a substance with a pH of 6.0.



17. A form of an element that differs in its atomic weight from other forms of that same element is a(n) ____________.



18. The element that is the basis of organic chemistry is ____________.



19. All proteins, but not sugars, contain the element ____________.



20. A protein that catalyzes reactions is called a(n) ____________.



21. The prefix poly means _______________.



22. An element found in table salt is
  A) chlorine
  B) hydrogen
  C) iron
  D) carbon



23. The element that makes up the greatest percentage by weight in the body is
  A) nitrogen
  B) potassium
  C) oxygen
  D) sodium



24. An element needed to build bones is
  A) nitrogen
  B) chlorine
  C) iron
  D) calcium



25. A subunit of an element is a(n)
  A) molecule
  B) compound
  C) mixture
  D) atom



26. The positively charged particles in the atom nucleus are called
  A) electrons
  B) protons
  C) isotopes
  D) neutrons



27. The atomic number of phosphorus is 15. How many protons does phosphorus have?
  A) 15
  B) More information is required to answer this question.
  C) 12
  D) 10



28. The atomic number of sodium is 11. The sodium ion has a single positive charge (Na+). How many electrons does the sodium ion have?
  A) 11
  B) 12
  C) More information is required to answer this question.
  D) 10



29. A common isotope of sodium is called sodium-24, based on its atomic weight. The atomic weight can be calculated by adding the number of protons and the number of neutrons. The atomic number of sodium is 11. How many neutrons does sodium-24 have?
  A) 11
  B) More information is required to answer this question.
  C) 9
  D) 13



30. Cobalt has 27 electrons. What is its atomic number?
  A) More information is required to answer this question.
  B) 13
  C) 27
  D) 54



31. A combination of two or more substances that are not chemically bonded is a(n)
  A) atom
  B) mixture
  C) compound
  D) molecule



32. A substance composed of two or more different elements participating in a chemical bond is a(n)
  A) solution
  B) mixture
  C) compound
  D) atom



33. A substance that dissolves in another substance is a(n)
  A) solvent
  B) mixture
  C) solute
  D) solution



34. Which of the following is a mixture?
  A) sodium hydroxide
  B) sugar water
  C) table salt
  D) hydrochloric acid



35. A non-separating suspension can be described as
  A) inorganic
  B) nuclear
  C) covalent
  D) colloidal



36. A mixture in which the components remain evenly distributed is a(n)
  A) compound
  B) molecule
  C) suspension
  D) solution



37. A chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons is described as a(n)
  A) coordinate bond
  B) mixture
  C) ionic bond
  D) covalent bond



38. A graphic tracing of the electric current generated by the heart is called a(n)
  A) radiotracing
  B) electroencephalogram
  C) thallium stress test
  D) electrocardiogram



39. A basic substance could have a pH of
  A) 6
  B) 7
  C) 12
  D) 0



40. Which of the following is an organic compound?
  A) glycerol
  B) zinc
  C) water
  D) salt



41. The chemical category that includes fats and cholesterol is
  A) carbohydrates
  B) solutions
  C) lipids
  D) proteins



42. Proteins are complex molecules composed of
  A) glucose
  B) water
  C) amino acids
  D) calcium



43. The simplest form of carbohydrate is
  A) monosaccharides
  B) polysaccharides
  C) unisaccharides
  D) disaccharides



44. All enzymes are
  A) None of the answers are correct.
  B) proteins
  C) lipids
  D) carbohydrates



45. A hydrophobic substance
  A) repels water
  B) is a colloid
  C) contains hydrogen bonds
  D) mixes easily with water



46. A substance that has a name ending in ase is most likely a(n)
  A) mixture
  B) protein
  C) lipid
  D) carbohydrate



47. List, and briefly describe, two uses of radioisotopes.



48. List the three characteristics of organic compounds.



49. List and briefly describe the three types of carbohydrates and give an example of each.



50. Mr. L has difficulties digesting milk products due to a deficiency in the enzyme lactase. His doctor has provided him with a solution of lactase to consume every time he eats a dairy product. Mr. L decides he wants some hot chocolate. He boils his lactase with his milk to save time. His hot chocolate causes him a severe stomachache, so he calls his doctor to complain. Why did his lactase fail to work?



51. Using your knowledge of word parts, what would be a logical definition for the term monosaccharidase?




Answer Key


1. hydrogen
2. protons
3. electron
4. neutron
5. molecule
6. suspension
7. solvent
8. water
9. ion
10. covalent
11. anion
12. electrolytes
13. hydrogen
14. pH
15. basic or alkaline
16. more
17. isotope
18. carbon
19. nitrogen
20. enzyme
21. many
22. A
23. C
24. D
25. D
26. B
27. A
28. D
29. D
30. C
31. B
32. C
33. C
34. B
35. D
36. D
37. D
38. D
39. C
40. A
41. C
42. C
43. A
44. B
45. A
46. B
47. Radioisotopes are used for cancer (radiation) treatment. The radiation harms tumor cells to a greater extent than normal cells. Radioisotopes are also used for diagnosis. X-rays use radioisotopes. Also, radioisotopes can be taken into the body and used to diagnose tissue abnormalities.
48. Organic compounds (1) contain carbon, (2) form large, complex molecules, and (3) are found in living things.
49. Monosaccharides are simple sugars consisting of a single sugar residue. An example is glucose. Disaccharides consist of two simple sugars. An example is maltose. Polysaccharides consist of many simple sugars linked together. Examples are starch and glycogen.
50. Enzymes are proteins. They are often inactivated by extreme heat. When Mr. L boiled his lactase solution, he inactivated the enzyme.
51. Mono means one, sacchar/o means sugar, and ase signifies an enzyme. A monosaccharidase would thus be an enzyme that acts on simple sugars (monosaccharides).



Chapter 12

1. Hormones attach to plasma membrane proteins called ______.



2. The building blocks of protein hormones are ______.



3. ACTH acts on the adrenal ______.



4. A hormone from the posterior pituitary that is involved in water balance is ______.



5. Growth hormone is also known as ______.



6. The hormone produced by the pineal gland is ______.



7. The most important male sex hormone is ______.



8. The hormone secreted by the pancreatic islets that lowers blood sugar is ______.



9. A hormone from the adrenal cortex that helps regulate sodium and potassium balance is ______.



10. The hormone secreted from the thymus that promotes T-cell growth is _____.



11. The hormone secreted by the pancreatic islets that raises blood sugar is ______.



12. A portal system links the hypothalamus to the ______.



13. Cretinism results from a lack of _____________ in children.



14. The disease that results from the lack of insulin is______.



15. Enlargement of the thyroid gland is called _____.



16. The disease resulting from underactivity of the adrenal cortex is _____.



17. The disorder resulting from excess growth hormone in an adult is _____.



18. Excess secretion of cortisol causes a disorder called _____.



19. The hormone secreted from the kidneys that increases red blood cell synthesis is _____.



20. The hormone that can be used to induce labor is _____.



21. Excess stress can inhibit the immune system due to the actions of a hormone called _____.



22. Lipid hormones are made from _______.



23. Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone secretions are regulated by negative feedback. Increased blood calcium levels result in
  A) increased calcitonin and decreased parathyroid hormone
  B) increased calcitonin and increased parathyroid hormone
  C) decreased calcitonin and decreased parathyroid hormone
  D) decreased calcitonin and increased parathyroid hormone



24. The large gland located on either side of the larynx is the
  A) parathyroid gland
  B) pituitary gland
  C) thyroid gland
  D) adrenal gland



25. The islets of Langerhans are found in the
  A) kidney
  B) adrenal gland
  C) pancreas
  D) pituitary gland



26. What effect would a large increase in cortisol have on glucagon and insulin secretion?
  A) Both insulin and glucagon would be increased.
  B) Both insulin and glucagon would be decreased.
  C) Insulin would be decreased, glucagon would be increased.
  D) Insulin would be increased, glucagon would be decreased.



27. Which hormone opposes the effects of parathyroid hormone?
  A) calcitonin
  B) glucagon
  C) growth hormone
  D) prolactin



28. Cortisol is produced by the
  A) adrenal cortex
  B) adrenal medulla
  C) pancreas
  D) thyroid gland



29. Which of the following is a gonadotropic hormone?
  A) testosterone
  B) aldosterone
  C) luteinizing hormone
  D) oxytocin



30. Which of the following hormones is synthesized in the posterior pituitary?
  A) antidiuretic hormone
  B) growth hormone
  C) melatonin
  D) None of the answers are correct.



31. The target tissues for oxytocin are the
  A) breasts and pineal gland
  B) uterus and breasts
  C) thyroid and parathyroids
  D) pituitary and hypothalamus



32. Which of the following is NOT a product of the adrenal gland?
  A) cortisol
  B) aldosterone
  C) progesterone
  D) epinephrine



33. The gland that produces calcitonin is the
  A) parathyroid gland
  B) thyroid gland
  C) anterior pituitary gland
  D) posterior pituitary gland



34. An example of a mineralocorticoid is
  A) glucagon
  B) cortisol
  C) aldosterone
  D) testosterone



35. The stalk connecting the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland is called the
  A) pituitary cortex
  B) infundibulum
  C) anterior lobe
  D) hypophysis



36. Diabetes insipidus results from a lack of
  A) glucagon
  B) aldosterone
  C) calcitonin
  D) antidiuretic hormone



37. Mr. R is 54 years old. For the past 2 years, he has suffered from high blood sugar, frequent urination, and thirst. What is the most likely diagnosis?
  A) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
  B) noninsulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  C) diabetes insipidus
  D) hypoglycemia



38. Deficiency of thyroxine in an adult can result in
  A) cretinism
  B) myxedema
  C) acromegaly
  D) tetany



39. Local hormones produced by most body tissues are
  A) prostaglandins
  B) pituitary hormones
  C) steroids
  D) protein hormones



40. A hormone that increases sodium loss and lowers blood pressure is
  A) aldosterone
  B) antidiuretic hormone
  C) atrial natriuretic peptide
  D) calcitonin



41. The best treatment for anaphylaxis is
  A) epinephrine
  B) cortisol
  C) insulin
  D) growth hormone



42. Oral contraceptives contain
  A) estrogen and progesterone
  B) testosterone and estrogen
  C) testosterone and progesterone
  D) estrogen and aldosterone



43. The suffix poiesis means
  A) sodium
  B) milk
  C) forming
  D) swelling



44. A word ending for a hormone that controls another gland is
  A) tropin
  B) megaly
  C) poiesis
  D) nephrin



45. Nephromegaly is
  A) insufficient kidney growth
  B) enlargement of the kidney
  C) adrenal atrophy
  D) excess adrenal growth



46. Which system, the endocrine system or the nervous system, would be the better choice to regulate growth? Explain why.



47. Using the example of thyroid hormones, explain how negative feedback is used to regulate hormone levels.



48. Describe the anatomy of the parathyroid glands.



49. List the three hormones involved in calcium regulation, and briefly describe the effect of each on blood calcium levels.



50. Ms. Z, age 52, is complaining of a lack of energy. She says she is often cold, even in the summer. You give her a check-up and notice that her face is swollen, her heart rate is abnormally low, and her hair is dry. What endocrine disease does Ms. Z have, and how can she be treated?



51. Describe the cause of Cushing disease, and list four symptoms associated with this disorder.



52. Mr. J suffers from abnormally low blood sugar. His doctor suspects a pancreatic tumor that is secreting a single pancreatic hormone. What is the name of this hormone? Explain your answer.




Answer Key


1. receptors
2. amino acids
3. cortex
4. antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
5. somatotropin
6. melatonin
7. testosterone
8. insulin
9. aldosterone
10. thymosin
11. glucagon
12. anterior pituitary
13. thyroxine or thyroid hormones
14. diabetes mellitus
15. goiter
16. Addison disease
17. acromegaly
18. Cushing syndrome
19. erythropoietin
20. oxytocin
21. cortisol
22. fatty acids
23. A
24. C
25. C
26. D
27. A
28. A
29. C
30. D
31. B
32. C
33. B
34. C
35. B
36. D
37. B
38. B
39. A
40. C
41. A
42. A
43. C
44. A
45. B
46. The endocrine system. The nervous system controls very specific responses, such as moving a particular muscle. Growth occurs slowly and throughout the body. The endocrine system is best suited to this task because it can affect many tissues at the same time and exerts long-term effects.
47. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) from the pituitary stimulates the production of thyroid hormones (thyroxine and tri-iodothyronine) from the thyroid gland. Thyroid hormones feed back at the pituitary gland to inhibit TSH release. The drop in TSH levels will decrease thyroid hormone synthesis, removing inhibition of TSH synthesis.
48. There are four parathyroid glands embedded in the posterior capsule of the thyroid gland.
49. Parathyroid hormone lowers blood calcium. Calcitriol (vitamin D3) raises blood calcium. Calcitonin lowers blood calcium.
50. Ms. Z suffers from myxedema. She can be treated by administration of thyroid hormone.
51. Cushing disease results from hypersecretion of cortisol. Symptoms include obesity, moon face, easy bruising, muscle weakness, bone loss, and elevated blood sugar.
52. The tumor is probably producing insulin because insulin decreases blood sugar.



Chapter 24

1. The period of development within the uterus is called _______________.



2. The union of the ovum and the sperm cell results in the formation of a(n) ___________.



3. Following implantation, the fertilized egg is known as a(n) ___________.



4. The structure composed of maternal and fetal tissue that nourishes the fetus is called the __________.



5. A hormone synthesized by the placenta that prepares the breasts for lactation and alters maternal metabolism is ________________.



6. The tissue connecting the fetus with the placenta is called the ____________.



7. The vessel that carries oxygenated blood to the fetus is called the ____________.



8. The small swellings on the sides of the embryo that will develop into arms and legs are called __________.



9. A developing offspring at 6 weeks gestation is known as a(n) ______________.



10. The development of all body systems has been initiated by the end of the ________ trimester.



11. The gender of the fetus can be visually identified during the __________ trimester.



12. The cheese-like coating protecting fetal skin late in development is called the ____________.



13. One of the factors initiating labor may be the inhibition of maternal progesterone by the fetal hormone ______________.



14. Parturition is facilitated by the actions of a hormone that softens the cervix and relaxes the pubic symphysis. This hormone is called ____________.



15. An episiotomy would be performed during the __________ stage of labor.



16. The baby is delivered during the ______________ stage of labor.



17. The fertilization of two ova by two spermatozoa results in _______________ twins.



18. Milk passes from the mammary gland lobes to the nipple via the __________ ducts.



19. The hormone that stimulates milk let-down is _____________.



20. The mammary glands produce small amounts of a fluid called _____________ for several days following parturition.



21. The implantation of a zygote in the oviduct results in a(n) ___________________.



22. Premature detachment of the placenta from the uterine wall results in __________________.



23. Untreated pregnancy-induced hypertension can lead to a more serious disorder called _______________.



24. Infections associated with childbirth are called ___________________.



25. The word part zyg/o means ________________.



26. The ___________ is a small hole in the right atria of the fetus that allows blood to bypass the right ventricle and the pulmonary circuit.



27. The average length of gestation is
  A) 3 months
  B) 38 weeks
  C) 42 weeks
  D) 1 year



28. The fertilized egg normally attaches to the
  A) myometrium
  B) oviduct
  C) fimbriae
  D) endometrium



29. The normal chromosome number of the zygote is
  A) 23
  B) 46
  C) 69
  D) None of the answers are correct.



30. After implantation, the fertilized egg is known as a(n)
  A) zygote
  B) fetus
  C) embryo
  D) egg



31. The hormone produced by embryonic cells that maintains the corpus luteum is
  A) luteinizing hormone
  B) human placental lactogen
  C) progesterone
  D) human chorionic gonadotropin



32. The umbilical cord contains
  A) one artery and one vein
  B) two arteries and two veins
  C) two arteries and one vein
  D) one artery and two veins



33. The placenta secretes
  A) estrogen
  B) progesterone
  C) relaxin
  D) All of the answers are correct.



34. The enlargement of the uterus during pregnancy is directly stimulated by
  A) estrogen
  B) progesterone
  C) luteinizing hormone
  D) human placental lactogen



35. The heartbeat appears during
  A) the second trimester
  B) the fourth gestational week
  C) the third gestational month
  D) the third trimester



36. Which of the following maternal changes would NOT normally be associated with pregnancy?
  A) decreased heartbeat
  B) increased respiration
  C) increased urinary frequency
  D) constipation



37. The most common technique used to follow fetal development and determine the position of the placenta is
  A) amniocentesis
  B) x-rays
  C) ultrasonography
  D) magnetic resonance imaging



38. An important factor in the initiation of labor is
  A) an increase in maternal progesterone
  B) a decrease in maternal oxytocin
  C) in increase in maternal prostaglandins
  D) a decrease in fetal cortisol



39. Labor can be artificially initiated by the administration of
  A) progesterone
  B) oxytocin
  C) prolactin
  D) relaxin



40. The placenta is normally expelled from the uterus during the
  A) first stage of labor
  B) second stage of labor
  C) third stage of labor
  D) fourth stage of labor



41. Labor has officially begun when
  A) the cervix is completely dilated
  B) regular uterine contractions begin
  C) the baby enters the vagina
  D) the baby exits the vagina



42. Parturition is officially complete when
  A) the afterbirth is delivered
  B) the baby is born
  C) bleeding is controlled
  D) lactation is initiated



43. Identical twins
  A) result from the fertilization of one egg by one spermatozoa
  B) usually share an umbilical cord
  C) can be genetically distinct from each other
  D) All of the answers are correct.



44. Pregnancy hormones that prepare the breast for lactation include
  A) prolactin
  B) human chorionic mammosomatotropin
  C) progesterone
  D) All of the answers are correct.



45. Colostrum is secreted by the
  A) mammary glands
  B) uterine glands
  C) placenta
  D) amniotic membrane



46. A baby capable of living outside the uterus is described as
  A) stillborn
  B) viable
  C) ectopic
  D) preterm



47. The placenta is attached near the cervix in cases of
  A) eclampsia
  B) placenta previa
  C) abruptio placentae
  D) tubal pregnancy



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