Microbiology An Introduction 12th Edition by Gerard J. Tortora Berdell R. Funke Christine L. Case test bank

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Microbiology An Introduction 12th Edition by Gerard J. Tortora Berdell R. Funke Christine L. Case test bank

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Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e, (Tortora)
Chapter 4 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

4.1 Multiple-Choice Questions

1) Which of the following statements is INCORRECT regarding prokaryotic cells?
A) Their DNA is not enclosed within a membrane.
B) They lack membrane-enclosed organelles.
C) They typically have a circular chromosome.
D) They reproduce by binary fission.
E) They lack a plasma membrane.
Answer: E
Section: 4.1
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
ASMcue Outcome: 2.2
Learning Outcome: 4.1

2) Each of the following statements concerning the gram-positive cell wall is true EXCEPT
A) it maintains the shape of the cell.
B) it is sensitive to lysozyme.
C) it protects the cell in a hypertonic environment.
D) it contains teichoic acids.
E) it is sensitive to penicillin.
Answer: C
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.2
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 2

3) Which of the following statements best describes what happens when a bacterial cell is placed in a solution containing 5% NaCl?
A) Sucrose will move into the cell from a higher to a lower concentration.
B) The cell will undergo osmotic lysis.
C) Water will move out of the cell.
D) Water will move into the cell.
E) No change will result; the solution is isotonic.
Answer: C
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 4.9
Global Outcome: 2

4) A gram-positive bacterium suddenly acquires resistance to the antibiotic methicillin. This trait most likely occurred due to acquisition of new genetic information through
A) conjugation.
B) binary fission.
C) meisosis.
D) transformation.
E) transduction.
Answer: A
Section: 4.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
ASMcue Outcome: 4.1
Learning Outcome: 4.4
Global Outcome: 2

5) By which of the following mechanisms can a cell transport a substance from a lower to a higher concentration?
A) simple diffusion
B) facilitated diffusion
C) active transport
D) extracellular enzymes
E) aquaporins
Answer: C
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
Learning Outcome: 4.9
Global Outcome: 2

6) Which of the following is NOT a typical characteristic of most bacterial plasma membranes?
A) site of energy production
B) composed of a phospholipid bilayer
C) contains proteins
D) contains cholesterol
E) is selectively permeable
Answer: D
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
ASMcue Outcome: 2.4
Learning Outcome: 4.8
Global Outcome: 2

7) Which one of the following organisms has a cell wall?
A) protoplasts
B) fungi
C) L forms
D) mycoplasmas
E) animal cells
Answer: B
Section: 4.7
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
ASMcue Outcome: 2.4
Learning Outcome: 4.14
Global Outcome: 7
8) Which of the following statements is TRUE?
A) Endospores are for reproduction.
B) Endospores allow a cell to survive environmental changes by producing a dormant period with no growth.
C) Endospores are easily stained in a Gram stain.
D) A cell produces one endospore and keeps growing.
E) A cell can produce many endospores.
Answer: B
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
ASMcue Outcome: 2.3
Learning Outcome: 4.12

9) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) endoplasmic reticulum internal transport
B) Golgi complex secretion
C) mitochondria ATP production
D) centrosome food storage
E) lysosome digestive enzymes
Answer: D
Section: 4.11
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
Learning Outcome: 4.19

10) Which of the following organelles most closely resembles a prokaryotic cell?
A) nucleus
B) mitochondrion
C) Golgi complex
D) vacuole
E) cell wall
Answer: B
Section: 4.11
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 4.18
Global Outcome: 7
Figure 4.1

11) Which drawing in Figure 4.1 is a tetrad?
A) a
B) b
C) c
D) d
E) e
Answer: B
Section: 4.2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
Learning Outcome: 4.2

12) Which drawing in Figure 4.1 possesses an axial filament?
A) a
B) b
C) c
D) d
E) e
Answer: A
Section: 4.2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
ASMcue Outcome: 2.3
Learning Outcome: 4.2

13) Which drawing in Figure 4.1 is streptococci?
A) a
B) b
C) c
D) d
E) e
Answer: D
Section: 4.2
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
Learning Outcome: 4.2
14) Antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis ultimately cause bacterial cell death as a result of
A) osmotic lysis.
B) inhibition of molecular transport.
C) decreased synthesis of plasma membrane.
D) plasmolysis.
E) cell shrinkage.
Answer: A
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
ASMcue Outcome: 3.4
Learning Outcome: 4.9
Global Outcome: 2

15) Bacteria are a commonly used organism for studies of genetic material in the research laboratory. The nucleic acids must first be isolated from the cells for these studies. Which of the following would most likely be used to lyse gram-positive bacterial cells for nucleic acid isolation?
A) lysozyme
B) polymixins
C) alcohol
D) water
E) mycolic acid
Answer: A
Section: 4.11
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
ASMcue Outcome: 8.5
Learning Outcome: 4.19

16) Which of the following statements about gram-negative cell walls is FALSE?
A) They protect the cell in a hypotonic environment.
B) They have an extra outer layer composed of lipoproteins, lipopolysaccharides, and phospholipids.
C) They are toxic to humans.
D) They are sensitive to penicillin.
E) Their Gram reaction is due to the outer membrane.
Answer: D
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 2

17) Which of the following structures is NOT found in some prokaryotic cells?
A) flagellum
B) axial filament
C) cilium
D) pilus
E) peritrichous flagella
Answer: C
Section: 4.6
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
ASMcue Outcome: 2.4
Learning Outcome: 4.13
Global Outcome: 2
18) Functions of the glycocalyx include all of the following EXCEPT
A) biofilm formation.
B) increased virulence.
C) source of nutrition.
D) protection against dehydration.
E) binary fission.
Answer: E
Section: 4.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 4.3
Global Outcome: 2

19) Which structure acts like an invisibility cloak and protects bacteria from being phagocytized?
A) slime layer
B) fimbriae
C) capsule
D) cell membrane
E) cell wall
Answer: C
Section: 4.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 4.3
Global Outcome: 2

20) Which of the following is NOT part of the passive transport process?
A) plasma membrane
B) transporter proteins
C) ATP
D) concentration gradient
E) aquaporins
Answer: C
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
Learning Outcome: 4.9
Global Outcome: 2
21) Figure 4.2

Which of the following terms best describes the cell in Figure 4.2?
A) peritrichous flagella
B) amphitrichous flagella
C) lophotrichous flagella
D) monotrichous flagellum
E) axial filament
Answer: C
Section: 4.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
ASMcue Outcome: 2.3
Learning Outcome: 4.4
Global Outcome: 3

22) In bacteria, photosynthetic pigments are found in
A) chloroplasts.
B) cytoplasm.
C) chromatophores.
D) mesosomes.
E) ribosomes.
Answer: C
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
ASMcue Outcome: 2.3
Learning Outcome: 4.11
Global Outcome: 2

23) The difference between simple diffusion and facilitated diffusion is that facilitated diffusion
A) moves materials from a higher to a lower concentration.
B) moves materials from a lower to a higher concentration.
C) requires ATP.
D) requires transporter proteins.
E) does not require ATP.
Answer: D
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
Learning Outcome: 4.9
Global Outcome: 7

24) The terms run and tumble are generally associated with
A) cell wall fluidity.
B) taxic movements of the cell in response to attractants or repellents.
C) clustering properties of certain rod-shaped bacteria.
D) cell membrane synthesis.
Answer: B
Section: 4.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
Learning Outcome: 4.4
Global Outcome: 2

25) You have isolated a motile, gram-positive cell with no visible nucleus. You can safely assume that the cell
A) has 9 pairs + 2 flagella.
B) has a mitochondrion.
C) has a cell wall.
D) lives in an extreme environment.
E) has cilia.
Answer: C
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
ASMcue Outcome: 2.2
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 2

26) Fimbriae and pili differ in that
A) there are only one or two pili per cell.
B) pili are used for motility.
C) pili are used to transfer DNA.
D) pili are used for transfer of DNA and motility.
E) pili are used for attachment to surfaces.
Answer: D
Section: 4.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
ASMcue Outcome: 2.3
Learning Outcome: 4.4
Global Outcome: 2

Figure 4.3

27) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall is a gram-negative cell wall?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: B
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.1
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 3

28) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall possesses lipid A/endotoxin responsible for symptoms associated with infection?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: B
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 5.4
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 3

29) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall has a structure that protects against osmotic lysis?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: C
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.3
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 3

30) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall is decolorized by alcohol?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: B
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 8.1
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 3

31) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall is resistant to many antibiotics (e.g., penicillin)?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: B
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.2
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 3

32) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall contains teichoic acids?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: A
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.3
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 3
33) In Figure 4.3, which diagram of a cell wall contains porins?
A) a
B) b
C) both a and b
D) neither a nor b
E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.
Answer: A
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.1
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 3

34) Where are phospholipids most likely found in a prokaryotic cell?
A) flagella
B) around organelles
C) the plasma membrane
D) ribosomes
E) the plasma membrane and around organelles
Answer: C
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 4.8
Global Outcome: 2

35) Where are phospholipids most likely found in a eukaryotic cell?
A) surrounding flagella
B) around organelles
C) the plasma membrane
D) ribosomes
E) the plasma membrane, around organelles, and surrounding flagella
Answer: E
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
ASMcue Outcome: 2.4
Learning Outcome: 4.8
Global Outcome: 2

36) Which of the following is NOT found or observed to occur in both mitochondria and prokaryotes?
A) circular chromosome
B) 70S ribosomes
C) cell wall
D) binary fission
E) ATP-generating mechanism
Answer: C
Section: 4.11
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.4
Learning Outcome: 4.19
Global Outcome: 7
37) Which of the following statements is correct about passive diffusion?
A) It requires an expenditure of energy by the cell.
B) It is a process in which molecules move from a region of higher concentration to a region of lower concentration (or down a concentration gradient).
C) It is a process in which molecules move from a region of lower concentration to one of higher concentration (or up a concentration gradient).
D) It may require a transport protein.
E) It involves movement of molecules down a concentration gradient and may require a transport protein.
Answer: E
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 4.9
Global Outcome: 7

38) Oxygen crosses a plasma membrane
A) by osmosis.
B) through simple diffusion.
C) with the help of a nonspecific transporter.
D) through facilitated diffusion.
E) through porins.
Answer: B
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 4.9
Global Outcome: 2

39) In a hypertonic solution, a bacterial cell will typically
A) lyse.
B) burst.
C) stay the same.
D) plasmolyze.
E) osmolyze.
Answer: D
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 4.9
Global Outcome: 2

40) What will happen if a bacterial cell is pretreated with a lysozyme solution, then placed in distilled water?
A) The cell will plasmolyze.
B) The cell will undergo osmotic lysis.
C) Water will leave the cell.
D) Lysozyme will diffuse into the cell.
E) No change will result; the solution is isotonic.
Answer: B
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.3
Learning Outcome: 4.9
Global Outcome: 2

41) How do spirochetes and spirilla differ?
A) Spirochetes do not have a cell wall but spirilla do.
B) Spirilla are found in chains of cells whereas spirochetes exist as individual cells.
C) Spirilla have an external flagella but spirochetes have axial filaments.
D) Spirochetes have a rigid, corkscrew shape while spirilla are helical and more flexible.
E) Spirochetes and spirilla are basically the same organisms and the terms can be used interchangeably.
Answer: C
Section: 4.2
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.1
Learning Outcome: 4.2
Global Outcome: 2

42) Which one of the following pairs is mismatched?
A) metachromatic granules phosphate storage
B) lipid inclusions energy reserve
C) ribosomes carbon storage
D) sulfur granules energy reserve
E) gas vacuoles flotation
Answer: C
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 3.1
Learning Outcome: 4.10
Global Outcome: 7

43) Which of the following are NOT energy reserves?
A) carboxysomes
B) polysaccharide granules
C) lipid inclusions
D) ribosomes
E) metachromatic granules
Answer: A
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
ASMcue Outcome: 3.1
Learning Outcome: 4.11
Global Outcome: 7

44) Which of the following is NOT a functionally analogous pair?
A) nucleus -nucleiod region
B) mitochondria prokaryotic plasma membrane
C) chloroplasts thylakoids
D) cilia pili
E) 9+2 flagella bacterial flagella
Answer: D
Section: 4.6
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
ASMcue Outcome: 2.4
Learning Outcome: 4.13
Global Outcome: 2
45) The DNA found in most bacterial cells
A) is surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
B) utilizes histones for chromosomal packaging.
C) is circular in structure.
D) is linear in structure.
E) is found in multiple copies.
Answer: C
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
ASMcue Outcome: 2.1
Learning Outcome: 4.10
Global Outcome: 2

4.2 True/False Questions

1) The cell walls of bacteria are responsible for the shape of the bacteria and the difference in the Gram stain reaction.
Answer: TRUE
Section: 4.2
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.1
Learning Outcome: 4.2
Global Outcome: 2

2) Antibiotics that target the cell wall are an effective treatment against many pathogenic bacteria.
Answer: TRUE
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.2
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 7

3) Cells placed in a hypotonic solution tend to lose water due to osmotic pressure.
Answer: FALSE
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
Learning Outcome: 4.9
Global Outcome: 2

4) Small, hydrophobic molecules pass through a cell membrane most easily by diffusion.
Answer: TRUE
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
Learning Outcome: 4.9
Global Outcome: 2

5) Spheroplasts, protoplasts, and mycoplasms are bacterial cells without cell walls.
Answer: TRUE
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
Learning Outcome: 4.7
6) Endospores are a reproductive structure.
Answer: FALSE
Section: 4.5
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
ASMcue Outcome: 2.3
Learning Outcome: 4.12
Global Outcome: 2

7) The internal structure of eukaryotic cilia and flagella are the same.
Answer: TRUE
Section: 4.6
Blooms Taxonomy: Knowledge
ASMcue Outcome: 2.4
Learning Outcome: 4.13
Global Outcome: 7

8) Many enzymes in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are compartmentalized within organelles.
Answer: FALSE
Section: 4.11
Blooms Taxonomy: Comprehension
ASMcue Outcome: 2.4
Learning Outcome: 4.18
Global Outcome: 7

9) The number of organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and rough endoplasmic reticulum is the same in all eukaryotic cells.
Answer: TRUE
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.3
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 2

10) If you observe rod-shaped red cells after the Gram stain, you can assume their cell walls contain endotoxin.
Answer: TRUE
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Analysis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.3
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 2

4.3 Essay Questions

1) Compare and contrast the characteristics of a typical prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell.
Section: 4.11
Blooms Taxonomy: Synthesis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.4
Learning Outcome: 4.18
Global Outcome: 8
2) Provide evidence to substantiate the hypothesis that eukaryotic cells evolved from prokaryotic cells.
Section: 4.11
Blooms Taxonomy: Synthesis
ASMcue Outcome: 1.1
Learning Outcome: 4.19
Global Outcome: 8

3) Compare and contrast gram-positive and gram-negative cell walls with regard to (a) sensitivity to antimicrobial agents, (b) resistance to phagocytosis, (c) chemical composition, and (d) decolorization by alcohol.
Section: 4.4
Blooms Taxonomy: Synthesis
ASMcue Outcome: 2.2
Learning Outcome: 4.5
Global Outcome: 8

4) What is a biofilm and what role does biofilm play in disease?
Section: 4.3
Blooms Taxonomy: Synthesis
ASMcue Outcome: 5.2
Learning Outcome: 4.3
Global Outcome: 8

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