Microbiology A Human Perspective Eugene Nester 7th Edition Test Bank

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Microbiology A Human Perspective Eugene Nester 7th Edition Test Bank

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Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1)

A gene is best defined as

1)

_______

A)

a transcribed unit of DNA.

B)

a sequence of nucleotides in DNA that codes for a functional product.

C)

a segment of DNA.

D)

a sequence of nucleotides in RNA that codes for a functional product.

E)

three nucleotides that code for an amino acid.

2)

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

2)

_______

A)

DNA gyrase coils and twists DNA

B)

RNA polymerase makes a molecule of RNA from an RNA template

C)

transposase insertion of DNA segments into DNA

D)

DNA ligase joins segments of DNA

E)

DNA polymerase makes a molecule of DNA from a DNA template

3)

Which of the following statements is FALSE?

3)

_______

A)

The leading strand of DNA is made continuously.

B)

The lagging strand of DNA is started by an RNA primer.

C)

DNA replication proceeds in one direction around the bacterial chromosome.

D)

DNA polymerase joins nucleotides in one direction only.

E)

Multiple replication forks are possible on a bacterial chromosome.

4)

DNA is constructed of

4)

_______

A)

two strands of nucleotides running antiparallel.

B)

a single strand of nucleotides with internal hydrogen bonding.

C)

two complementary strands of nucleotides bonded AC and GT.

D)

two strands of identical nucleotides with hydrogen bonds between them.

E)

None of the answers is correct.

5)

Which of the following is NOT a product of transcription?

5)

_______

A)

tRNA

B)

rRNA

C)

mRNA

D)

a new strand of DNA

E)

None of the answers are correct; all of these are products of transcription.

6)

Which of the following statements about bacteriocins is FALSE?

6)

_______

A)

They cause food-poisoning symptoms.

B)

Bacteriocins kill bacteria.

C)

Nisin is a bacteriocin used as a food preservative.

D)

They can be used to identify certain bacteria.

E)

The genes coding for them are on plasmids.

Figure 8.1

7)

In Figure 8.1, which colonies are streptomycin-resistant and leucine-requiring?

7)

_______

A)

1, 2, 3, and 9

B)

4, 6, and 8

C)

3 and 9

D)

5 and 6

E)

4 and 8

Table 8.1

Culture 1: F+, leucine+, histidine+
Culture 2: F-, leucine-, histidine-

8)

In Table 8.1, what will be the result of conjugation between cultures 1 and 2?

8)

_______

A)

1 will remain the same;
2 will become F+, leucine-, histidine-

B)

1 will remain the same;
2 will become F+, leu+, his+

C)

1 will become F-, leu-, his-;
2 will remain the same

D)

1 will become F-, leu+, his+;
2 will become F+, leu-, his-

E)

1 will remain the same;
2 will become F+ and recombination may occur

9)

In Table 8.1, if culture 1 mutates to Hfr, what will be the result of conjugation between the two cultures?

9)

_______

A)

They will both remain the same.

B)

1 will remain the same;
recombination will occur in 2

C)

1 will become F-, leu+, his+;
2 will become Hfr, leu+, his+

D)

1 will become F+, leu+, his+;
2 will become F+, leu+, his+

E)

The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

10)

An enzyme produced in response to the presence of a substrate is called a(n)

10)

______

A)

repressible enzyme.

B)

promoter.

C)

restriction enzyme.

D)

inducible enzyme.

E)

operator.

11)

When glucose is high, cAMP is _____ : CAP _____ bind the lac operator, and RNA polymerase _____ bind the lac promoter.

11)

______

A)

low; does not; does not

B)

low; does not; does

C)

high; does; does

D)

high; does not; does

E)

None of the answers is correct.

12)

Transformation is the transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient cell

12)

______

A)

by crossing over.

B)

by sexual reproduction.

C)

by cell-to-cell contact.

D)

as naked DNA in solution.

E)

by a bacteriophage.

13)

Genetic change in bacteria can be brought about by

13)

______

A)

transduction.

B)

mutation.

C)

conjugation.

D)

transformation.

E)

All of the answers are correct.

14)

Which of the following statements regarding a bacterium that is R+ is FALSE?

14)

______

A)

R+ can be transferred to a different species.

B)

It is F+.

C)

It possesses a plasmid.

D)

R+ can be transferred to a cell of the same species.

E)

It is resistant to certain drugs and heavy metals.

15)

The initial effect of ionizing radiation on a cell is that it causes

15)

______

A)

DNA to break.

B)

bonding between adjacent thymines.

C)

the formation of highly reactive ions.

D)

base substitutions.

E)

the cells to get hot.

16)

According to the operon model, for the synthesis of an inducible enzyme to occur, the

16)

______

A)

repressor must bind to the operator.

B)

repressor must not be synthesized.

C)

substrate must bind to the enzyme.

D)

end-product must not be in excess.

E)

substrate must bind to the repressor.

17)

Synthesis of a repressible enzyme is stopped by the

17)

______

A)

substrate binding to the repressor.

B)

corepressor binding to the operator.

C)

allosteric transition.

D)

end product binding to the promoter.

E)

corepressor-repressor complex binding to the operator.

Figure 8.2

REPLICATION FORK

18)

In Figure 8.2, if base 4 is thymine, what is base 4?

18)

______

A)

cytosine

B)

uracil

C)

thymine

D)

guanine

E)

adenine

19)

In Figure 8.2, if base 4 is thymine, what is base 11?

19)

______

A)

guanine

B)

adenine

C)

cytosine

D)

thymine

E)

uracil

20)

In Figure 8.2, base 2 is attached to

20)

______

A)

phosphate.

B)

ribose.

C)

thymine.

D)

deoxyribose.

E)

The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

21)

The damage caused by ultraviolet radiation is

21)

______

A)

never repaired.

B)

repaired during transcription.

C)

repaired by DNA replication.

D)

cut out and replaced.

E)

repaired during translation.

Table 8.2

Codon on mRNA and corresponding amino acid
UUA leucine UAA nonsense
GCA alanine AAU sparagine
AAG lysine UGC cysteine
GUU valine UCG, UCU serine

22)

Refer to Table 8.2. If the sequence of amino acids encoded by a strand of DNA is
serine-alanine-lysine-leucine, what is the order of bases in the sense strand of DNA?

22)

______

A)

3 TCTCGTTTGTTA

B)

3 UGUGCAAAGUUA

C)

3 AGACGTTTCAAT

D)

5 TGTGCTTTCTTA

E)

5 AGAGCTTTGAAT

23)

Refer to Table 8.2. If the sequence of amino acids encoded by a strand of DNA is
serine-alanine-lysine-leucine, the coding for the antisense strand of DNA is

23)

______

A)

5 ACAGTTTCAAT.

B)

5 TCTGCAAAGTTA.

C)

3 UGUGCAAAGUUA.

D)

3 TCACGUUUCAAU.

E)

3 UCUCGAAAGUUA.

24)

Refer to Table 8.2 The anticodon for valine is

24)

______

A)

GTA.

B)

CTT.

C)

CUU.

D)

GUU.

E)

CAA.

25)

Refer to Table 8.2. What is the sequence of amino acids encoded by the following sequence of bases in a strand of DNA?

3 ATTACGCTTTGC

25)

______

A)

asparagine-arginine-lysine-alanine

B)

leucine-arginine-lysine-alanine

C)

asparagine-cysteine-valine-serine

D)

Translation would stop at the first codon.

E)

The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

26)

Refer to Table 8.2. If a frameshift mutation occurred in the sequence of bases shown below, what would be the sequence of amino acids coded for?

3 ATTACGCTTTGC

26)

______

A)

leucine-arginine-lysine-alanine

B)

asparagine-cysteine-valine-serine

C)

asparagine-arginine-lysine-alanine

D)

Translation would stop at the first codon.

E)

The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

27)

In Figure 8.3, if compound C reacts with the allosteric site of enzyme A, this would exemplify

27)

______

A)

feedback inhibition.

B)

competitive inhibition.

C)

transcription.

D)

a mutation.

E)

repression.

28)

In Figure 8.3, if enzyme A is a repressible enzyme, compound C would

28)

______

A)

bind to the corepressor.

B)

bind to the enzyme.

C)

bind to gene a.

D)

always be in excess.

E)

bind to RNA polymerase.

29)

In Figure 8.3, if enzyme A is an inducible enzyme,

29)

______

A)

compound A would react with enzyme B.

B)

compound C would react with gene a.

C)

compound A would bind to the repressor.

D)

compound C would bind to the repressor.

E)

compound B would bind to enzyme A.

30)

Conjugation differs from reproduction because conjugation

30)

______

A)

transcribes DNA to RNA.

B)

replicates DNA.

C)

transfers DNA horizontally, to cells in the same generation.

D)

transfers DNA vertically, to new cells.

E)

copies RNA to make DNA.

31)

The necessary ingredients for DNA synthesis can be mixed together in a test tube. The DNA polymerase is from Thermus aquaticus, and the template is from a human cell. The DNA synthesized would be most similar to

31)

______

A)

human DNA.

B)

T. aquaticus DNA.

C)

a mixture of human and T. aquaticus DNA.

D)

human RNA.

E)

T. aquaticus RNA.

Table 8.3

Amino Acids Encoded by the Human p53 Gene

32)

Based on the information in Table 8.3, prostate cancer is probably the result of which kind of mutation?

32)

______

A)

analog

B)

missense

C)

nonsense

D)

frameshift

E)

None of the answers is correct.

Figure 8.4

33)

In Figure 8.4, the antibiotic chloramphenicol binds the 50S ribosome as shown. From this information you can conclude that chloramphenicol

33)

______

A)

prevents transcription in eukaryotes.

B)

prevents mRNA-ribosome binding.

C)

prevents translation in eukaryotes.

D)

prevents transcription in prokaryotes.

E)

prevents translation in prokaryotes.

34)

The mechanism by which the presence of glucose inhibits the arabinose operon is

34)

______

A)

translation.

B)

DNA polymerase.

C)

induction.

D)

repression.

E)

catabolite repression.

35)

The mechanism by which the presence of arabinose controls the arabinose operon is

35)

______

A)

translation.

B)

catabolite repression.

C)

repression.

D)

induction.

E)

DNA polymerase.

36)

If you knew the sequence of nucleotides within a gene, which one of the following could you determine with the most accuracy?

36)

______

A)

the primary structure of the protein

B)

the secondary structure of the protein

C)

the tertiary structure of the protein

D)

the quaternary structure of the protein

E)

The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

37)

An enzyme that makes covalent bonds between nucleotide sequences in DNA is

37)

______

A)

DNA ligase

B)

DNA helicase.

C)

transposase.

D)

DNA polymerase.

E)

RNA polymerase.

38)

An enzyme that copies DNA to make a molecule of RNA is

38)

______

A)

RNA polymerase.

B)

DNA polymerase.

C)

DNA helicase.

D)

transposase.

E)

DNA ligase.

39)

An enzyme that catalyzes the cutting and resealing of DNA, and is translated from insertion sequences, is

39)

______

A)

DNA ligase.

B)

DNA helicase.

C)

DNA polymerase.

D)

transposase.

E)

RNA polymerase.

40)

Repair of damaged DNA might be viewed as a race between an endonuclease and

40)

______

A)

DNA ligase.

B)

primase.

C)

helicase.

D)

DNA polymerase.

E)

methylase.

41)

The cancer gene ras produces mRNA containing an extra exon that includes a number of UAA codons. Cancer cells produce ras mRNA missing this exon. This mistake most likely is due to a mistake by

41)

______

A)

UV radiation.

B)

snRNPs.

C)

photolyases.

D)

DNA polymerase.

E)

a chemical mutagen.

Figure 8.5

42)

In Figure 8.5, which model of the lac operon correctly shows RNA polymerase, lactose, and repressor protein when the structural genes are being transcribed?

42)

______

A)

a

B)

b

C)

c

D)

d

E)

e

43)

The miRNAs in a cell

43)

______

A)

are found in prokaryotic cells.

B)

are a part of the prokaryotic ribosome.

C)

are responsible for inducing operons.

D)

allow different cells to produce different proteins.

E)

are a part of the eukaryotic ribosome.

44)

Assume the two E.coli strains shown below are allowed to conjugate.

Hfr: pro+, arg+, his+, lys+, met+, ampicillin-sensitive
F: pro-, arg-, his-, lys-, met-, ampicillin-resistant

What supplements would you add to glucose minimal salts agar to select for a recombinant cell that is lys+, arg+, amp-resistant?

44)

______

A)

ampicillin, lysine, arginine

B)

ampicillin, prolein, histidine, lysine

C)

lysine, arginine

D)

ampicillin, proline, histidine, methionine

E)

proline, histidine, methionine

45)

Protein synthesis in eukaryotes is similar to the process in prokaryotes in that both eukaryotes and prokaryotes

45)

______

A)

require snRNPS.

B)

have exons.

C)

use codons to determine polypeptide sequences.

D)

use methionine as the start amino acid.

E)

have introns.

TRUE/FALSE. Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false.

46)

Recombination will always alter a cells genotype.

46)

______

47)

Open-reading frames are segments of DNA in which both start and stop codons are found.

47)

______

48)

Bacteria typically contain multiple chromosomes.

48)

______

49)

Mutations that are harmful to cells occur more frequently than those that benefit cells.

49)

______

50)

The miRNAs in a cell inhibit protein synthesis by forming complementary bonds with rRNA.

50)

______

51)

Some organisms may contain multiple genomes.

51)

______

52)

Both base substitution and frameshift mutations can result in the formation of premature stop codons.

52)

______

53)

In the Ames test, any colonies that form on the control should be the result of spontaneous mutations.

53)

______

54)

Transposition results in the formation of base substitution mutations in a cells DNA.

54)

______

55)

Cell-to-cell contact is required for transduction to occur.

55)

______

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

56)

What is the survival value of the semiconservative replication of DNA?

57)

Scientists are concerned that bacteria will be resistant to all antibiotics within the next decade. Using your knowledge of genetics, describe how bacterial populations can develop drug resistance in such a short time frame.

58)

Explain why the following statement is false: Sexual reproduction is the only mechanism for genetic change.

59)

Why must the cultures used in the Ames test be auxotrophic? Explain the necessity of using a strain that is mutated in this experiment.

60)

What is the survival value of the degeneracy of the genetic code?

1)

B

2)

B

3)

C

4)

A

5)

D

6)

A

7)

E

8)

A

9)

B

10)

D

11)

A

12)

D

13)

E

14)

B

15)

C

16)

E

17)

E

18)

E

19)

D

20)

D

21)

D

22)

C

23)

B

24)

E

25)

D

26)

E

27)

A

28)

A

29)

C

30)

C

31)

A

32)

C

33)

E

34)

E

35)

D

36)

A

37)

A

38)

A

39)

D

40)

E

41)

B

42)

D

43)

D

44)

D

45)

C

46)

TRUE

47)

TRUE

48)

FALSE

49)

TRUE

50)

FALSE

51)

FALSE

52)

TRUE

53)

TRUE

54)

FALSE

55)

FALSE

56)

57)

58)

59)

60)

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