Methods Doing Social Research 4th Edition by Winston Jackson -Test Bank

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Methods Doing Social Research 4th Edition by Winston Jackson -Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

Methods Doing Social Research 4th Edition by Winston Jackson -Test Bank

Chapter 4. Survey Designs

 

 

MC 4-1

 

The foundations of the modern survey were established by:

 

  1. Napoleon
  2. Booth
  3. The ancient Egyptians
  4. Burgess

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page:  99

 

 

MC 4-2

 

Survey research in early 20th century America by Gallop and Roper was concerned with:

 

  1. poverty
  2. religious beliefs
  3. public opinion
  4. worker attitudes

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 100

 

 

MC 4-3

 

The survey research of Stouffer and Lazarsfeld was concerned with:

 

  1. political attitudes/behaviour
  2. attitudes concerning war
  3. consumer behaviour
  4. poverty

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page:  100

 

MC 4-4

 

Surveys are designed to:

 

  1. collect information from respondents
  2. be used only by the government (i.e. the census)
  3. be used only by academics
  4. be conducted via mail only

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page:  101

 

 

MC 4-5

 

Surveys are typically associated with the:

 

  1. critical approach
  2. feminist approach
  3. positivist approach
  4. symbolic interactionist approach

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page:  101

 

 

MC 4-6

 

The most common method of data collection used by survey researchers is:

 

  1. an experimental design
  2. an observational design
  3. a questionnaire
  4. in-depth interviews

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page:  101

 

 

MC 4-7

 

If a researcher is interested in extrapolating results to a large population, she/he will employ a(n):

 

  1. pseudo-experimental design
  2. experimental design
  3. quasi-experimental design
  4. survey design

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 101

 

 

MC 4-8

 

Which of the following is not a major problem with survey designs:

 

  1. illiteracy
  2. respondent recall
  3. expense
  4. respondent honesty

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 101-02

 

 

MC 4-9

 

Point-in-time data, a term employed by critics of the survey design, refers to:

 

  1. the claim that surveys are often completed incorrectly
  2. the claim that surveys are incapable of measurement in the future
  3. the claim that surveys are incapable of measurement of the past
  4. the claim that surveys are incapable of measurement over time

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 103

 

 

MC 4-10

 

Which of the following is not recommended in survey administration:

 

  1. paying ones respondents
  2. establishment of legitimacy
  3. quality control spot checks
  4. occasionally pressuring respondents

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 104

 

 

MC 4-11

 

Surveys can be administered by means of:

 

  1. mail/individually delivered
  2. personal interviews
  3. group administered
  4. all of the above

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page:  103-120

 

 

MC 4-12

 

In survey research, the term multiple method refers to:

 

  1. including a questionnaire on different topics.
  2. having interviewers who match respondents on gender, racial and age characteristics.
  3. using more than one method of administering the survey to increase the response rate.
  4. using a web-invitation to deliver a questionnaire.

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page:  105

 

 

MC 4-13

 

By response rate, survey researchers are referring to:

 

  1. the percentage of completed questionnaires
  2. the percentage of delivered questionnaires that are returned
  3. the percentage of respondents who agree to participate
  4. none of the above

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 103

 

 

MC 4-14

 

In surveys when following up on a potential respondent, the second of such contacts should occur:

 

  1. 2 weeks after initial delivery
  2. 3 weeks after initial delivery
  3. 4 weeks after initial delivery
  4. 5 weeks after initial delivery

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 110

 

 

MC 4-15

 

Which statement about Internet-based surveys is false?

 

  1. Internet surveys are quickly replacing other survey administration strategies, including the telephone survey.
  2. Surveying the general population is not yet possible since E-mail lists do not exist.
  3. The use of an email invitation with a password and link to a web-survey can work well when groups served by a list-serve are being surveyed.
  4. All of the above are true.

 

Answer:

Difficulty: Moderate

Page:  111-12

 

 

 

MC 4-16

 

A phone survey relies on:

 

  1. statistical information
  2. computer aided response units
  3. self-report information
  4. teenagers who are more likely to answer the phone

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 112

 

 

MC 4-17

 

Of all the survey techniques, the following is likely to become the most popular:

 

  1. personal interview
  2. mail delivered questionnaire
  3. phone interview
  4. group administered questionnaire

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 115

 

 

MC 4-18

 

A structured interview is one in which:

 

  1. the interviewer is fully prepared
  2. the interviewer reads the questions to the respondent
  3. the interviewer is present while the respondent reads and answers the questions
  4. the interviewer determines the questions to be both asked and answered

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 118

 

MC 4-19

 

When selecting an interviewer to do research, which of the following is not a good predictor of quality:

 

  1. intelligence
  2. liking of science subjects
  3. manipulative skill
  4. perfectionism

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 118

 

 

MC 4-20

 

A good rule of thumb concerning the supervision of interviewers is to:

 

  1. inform the interviewer of all of the study details to ensure she/he is equipped
  2. pay your interviewers on a per interview basis
  3. avoid monitoring of the performance of the interviewers; if they find out they will be demoralized
  4. all of the above

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 119

 

 

MC 4-21

 

Panel studies are designed to:

 

  1. monitor a select group over time
  2. solicit the opinions of a group of experts
  3. solve specific community problems
  4. none of the above

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 119

 

 

 

MC 4-22

 

Panel studies are particularly advantageous with respect to:

 

  1. forming causal inference
  2. examining and comparing responses over time
  3. at times being naturalistic
  4. all of the above

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 119

 

 

 

ES 4-1

 

Briefly define or describe what is meant by each of the

following:

  1. a) interview schedule
  2. b) panel study
  3. c) phone survey
  4. d) point-in-time data
  5. e) population
  6. f) response rate
  7. g) salience of topic
  8. h) sample
  9. i) drop off form

 

Answer: SHORT ANSWER ESSAY

 

 

Chapter 6. Qualitative Research Methods

 

MC 6-1

 

Qualitative researchers emphasize:

 

  1. the positivist approach
  2. the objective indicators of human experience
  3. the interpretive approach
  4. the critical approach

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 146

 

 

MC 6-2

 

Qualitative research is:

 

  1. empirical
  2. deterministic
  3. general
  4. holistic

 

Answer: D

Difficulty:

Page: 146

 

 

MC 6-3

 

One distinction between qualitative and quantitative approaches is:

 

  1. qualitative is usually better
  2. qualitative research process is more cyclical while quantitative more linear
  3. quantitative is usually better
  4. triangulation requires both

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 149-50

 

 

 

 

MC 6-4

 

Bracketing refers to:

 

  1. placing respondents in fixed categories
  2. elaborating on the intersubjective
  3. interviewing a subset of respondents
  4. a cognitive process to set aside ones biases

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 150

 

 

MC 6-5

 

People who take part in a qualitative study are called:

 

  1. informants
  2. subjects
  3. respondents
  4. participants

 

Answer: A

Difficulty:

Page: 150

 

 

MC 6-6

 

A sampling technique used by qualitative researchers would be:

 

  1. random
  2. clustered
  3. purposive
  4. systematic

 

Answer: C

Difficulty:

Page: 151

 

 

 

 

 

 

MC 6-7

 

Saturation occurs when:

 

  1. respondents descriptions become repetitive
  2. there is oversampling of one group
  3. an interview contains too many questions
  4. a focus group sample contains too many similar people

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 153

 

 

 

MC 6-8

 

Ethnography involves:

 

  1. learning from people rather than studying people.
  2. testing partial theory.
  3. discerning causal relationships among variables.
  4. statistical analysis using tests of significance.

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 154

 

 

MC 6-9

 

The ethnographic perspective attempts to:

 

  1. understand human behavior in its cultural context
  2. uncover and convey the true meaning of lived experiences
  3. identify phenomenon that apply cross-culturally
  4. discover the dominant processes in the social scene investigated

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 154

 

 

 

MC 6-10

 

Ethnography requires that a researcher set aside his/her

 

  1. conscious ignorance
  2. nave realism
  3. participatory intent
  4. subjectivity

 

Answer: B

Difficulty:

Page: 154

 

 

MC 6-11

 

The study by David Counts and Dorothy Ayer Counts on senior citizens who travel extensively in recreational vehicles is an example of a(n):

 

  1. phenomenological study
  2. feminist study
  3. grounded theory study
  4. ethnography

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 155-56

 

 

MC 6-12

 

Grounded theory attempts to:

 

  1. establish and test causal models
  2. uncover and convey the true meaning of lived experiences
  3. identify phenomenon that apply cross-culturally
  4. discover the dominant processes in the social scene investigated

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 157

 

 

 

 

 

MC 6-13

 

Grounded theory is most identified with:

 

  1. the positivist approach.
  2. the critical approach.
  3. Symbolic Interactionism.

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 157

 

 

 

MC 6-14

 

According to Corbin and Strauss, grounded theories derive from:

 

  1. actual incidents observed in the field
  2. conceptualizations of behaviour
  3. the theoretical preferences of the researcher
  4. statistical analyses

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 157

 

 

 

MC 6-15

 

The phenomenologists concern is to:

 

  1. establish and test causal models
  2. uncover and convey the true meaning of lived experiences
  3. identify phenomenon that apply cross-culturally
  4. identify factors that provide for system balance

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 161

 

 

 

 

MC 6-16

 

What is the meaning of ones lived experience? is a question posed by:

 

  1. the grounded theory approach
  2. the ethnographic approach
  3. the positivist approach
  4. the phenomenological approach

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 161

 

 

MC 6-17

 

Husserl, the father of phenomenology, introduced two central ideas.  These are:

 

  1. subjectivity and objectivity
  2. lived experience and hermeneutics
  3. lifeworld and intersubjectivity
  4. potentiality and groundedness

 

Answer: C

Difficulty:

Page: 161

 

 

MC 6-18

 

Anthropologists, when working in the field, typically undertake:

 

  1. survey research
  2. quasi-experimental research
  3. participant observation
  4. all of the above

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 164

 

 

 

 

 

 

MC 6-19

 

Conclusions drawn from participant observational study:

 

  1. should be grounded in appropriate theory
  2. should be grounded in the data collected
  3. should mirror those expected by the researcher at the beginning of the study
  4. should run counter to popular theory

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 164-69

 

 

MC 6-20

 

Goffmans studies of a mental institution, entitled Asylums, is characteristic of:

 

  1. survey research
  2. participant observation
  3. statistical analysis
  4. none of the above

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 165

 

 

MC 6-21

 

Participant observation studies are advantageous for the examination of social phenomena because:

 

  1. they are modeled after the physical sciences
  2. they encapsulate the subjective elements of social life
  3. they are pre-interpretive and pre-selective in character
  4. they rely on advanced statistical techniques

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 165

 

 

 

 

 

MC 6-22

 

Gaining entry to the study group one wishes to observe involves:

 

  1. getting the appropriate permission
  2. a reciprocal process between the researcher and the study group
  3. establishing an informal contact
  4. all of the above

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 166-67

 

MC 6-23

 

One challenge of participant observation is:

 

  1. developing and maintaining good rapport
  2. taking field notes
  3. gaining entry
  4. all of the above

 

Answer: D

Difficulty:

Page 166-167

 

 

 

MC 6-24

 

A master field file is made up of:

 

  1. a complete journal of field notes
  2. archival sources (i.e. government documents)
  3. the study population list
  4. the analyzed results of the field research

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 169

 

 

 

 

 

MC 6-25

 

Analytic files, those derived from the master field file, constitute:

 

  1. relationships explored in the study
  2. the quantified data of the field observations
  3. the researchers original notes rewritten in more detail
  4. key information concerning the individuals studied

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 169

 

MC 6-26

 

A background/history file contains:

 

  1. the information compiled by the researcher on the study group prior to entering the field
  2. the biographic information of the informal contact
  3. information drawn from the master file and other sources
  4. information concerning similar research already conducted

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 169

 

 

 

MC 6-27

 

Participant observation was initially developed by:

 

  1. classical anthropologists
  2. psychologists
  3. sociologists
  4. natural scientists

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 170

 

 

 

 

 

MC 6-28

 

Probing refers to:

 

  1. pressuring respondents
  2. structured questioning
  3. in-depth questioning
  4. covert observation

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 170

 

 

MC 6-29

 

Two types of analysis used by ethnographers include:

 

  1. theme analysis and subject analysis
  2. scene analysis and taxonomic analysis
  3. componential analysis and categorical analysis
  4. theme analysis and domain analysis

 

Answer: D

Difficulty:

Page 172-174

 

 

MC 6-30

 

In-depth interviews make use of:

 

  1. standardized questions
  2. structured questions
  3. close-ended questions
  4. open-ended questions

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 174-175

 

 

 

 

 

 

MC 6-31

 

According to grounded theory, in deciding which incidents or individuals to be observed, researchers should:

 

  1. locate informal contacts
  2. sample according to concepts
  3. locate specific individuals of note
  4. employ random observation techniques

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 175-77

 

 

MC 6-32

 

In comparison to the quantitative approaches, qualitative approaches emphasize:

 

  1. validity, objectivity, reliability, and generalizability
  2. intersubjectivity, reflexivity, punctuality, and optimism
  3. credibility, transferability, dependability, and confirmability
  4. authenticity, rigor, patience, systematic samples

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 179-80

 

 

MC 6-33

 

Transferability refers to:

 

  1. the fittingness of a studys findings to apply to other settings, contexts
  2. empathizing with a study participant
  3. X=Y or Y=X
  4. the adequacy of the operationalization of a concept

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 180

 

 

 

 

 

MC 6-34

 

In-depth interviews, and qualitative studies in general, have an advantage over quantitative designs in that:

 

  1. they are less likely to be rejected
  2. they can access the truth of matters
  3. they are less expensive
  4. they take less time to complete

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 182

 

 

MC 6-35

 

A major strength of qualitative research is its ability to:

 

  1. test formal hypotheses
  2. make extrapolations to the general population
  3. exclude competing alternative explanations
  4. study behavior in natural settings

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 182

 

 

MC 6-36

 

Qualitative and quantitative methods should be seen as:

 

  1. complementary
  2. diametrically opposed
  3. poor alternatives to positivist approaches
  4. inconsistent with the feminist critique of society

 

Answer: A

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 182

 

 

 

 

 

MC 6-37

 

A major limitation of qualitative research is its inability to:

 

  1. deal with natural settings
  2. understand individual cases
  3. deal with a participants perceptions
  4. be objective

 

Answer: D

Difficulty: Moderate

Page: 182

 

 

MC 6-38

 

The general flaw with participant observation and other field studies is their:

 

  1. cost
  2. inability to manipulate conditions
  3. inability to generalize
  4. lengthy time frame for completion

 

Answer: C

Difficulty: Challenging

Page: 182

 

 

MC 6-39

 

The general advantage to participant observation and other field studies is their:

 

  1. cost
  2. increased validity of measures
  3. interesting results
  4. applicability to quantitative analysis

 

Answer: B

Difficulty: Easy

Page: 182

 

 

 

 

 

 

ES 6-1

 

Briefly define or describe what is meant by each of the following:

  1. bracketing
  2. constant comparative method
  3. domain analysis
  4. grounded theory
  5. lived experience
  6. purposive sampling
  7. saturation
  8. trustworthiness
  9. theoretical memo
  10. symbolic interactionism

 

Answer: SHORT ANSWER

 

 

ES 6-2

 

What does it mean to say that qualitative research follows a nonlinear path? In what ways is a nonlinear path valuable to qualitative researchers?

Answer: ESSAY

 

ES 6-3

Compare and contrast the research process associated with the quantitative and qualitative traditions.

 

Answer: ESSAY

 

 

ES 6-4

 

Outline and illustrate the traditional standards of quality developed by Lincoln and Guba for assessing truth in qualitative, and note their contemporary perspective on the issue of assessing qualitative research.

 

Answer: ESSAY

 

 

ES 6-5

 

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of survey research versus qualitative research strategies. What types of information would you gain using each of these approaches?

 

Answer: ESSAY

 

ES 6-6

 

Identify some activity in your home community that you would like to investigate using participant observation techniques. Develop a proposal indicating what group or activity you wish to observe, what kinds of questions you think it might be interesting to pursue, and how you would propose to record the information gathered.

 

Answer: ESSAY

 

 

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