Microbiology An Introduction 11th edition Tortora Test bank

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Microbiology An Introduction 11th edition Tortora Test bank

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Exam
Name___________________________________

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

1)

Which of the following is NOT equal to 1 mm?

1)

_______

A)

10-3 m

B)

0.001 m

C)

0.1 cm

D)

100 m

E)

10 6 nm

2)

What structure does light pass through after leaving the condenser in a compound light microscope?

2)

_______

A)

ocular lens

B)

objective lens

C)

illuminator

D)

specimen

3)

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

3)

_______

A)

nigrosin negative stain

B)

basic dye negative stain

C)

methylene blue simple stain

D)

crystal violet simple stain

E)

acidic dye capsule stain

4)

Which of the following places the steps of the Gram stain in the correct order?
1-Alcohol-acetone
2-Crystal violet
3-Safranin
4-Iodine

4)

_______

A)

4-3-2-1

B)

2-4-1-3

C)

2-1-4-3

D)

1-2-3-4

E)

1-3-2-4

5)

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

5)

_______

A)

carbolfuchsin basic dye

B)

iodine mordant

C)

alcohol-acetone decolorizer

D)

crystal violet basic dye

E)

safranin acid dye

6)

Which of the following is NOT true regarding the acid-fast stain?

6)

_______

A)

Acid-fast cells retain the primary dye after treatment with acid-alcohol.

B)

If cells are acid-fast, they are gram-negative.

C)

Non-acid-fast microbes appear blue in a completed acid-fast stain.

D)

Acid-fast cells appear red in a completed acid-fast stain.

E)

It is used to identify members of the genus Mycobacterium.

7)

The purpose of a mordant in the Gram stain is to

7)

_______

A)

make the flagella visible.

B)

make the bacterial cells larger.

C)

make gram-negative cells visible.

D)

remove the simple stain.

E)

prevent the crystal violet from leaving the cells.

8)

Which of the following places the steps in the correct sequence?
1-Staining
2-Making a smear
3-Fixing

8)

_______

A)

1-3-2

B)

3-2-1

C)

1-2-3

D)

2-3-1

E)

The order is unimportant.

9)

The negative stain is used to

9)

_______

A)

determine cell size.

B)

determine flagella arrangement.

C)

determine Gram reaction.

D)

visualize endospores.

E)

visualize capsules.

10)

Simple staining is often necessary to improve contrast in which microscope?

10)

______

A)

compound light microscope

B)

electron microscope

C)

phase-contrast microscope

D)

darkfield microscope

E)

fluorescence microscope

11)

Which microscope is used to see internal structures of cells in a natural state?

11)

______

A)

compound light microscope

B)

electron microscope

C)

phase-contrast microscope

D)

darkfield microscope

E)

fluorescence microscope

12)

Which microscope uses visible light?

12)

______

A)

scanning acoustic microscope

B)

confocal microscope

C)

differential interference contrast microscope

D)

scanning electron microscope

E)

fluorescence microscope

13)

Which microscope achieves the highest magnification and greatest resolution?

13)

______

A)

electron microscope

B)

phase-contrast microscope

C)

darkfield microscope

D)

fluorescence microscope

E)

compound light microscope

14)

In using this microscope, the observer does NOT look directly at an image through a lens.

14)

______

A)

phase-contrast microscope

B)

compound light microscope

C)

fluorescence microscope

D)

darkfield microscope

E)

electron microscope

15)

This microscope produces an image of a light cell against a dark background; internal structures are NOT visible.

15)

______

A)

phase-contrast microscope

B)

darkfield microscope

C)

fluorescence microscope

D)

electron microscope

E)

compound light microscope

16)

A virus measures 100 nm in length. What is its length in m?

16)

______

A)

1 m

B)

0.01 m

C)

.1 m

D)

0.001 m

E)

10 m

17)

Which of the following is NOT useful for observing living cells?

17)

______

A)

scanning acoustic microscope

B)

brightfield microscope

C)

phase-contrast microscope

D)

scanning electron microscope

E)

darkfield microscope

18)

A microorganism measures 5 m in length. Its length in mm would be

18)

______

A)

0.05 mm.

B)

0.5 mm.

C)

50 mm.

D)

0.005 mm.

E)

500 mm.

19)

Which of the following correctly traces the path of light through the compound microscope?

19)

______

A)

condenser; light source; specimen; objective lens; ocular lens

B)

light source; condenser; objective lens; specimen; ocular lens

C)

light source; condenser; specimen; objective lens; ocular lens

D)

condenser; light source; specimen; ocular lens; objective lens

E)

light source; specimen; condenser; objective lens; ocular lens

Figure 3.1

20)

In Figure 3.1, line c points to the microscopes

20)

______

A)

ocular lens.

B)

condenser.

C)

illuminator.

D)

objective lens.

21)

Which microscope can be used to visualize DNA or botulinum toxin?

21)

______

A)

scanning tunneling microscope

B)

compound light microscope

C)

phase-contrast microscope

D)

scanning electron microscope

E)

confocal microscope

22)

Which microscope is used to observe a specimen that emits light when illuminated with an ultraviolet light?

22)

______

A)

compound light microscope

B)

phase-contrast microscope

C)

darkfield microscope

D)

electron microscope

E)

fluorescence microscope

23)

Which microscope is most useful for visualizing a biofilm?

23)

______

A)

fluorescence microscope

B)

scanning acoustic microscope

C)

compound light microscope

D)

phase-contrast microscope

E)

transmission electron microscope

24)

Which microscope takes advantage of differences in the refractive indexes of cell structures?

24)

______

A)

compound light microscope

B)

fluorescence microscope

C)

electron microscope

D)

darkfield microscope

E)

phase-contrast microscope

25)

You are performing a Gram stain on gram-positive bacteria and you stop after the addition of the first dye. What is the appearance of the bacteria at this point?

25)

______

A)

brown

B)

purple

C)

red

D)

colorless

26)

You are performing a Gram stain on gram-negative bacteria and you stop after the addition of the mordant. What is the appearance of the bacteria at this point?

26)

______

A)

purple

B)

colorless

C)

red

D)

brown

27)

You are performing a Gram stain on gram-negative bacteria and you stop after the decolorizer step. What is the appearance of the bacteria at this point?

27)

______

A)

purple

B)

brown

C)

colorless

D)

red

28)

You are performing a Gram stain on gram-positive bacteria and you stop after the addition of the counterstain. What is the appearance of the bacteria at this point?

28)

______

A)

red

B)

brown

C)

colorless

D)

purple

29)

Which type of stain is most useful in helping clinicians to decide which antibiotic to prescribe for a bacterial infection?

29)

______

A)

Gram stain

B)

flagella stain

C)

endospore stain

D)

negative stain

E)

simple stain

30)

Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

30)

______

A)

fluorescence microscope uses a fluorescent light

B)

scanning electron microscope produces a three-dimensional image

C)

scanning tunneling microscope allows visualization of atoms

D)

confocal microscope produces a three-dimensional image

E)

darkfield microscope uses visible light

31)

What is the total magnification of a specimen viewed with a 10x ocular lens and a 45x objective lens?

31)

______

A)

10x

B)

450x

C)

100x

D)

4.5x

E)

45x

32)

You are studying a cell structure that is approximately 100 nm in size. Which of the following provides the lowest magnification you can use to see this structure?

32)

______

A)

phase-contrast microscope

B)

transmission electron microscope

C)

darkfield microscope

D)

scanning electron microscope

E)

brightfield microscope

33)

Which microscope uses two beams of light to produce a three-dimensional color image?

33)

______

A)

DIC microscope

B)

electron microscope

C)

fluorescence microscope

D)

darkfield microscope

E)

phase-contrast microscope

34)

Which microscope is used to see intracellular detail in a living cell?

34)

______

A)

atomic force microscope

B)

transmission electron microscope

C)

fluorescence microscope

D)

two-photon microscope

E)

brightfield microscope

35)

Which microscope is used to observe viruses and the internal structure of thinly sectioned cells?

35)

______

A)

fluorescence microscope

B)

transmission electron microscope

C)

brightfield microscope

D)

darkfield microscope

E)

scanning electron microscope

36)

Which microscope is used to see detail of a 300-nm virus?

36)

______

A)

fluorescence microscope

B)

darkfield microscope

C)

electron microscope

D)

DIC microscope

E)

phase-contrast microscope

37)

Assume you stain Bacillus by applying malachite green with heat and then counterstaining with safranin. Through the microscope, the green structures are

37)

______

A)

capsules.

B)

cell walls.

C)

endospores.

D)

flagella.

E)

The answer cannot be determined.

38)

Which step in the Gram stain is the critical step in differentiating gram-positive cells from gram-negative cells?

38)

______

A)

crystal violet

B)

safranin

C)

alcohol-acetone

D)

iodine

39)

You find colorless areas in cells in a gram-stained smear. What should you apply next?

39)

______

A)

a simple stain

B)

an endospore stain

C)

a capsule stain

D)

an acid-fast stain

E)

a flagella stain

40)

Which microscope is best used for observing the surfaces of intact cells and viruses?

40)

______

A)

darkfield microscope

B)

scanning electron microscope

C)

phase-contrast microscope

D)

brightfield microscope

E)

fluorescence microscope

41)

Bacterial smears are fixed before staining to

41)

______

A)

make the cells visible.

B)

accept stain.

C)

affix the cells to the slide.

D)

make their walls permeable.

42)

The resolution of a microscope can be improved by changing the

42)

______

A)

wavelength of light.

B)

diaphragm.

C)

condenser.

D)

coarse adjustment.

E)

fine adjustment.

43)

A student is looking at a bacterial specimen using the oil immersion lens, but has forgotten to put immersion oil on the slide. The specimen will appear

43)

______

A)

larger than it would if immersion oil was used.

B)

smaller than it would if immersion oil was used.

C)

to have no color.

D)

somewhat fuzzy and have poor resolution.

E)

the same as it would if the immersion oil was used.

44)

The purpose of the ocular lens is to

44)

______

A)

decrease the light.

B)

increase the light.

C)

decrease the refractive index.

D)

magnify the image from the objective lens.

E)

improve resolution.

45)

) In microscopy, the term resolution

45)

______

A)

refers to magnification when using the electron microscope.

B)

is only observed in stained specimens.

C)

is the same as the total magnification of a specimen.

D)

is improved when longer wavelengths of light are employed.

E)

refers to the ability to distinguish fine structure and detail in a specimen.

TRUE/FALSE. Write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false.

46)

The counterstain used in the Gram stain is a basic dye.

46)

______

47)

In a completed Gram stain, gram-negative bacteria are colorless.

47)

______

48)

In a completed Gram stain, gram-positive bacteria are purple.

48)

______

49)

If acid-fast bacteria are stained with the Gram stain, they will stain gram-negative.

49)

______

50)

The limit of resolution of the compound microscope illuminated with visible light is approximately 0.2 m.

50)

______

51)

Both phase-contrast microscopy and differential interference contrast microscopy are used to
view the internal structures of cells without staining.

51)

______

52)

Cells viewed in darkfield microscopy appear similar to those stained with the negative stain.

52)

______

53)

The capsules and flagella of bacteria can be observed in gram-stained smears.

53)

______

54)

The greater resolution of the electron microscope compared to the compound microscope is due to the longer wavelengths of the electrons used to examine specimens.

54)

______

55)

Scanned probe microscopy is used to examine fine detail of molecular complexes, such as blood clots, or molecules, such as DNA.

55)

______

ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper.

56)

In 1877, Robert Koch thought preparing permanently stained slides would be valuable. Why
was his assessment correct?

57)

In 1884, Hans Christian Gram described a method of staining bacterial cells while not staining surrounding animal tissues. However, he thought that the staining method he developed was faulty because not all bacteria stained. In a letter to the editor of the journal in which Gram published his findings, write your response to Grams concern.

58)

You are working in a clinical laboratory and you need to examine an unstained urine sample for the presence of bacteria. What type of light microscope should you use to observe this specimen? Explain your answer.

1)

D

2)

D

3)

B

4)

B

5)

E

6)

B

7)

E

8)

D

9)

E

10)

A

11)

C

12)

C

13)

A

14)

E

15)

B

16)

C

17)

D

18)

D

19)

C

20)

B

21)

A

22)

E

23)

B

24)

E

25)

B

26)

A

27)

C

28)

D

29)

A

30)

A

31)

B

32)

D

33)

A

34)

D

35)

B

36)

C

37)

C

38)

C

39)

B

40)

B

41)

C

42)

A

43)

D

44)

D

45)

E

46)

TRUE

47)

FALSE

48)

TRUE

49)

FALSE

50)

TRUE

51)

TRUE

52)

TRUE

53)

FALSE

54)

FALSE

55)

TRUE

56)

57)

58)

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