Microbiology An Introduction 12th Edition by Gerard J. Tortora -Test Bank

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Microbiology An Introduction 12th Edition by Gerard J. Tortora -Test Bank

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Microbiology An Introduction 12th Edition by Gerard J. Tortora -Test Bank

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e (Tortora)

Chapter 2   Chemical Principles

 

2.1   Multiple Choice Questions

 

1) Which of the following statements about the atom  C is FALSE?

  1. A) It has 6 protons in its nucleus.
  2. B) It has 12 neutrons in its nucleus.
  3. C) It has 6 electrons orbiting the nucleus.
  4. D) Its atomic number is 6.
  5. E) Its atomic weight is 12.

Answer:  B

Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global Outcome:  2

 

2) Table 2.1

 

O     C     H

 

Using the information in Table 2.1, calculate the molecular weight of ethanol, C2H5OH.

  1. A) 96
  2. B) 46
  3. C) 34
  4. D) 33
  5. E) The answer cannot be determined.

Answer:  B

Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Application

Learning Outcome:  2.1

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

3) Antacids neutralize acid by the following reaction. Identify the salt in the following equation:

 

Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2O

 

  1. A) Mg(OH)2
  2. B) HCl
  3. C) MgCl2
  4. D) H2O
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.5

4) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

  1. A) Salts readily dissolve in water.
  2. B) Water molecules are formed by hydrolysis.
  3. C) Water freezes from the top down.
  4. D) Water is formed as a part of a dehydration synthesis reaction.
  5. E) Water is a polar molecule.

Answer:  B

Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.4

 

5) Which of the following is the type of bond holding K+ and I- ions in KI?

  1. A) ionic bond
  2. B) covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond

Answer:  A

Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

 

6) Which of the following is the type of bond between molecules of water in a beaker of water?

  1. A) ionic bond
  2. B) covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond

Answer:  C

Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  7

 

 

7) What is the type of bond holding hydrogen and oxygen atoms together in a single H2O molecule?

  1. A) ionic bond
  2. B) covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond

Answer:  B

Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

 

8) Identify the following reaction:  Glucose + Fructose Sucrose + Water

  1. A) dehydration synthesis reaction
  2. B) hydrolysis reaction
  3. C) exchange reaction
  4. D) reversible reaction
  5. E) ionic reaction

Answer:  A

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.7

9) Identify the following reaction: Lactose + H2O Glucose + Galactose

  1. A) dehydration synthesis reaction
  2. B) hydrolysis reaction
  3. C) exchange reaction
  4. D) reversible reaction
  5. E) ionic reaction

Answer:  B

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.7

 

10) Identify the following reaction: HCl + NaHCO3  NaCl + H2CO3

  1. A) dehydration synthesis reaction
  2. B) hydrolysis reaction
  3. C) exchange reaction
  4. D) reversible reaction
  5. E) ionic reaction

Answer:  C

Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

11) Identify the following reaction: NH4OH NH3 + H2O

  1. A) dehydration synthesis reaction
  2. B) hydrolysis reaction
  3. C) exchange reaction
  4. D) reversible reaction
  5. E) ionic reaction

Answer:  D

Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Global Outcome:  2

 

12) Which type of molecule contains the alcohol glycerol?

  1. A) carbohydrate
  2. B) phospholipids
  3. C) DNA
  4. D) protein

Answer:  B

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.9

13) Which type of molecule is composed of (CH2O) units?

  1. A) carbohydrate
  2. B) lipid
  3. C) nucleic acid
  4. D) protein

Answer:  A

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.8

 

14) Which type of molecule contains -NH2 (amino) groups?

  1. A) carbohydrate
  2. B) triglycerides
  3. C) nucleic acid
  4. D) protein

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.10

 

 

15) Which type of molecule NEVER contains a phosphate group?

  1. A) triglycerides
  2. B) phospholipid
  3. C) nucleic acid
  4. D) ATP

Answer:  A

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.9

 

16) Based upon the valence numbers of the elements magnesium (2) and hydrogen (1), predict how many covalent bonds would form between these atoms to achieve the full complement of electrons in their outermost energy shells.

  1. A) one
  2. B) two
  3. C) three
  4. D) four

Answer:  B

Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  2

17) Table 2.1

 

O     C     H

 

Using the information in Table 2.1, calculate the number of moles in 92 grams of ethanol,

C2H5OH.

  1. A) 1
  2. B) 2
  3. C) 3
  4. D) 4
  5. E) The answer cannot be determined.

Answer:  B

Section:  2.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  4

 

 

18) Which of the following statements regarding protein structure is FALSE?

  1. A) The primary structure is formed by covalent bonding between amino acid subunits.
  2. B) Secondary structures are formed only from hydrogen bonds.
  3. C) Tertiary structures are formed only from covalent bonds.
  4. D) Quaternary structures involved multiple polypeptides.

Answer:  C

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.10

 

19) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

  1. A) NaOH Na++ OH- base
  2. B) HF H++ F- acid
  3. C) MgSO4 Mg2++ SO42-  salt
  4. D) KH2PO4 K++ H2PO4-  acid
  5. E) H2SO4 2H++ SO42-  acid

Answer:  D

Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Global Outcome:  2

20) Table 2.2

 

NaOH Na+ + OH-  base

HF H+ + F-  acid

MgSO4  Mg2+ + SO42-  salt

KH2PO4  K+ + H2PO4-  acid

H2SO4  2H+ + SO42-  salt

 

Which of the following statements about the reactions in Table 2.2 is FALSE?

  1. A) They are exchange reactions.
  2. B) They are ionization reactions.
  3. C) They occur when the reactants are dissolved in water.
  4. D) They are dissociation reactions.
  5. E) They are reversible reactions.

Answer:  A

Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

21) What is the type of weak bond between the hydrogen of one molecule and the nitrogen of another

molecule, where the two dont actively share an electron?

  1. A) ionic bond
  2. B) covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond
  4. D) disulfide bond
  5. E) hydrophobic bond

Answer:  C

Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  7

 

22) What is the type of strong chemical bond between carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms in a single organic molecule?

  1. A) ionic bond
  2. B) covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond

Answer:  B

Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  7

23) What is the type of bond between ions in salt?

  1. A) ionic bond
  2. B) covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond

Answer:  A

Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  7

 

 

24) A scientist wants to perform a test that will indicate whether a nucleic acid sample is composed of RNA or DNA. Testing for the presence of which of the following is most appropriate in this situation?

  1. A) phosphate
  2. B) nitrogen
  3. C) guanine
  4. D) uracil
  5. E) thymine

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.11

Global Outcome:  2

 

25) Structurally, ATP is most like which type of molecule?

  1. A) carbohydrate
  2. B) lipid
  3. C) protein
  4. D) nucleic acid

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.12

 

26) What do genes consist of?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) lipids
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) nucleic acids

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.11

Global Outcome:  7

27) Which molecule is composed of a chain of amino acids?

  1. A) carbohydrate
  2. B) lipid
  3. C) protein
  4. D) nucleic acid

Answer:  C

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.10

 

 

28) Which are the primary molecules making up plasma membranes in cells?

  1. A) carbohydrates
  2. B) lipids
  3. C) proteins
  4. D) nucleic acids

Answer:  B

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Global Outcome:  7

 

29) The antimicrobial drug imidazole inhibits sterol synthesis. This would most likely interfere with

  1. A) bacterial cell walls.
  2. B) fungal cell walls.
  3. C) eukaryotic plasma membranes.
  4. D) prokaryotic plasma membranes.
  5. E) genes.

Answer:  C

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Global Outcome:  2

 

Figure 2.1

 

 

30) In Figure 2.1, which is an alcohol?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d
  5. E) e

Answer:  C

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Global Outcome:  3

 

31) Which compound in Figure 2.1 is an ester?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d
  5. E) e

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.7

Global Outcome:  3

 

 

32) Which compound in Figure 2.1 is an organic acid?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d
  5. E) e

Answer:  A

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Global Outcome:  3

33) Most amino acids found in cells demonstrate what type of chirality?

  1. A) L-isomers
  2. B) D-isomers
  3. C) C-isomers
  4. D) B-isomers
  5. E) A-isomers

Answer:  A

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.10

 

 

34) Figure 2.3

 

 

What kind of bond is at the arrow in Figure 2.3?

  1. A) disulfide bridge
  2. B) double covalent bond
  3. C) hydrogen bond
  4. D) ionic bond
  5. E) peptide bond

Answer:  E

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.10

Global Outcome:  3

35) An E. coli culture that has been growing at 37C is moved to 25C. Which of the following changes must be made in its plasma membrane to help it cope with the decrease in temperature?

  1. A) The number of phosphate groups must increase.
  2. B) The viscosity must increase.
  3. C) The number of saturated chains must increase.
  4. D) The number of unsaturated chains must increase.
  5. E) No changes are necessary.

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.9

 

 

36) Radioisotopes are frequently used to label molecules in a cell. The fate of atoms and molecules in a cell can then be followed. Assume Saccharomyces cerevisiae is grown in a nutrient medium containing the radioisotope 35S. After a 48-hour incubation, the 35S would most likely be found in the S. cerevisiaes

  1. A) carbohydrates.
  2. B) nucleic acids.
  3. C) water.
  4. D) lipids.
  5. E) proteins.

Answer:  E

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.10

Global Outcome:  2

 

37) Radioisotopes are frequently used to label molecules in a cell. The fate of atoms and molecules in a cell can then be followed. Assume Saccharomyces cerevisiae is grown in a nutrient medium containing the radioisotope 32P. After a 48-hour incubation, the majority of the 32P would be found in the S. cerevisiaes

  1. A) plasma membrane.
  2. B) cell wall.
  3. C) water.
  4. D) proteins.
  5. E) carbohydrates.

Answer:  A

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Global Outcome:  2

38) Starch, dextran, glycogen, and cellulose are polymers of

  1. A) amino acids.
  2. B) glucose.
  3. C) fatty acids.
  4. D) nucleic acids.
  5. E) acids.

Answer:  B

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.8

 

 

39) Which of the following is a base?

  1. A) C2H5OCOOH H++ C2H5OCOO-
  2. B) C2H5OH
  3. C) NaOH Na++ OH-
  4. D) H2O H++ OH-
  5. E) H2CO

Answer:  C

Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Global Outcome:  2

 

40) Two glucose molecules are combined to make a maltose molecule. What is the chemical formula for maltose?

  1. A) C3H6O3
  2. B) C6H12O6
  3. C) C12H24O12
  4. D) C12H22O11
  5. E) C12H23O10

Answer:  D

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.8

Global Outcome:  3

 

41) If an amino acid contained a hydrocarbon (a group of multiple carbons and hydrogens linked together) as its side group, in which of the following categories could it be appropriately designated?

  1. A) hydrophilic
  2. B) polar
  3. C) nonpolar
  4. D) basic
  5. E) acidic

Answer:  C

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.10

Global Outcome:  2

 

2.2   True/False Questions

 

1) Elements only achieve the full complement of electrons in outermost energy cells by donating away or sharing electrons.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.1

 

2) Covalent bonds are always shared equally.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

Global Outcome:  7

 

3) Individual covalent bonds are stronger than individual ionic bonds.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  2.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.2

 

4) All chemical reactions are, in theory, reversible.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.3

 

5) The formation of ADP from ATP can be defined as a hydrolytic reaction.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  2.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.12

 

6) The density of liquid water is greater than the density of ice.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.4

 

7) A basic solution is expected to contain more hydrogen ions than hydroxyl ions.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  2.5

Global Outcome:  7

 

8) All forms of life function optimally at a pH of 7.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.5

9) There are some forms of life on Earth that can survive without water.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.4

Global Outcome:  2

 

10)  Any compound that contains carbon is considered to be strictly organic.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  2.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Global Outcome:  2

 

2.3   Essay Questions

 

1) Describe how the properties of phospholipids make these molecules well suited for plasma membranes.

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.9

Global Outcome:  8

 

2) Figure 2.5

 

 

Use Figure 2.5 to answer the following. Starch, cellulose, dextran, and glycogen are polysaccharides. How are they similar? To what are their different properties due? Why cant an enzyme that hydrolyzes starch degrade cellulose?

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.8

Global Outcome:  8

 

3) Compare a molecule of a nucleotide to ATP. Could a cell simply insert ATP into DNA without altering it? Explain.

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

Learning Outcome:  2.12

Global Outcome:  8

 

4) A scientist claims that when a protein is denatured, it can be expected that its secondary structure will more likely be retained when compared to all other levels of protein structure structures. Do you agree? Explain.

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

Learning Outcome:  2.10

Global Outcome:  8

 

5) A bacterium that grows at a temperature of 37C transports both glucose and NaCl into its cytoplasm.  Which is most easily dissolved in the cytoplasm? Explain how the bonds of these molecules impact disassociation rate.

Section:  2.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  2.6

Global Outcome:  8

 

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e (Tortora)

Chapter 14   Principles of Disease and Epidemiology

 

14.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) A commensal bacterium

  1. A) does not receive any benefit from its host.
  2. B) is beneficial to its host.
  3. C) may also be an opportunistic pathogen.
  4. D) isnt capable of causing disease in its host.
  5. E) always causes disease in its host.

Answer:  C

Section:  14.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

2) Which of the following statements is TRUE?

  1. A) Both members are harmed in a symbiotic relationship.
  2. B) Members of a symbiotic relationship cannot live without each other.
  3. C) A parasite is not in symbiosis with its host.
  4. D) Symbiosis always refers to different organisms living together and benefiting from each other.
  5. E) At least one member must benefit in a symbiotic relationship.

Answer:  E

Section:  14.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

3) A nosocomial infection is

  1. A) always present, but is inapparent at the time of hospitalization.
  2. B) acquired during the course of hospitalization.
  3. C) always caused by medical personnel.
  4. D) only a result of surgery.
  5. E) always caused by pathogenic bacteria.

Answer:  B

Section:  14.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.15

 

4) The major significance of Robert Kochs work is that

  1. A) microorganisms are present in a diseased animal.
  2. B) diseases can be transmitted from one animal to another.
  3. C) microorganisms can be cultured.
  4. D) microorganisms cause disease.
  5. E) microorganisms are the result of disease.

Answer:  D

Section:  14.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  7.4

Learning Outcome:  14.5

Global Outcome:  5

 

5) Which of the following is NOT a verified exception in the use of Kochs postulates?

  1. A) Some diseases have poorly defined etiologies.
  2. B) Some pathogens can cause several disease conditions.
  3. C) Some human diseases have no other known animal host.
  4. D) Some diseases are not caused by microbes.
  5. E) Some diseases are noncommunicable.

Answer:  E

Section:  14.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  7.4

Learning Outcome:  14.5

Global Outcome:  5

 

6) Which of the following diseases is NOT spread by droplet infection?

  1. A) botulism
  2. B) tuberculosis
  3. C) measles
  4. D) the common cold
  5. E) diphtheria

Answer:  A

Section:  14.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.14

 

 

7) Biological transmission differs from mechanical transmission in that biological transmission

  1. A) occurs when a pathogen is carried on the feet of an insect.
  2. B) involves fomites.
  3. C) involves reproduction of a pathogen in an arthropod vector prior to transmission.
  4. D) requires direct contact.
  5. E) works only with noncommunicable diseases.

Answer:  C

Section:  14.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.14

8) Which of the following definitions is INCORRECT?

  1. A) endemic: a disease that is constantly present in a population
  2. B) epidemic: a disease that is endemic across the world
  3. C) pandemic: a disease that affects a large number of people in the world in a short time
  4. D) sporadic: a disease that affects a population occasionally
  5. E) incidence: number of new cases of a disease

Answer:  B

Section:  14.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.7

 

9) Focal infections initially start out as

  1. A) sepsis.
  2. B) bacteremia.
  3. C) local infections.
  4. D) septicemia.
  5. E) systemic infections.

Answer:  C

Section:  14.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.8

 

10) The rise in herd immunity amongst a population can be directly attributed to

  1. A) increased use of antibiotics.
  2. B) improved handwashing.
  3. C) vaccinations.
  4. D) antibiotic-resistant microorganisms.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  14.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  14.9

Global Outcome:  5

 

11) Koch observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. What is this condition called?

  1. A) bacteremia
  2. B) focal infection
  3. C) local infection
  4. D) septicemia
  5. E) systemic infection

Answer:  D

Section:  14.3

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.5

Global Outcome:  2

12) Which one of the following does NOT contribute to the incidence of nosocomial infections?

  1. A) antibiotic resistance
  2. B) lapse in aseptic techniques
  3. C) gram-negative cell walls
  4. D) lack of handwashing
  5. E) lack of insect control

Answer:  C

Section:  14.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.17

Global Outcome:  7

 

13) Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota in that transient microbiota

  1. A) cause diseases.
  2. B) are found in a certain location on the host.
  3. C) are always acquired by direct contact.
  4. D) are present for a relatively short time.
  5. E) never cause disease.

Answer:  D

Section:  14.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.2

 

 

14) Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is FALSE?

  1. A) They occur in compromised patients.
  2. B) They may be caused by opportunists.
  3. C) They may be caused by drug-resistant bacteria.
  4. D) They may be caused by normal microbiota.
  5. E) The patient was infected before hospitalization.

Answer:  E

Section:  14.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.15

Global Outcome:  2

 

15) One effect of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is the removal of normal microbiota. This can result in

  1. A) body odor.
  2. B) fewer diseases.
  3. C) increased susceptibility to disease.
  4. D) normal microbiota returning immediately.
  5. E) no bacterial growth because washing removes their food source.

Answer:  C

Section:  14.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.1

Global Outcome:  7

16) Which of the following is NOT a reservoir of infection?

  1. A) a sick person
  2. B) a healthy person
  3. C) a sick animal
  4. D) a hospital
  5. E) None of the answers is correct; all of these can be reservoirs of infection.

Answer:  E

Section:  14.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.12

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

17) Which of the following is NOT a communicable disease?

  1. A) malaria
  2. B) AIDS
  3. C) tuberculosis
  4. D) tetanus
  5. E) typhoid fever

Answer:  D

Section:  14.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.6

 

18) Which of the following is a fomite?

  1. A) water
  2. B) droplets from a sneeze
  3. C) pus
  4. D) insects
  5. E) a hypodermic needle

Answer:  E

Section:  14.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  14.13

 

19) Which of the following statements about biological transmission is FALSE?

  1. A) The pathogen reproduces in the vector.
  2. B) The pathogen may enter the host in the vectors feces.
  3. C) Houseflies are an important vector.
  4. D) The pathogen may be injected by the bite of the vector.
  5. E) The pathogen may require the vector as a host.

Answer:  C

Section:  14.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.14

Global Outcome:  2

20) Which of the following definitions is INCORRECT?

  1. A) acute: a short-lasting primary infection
  2. B) inapparent: infection characteristic of a carrier state
  3. C) chronic: a disease that develops slowly and lasts for months
  4. D) primary infection: an initial illness
  5. E) secondary infection: a long-lasting illness

Answer:  E

Section:  14.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.8

 

21) Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms

  1. A) are changes felt by the patient.
  2. B) are changes observed by the physician.
  3. C) are specific for a particular disease.
  4. D) always occur as part of a syndrome.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  A

Section:  14.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.6

 

22) The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called

  1. A) ecology.
  2. B) epidemiology.
  3. C) communicable disease.
  4. D) morbidity and mortality.
  5. E) public health.

Answer:  B

Section:  14.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.20

Global Outcome:  5

 

23) Figure 14.1

 

 

Figure 14.1 shows the incidence of influenza during a typical year. Which letter on the graph indicates the endemic level?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d
  5. E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

Answer:  D

Section:  14.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  14.7

Global Outcome:  3

 

24) Emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) antibiotic resistance.
  2. B) climatic changes.
  3. C) new strains of previously known agents.
  4. D) ease of travel.
  5. E) The emergence of infectious diseases can be attributed to all of these.

Answer:  E

Section:  14.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.19

Global Outcome:  7

 

25) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

  1. A) malaria vector
  2. B) salmonellosis vehicle transmission
  3. C) syphilis direct contact
  4. D) influenza droplet infection
  5. E) None of the pairs is mismatched.

Answer:  E

Section:  14.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.14

 

26) Which of the following can contribute to postoperative infections?

  1. A) using syringes more than once
  2. B) normal microbiota on the operating room staff
  3. C) errors in aseptic technique
  4. D) antibiotic resistance
  5. E) All of the answers are correct.

Answer:  E

Section:  14.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.17

 

 

27) Figure 14.2

 

 

In Figure 14.2, when is the prevalence the highest?

  1. A) July
  2. B) January
  3. C) February
  4. D) March
  5. E) The answer cannot be determined based on the information provided.

Answer:  C

Section:  14.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  14.7

Global Outcome:  3

28) A cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an example of

  1. A) direct contact.
  2. B) droplet transmission.
  3. C) fomite.
  4. D) vector.
  5. E) vehicle transmission.

Answer:  E

Section:  14.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  14.14

 

 

29) A researcher has performed a prospective study on a disease. To which specific kind of epidemiological study is this referring?

  1. A) analytical
  2. B) case control
  3. C) descriptive
  4. D) experimental
  5. E) prodromal

Answer:  C

Section:  14.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  14.20

Global Outcome:  1

 

30) The CDC is located in

  1. A) Atlanta, GA.
  2. B) Washington, DC.
  3. C) New York City, NY.
  4. D) Los Angeles, CA.
  5. E) Chicago, IL.

Answer:  A

Section:  14.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.21

 

31) A disease in which the causative agent remains inactive for a time before producing symptoms is referred to as

  1. A) subacute.
  2. B) subclinical.
  3. C) latent.
  4. D) zoonotic.
  5. E) acute.

Answer:  C

Section:  14.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.8

 

32) A needlestick is an example of

  1. A) direct contact.
  2. B) droplet transmission.
  3. C) indirect contact transmission by fomite.
  4. D) direct biological transmission by vector.
  5. E) vehicle transmission.

Answer:  C

Section:  14.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  14.14

Global Outcome:  2

 

33) Which of the following is NOT a predisposing factor of disease?

  1. A) lifestyle
  2. B) genetic background
  3. C) climate
  4. D) occupation
  5. E) All of these are predisposing factors of disease.

Answer:  E

Section:  14.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.10

Global Outcome:  7

 

34) In which of the following diseases can gender be considered a viable predisposing factor?

  1. A) urinary tract infections
  2. B) pneumonia
  3. C) salmonellosis
  4. D) tetanus
  5. E) anthrax

Answer:  A

Section:  14.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.10

Global Outcome:  7

 

 

35) In which of the following patterns of disease does the patient experience no signs or symptoms?

  1. A) prodromal
  2. B) decline
  3. C) convalescence
  4. D) incubation
  5. E) both incubation and convalescence

Answer:  E

Section:  14.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  14.11

Global Outcome:  2

Situation 14.1

 

During a six-month period, 239 cases of pneumonia occurred in a town of 300 people. A clinical case was defined as fever 39C lasting >2 days with three or more symptoms (i.e., chills, sweats, severe headache, cough, aching muscles/joints, fatigue, or feeling ill). A laboratory-confirmed case was defined as a positive result for antibodies against Coxiella burnetii. Before the outbreak, 2000 sheep were kept northwest of the town. Of the 20 sheep tested from the flock, 15 were positive for C. burnetii antibodies. Wind blew from the northwest, and rainfall was 0.5 cm compared with 7 to 10 cm during each of the previous three years.

 

36) Situation 14.1 is an example of

  1. A) human reservoirs.
  2. B) a zoonosis.
  3. C) a nonliving reservoir.
  4. D) a vector.
  5. E) a focal infection.

Answer:  B

Section:  14.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.14

Global Outcome:  2

 

37) The etiologic agent of the disease in Situation 14.1 is

  1. A) sheep.
  2. B) soil.
  3. C) Coxiella burnetii.
  4. D) pneumonia.
  5. E) wind.

Answer:  C

Section:  14.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  14.1

Global Outcome:  2

 

38) The method of transmission of the disease in Situation 14.1 was

  1. A) direct contact.
  2. B) droplet.
  3. C) indirect contact.
  4. D) vector-borne.
  5. E) vehicle.

Answer:  E

Section:  14.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

Learning Outcome:  14.14

Global Outcome:  2

39) Which of the following is NOT an example of microbial antagonism?

  1. A) acid production by bacteria
  2. B) bacteriocin production
  3. C) bacteria occupying host receptors
  4. D) bacteria causing disease
  5. E) bacteria producing vitamin K

Answer:  D

Section:  14.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.2

Global Outcome:  2

 

40) The yeast Candida albicans does not normally cause disease because of

  1. A) symbiotic bacteria.
  2. B) antagonistic bacteria.
  3. C) parasitic bacteria.
  4. D) commensal bacteria.
  5. E) other fungi.

Answer:  B

Section:  14.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.2

 

41) If a prodromal period exists for a certain disease, it should occur prior to

  1. A) incubation.
  2. B) illness.
  3. C) decline.
  4. D) convalescence.

Answer:  B

Section:  14.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.11

 

42) Which one of the following is NOT a zoonosis?

  1. A) cat-scratch disease
  2. B) Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome
  3. C) rabies
  4. D) tapeworm
  5. E) All of these are zoonoses.

Answer:  E

Section:  14.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.14

Global Outcome:  2

43) Pseudomonas bacteria colonized the bile duct of a patient following his liver transplant surgery. This is an example of a

  1. A) communicable disease.
  2. B) latent infection.
  3. C) nosocomial infection.
  4. D) sporadic disease.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct.

Answer:  C

Section:  14.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.15

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

44) Figure 14.3

 

 

The graph in Figure 14.3 shows the incidence of polio in the United States. The period between 1945 and 1955 indicates a(n)

  1. A) endemic level.
  2. B) epidemic level.
  3. C) sporadic infection.
  4. D) communicable disease.
  5. E) pandemic.

Answer:  B

Section:  14.4

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  14.7

Global Outcome:  3

45) Which of the following statements is FALSE?

  1. A) Antimicrobial therapy for hemodialysis-associated infections increases antibiotic resistance.
  2. B) aureus is differentiated from other mannitol+ cocci by the coagulase test.
  3. C) The M in MRSA stands for mannitol.
  4. D) The USA100 strain accounts for most hospital-acquired MRSA.
  5. E) The USA300 strain accounts for most community-acquired MRSA.

Answer:  C

Section:  14.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.19

 

 

14.2   True/False Questions

 

1) For a particular disease at a specific time period, morbidity rates should always be equal or greater than mortality rates.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  14.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  14.22

Global Outcome:  2

 

2) Testing the effectiveness of a new drug for anthrax would be best performed as an experimental study.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  14.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  14.20

Global Outcome:  1

 

3) MMWR is a publication by the CDC that reports on only emerging diseases.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  14.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.21

Global Outcome:  5

 

4) A researcher only needs to select a cohort group when implementing an analytical epidemiological study.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  14.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1

Learning Outcome:  14.20

Global Outcome:  1

 

5) Diseases that are referred to as emerging infectious diseases have only been discovered in the past fifty years.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  14.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.19

Global Outcome:  7

 

6) Compromised hosts are always suffering from suppressed immune systems.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  14.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.16

 

7) A host is not considered diseased until an infection changes ones state of health.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  14.5

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.11

 

8) Reservoirs of infections are always animate objects.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  14.6

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.12

 

9) Urinary tract infections are the most common forms of nosocomial infections.

Answer:  FALSE

Section:  14.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

Learning Outcome:  14.15

 

10) Both normal and transient flora can become opportunistic pathogens.

Answer:  TRUE

Section:  14.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  5.4

Learning Outcome:  14.2

 

 

14.3   Essay Questions

 

Situation 14.2

 

A 37-week-old infant was delivered by cesarean section and discharged from a Connecticut hospital when he was ten days old. Two days later he was lethargic and had a fever. When he was readmitted to the hospital, he had multiple brain abscesses caused by Citrobacter diversus. After a prolonged illness, the baby died. A second infant with a normal pregnancy and delivery died of C. diversus meningitis after a short illness. Nine infants in the hospital nursery had umbilical cord colonization by C. diversus. Environmental cultures were negative for hospital equipment.

 

1) Refer to Situation 14.2 What is the normal habitat of this gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, non-endospore-forming, lactose-positive rod? Provide a plan for identifying the source of infection and preventing further infection.

Section:  14.7

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1a

Learning Outcome:  14.17

Global Outcome:  8

2) Figure 14.4

 

 

Salmonella Heidelberg gastroenteritis occurred on three cruises aboard the T.S.S. Festivale. Figure 14.4 shows on-board clinic visits for diarrheal illness between February 10 and March 3. Explain the incidence pattern shown on the graph. What are probable modes of transmission? What changes would you recommend before the ship books more cruises after March 3?

Section:  14.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Evaluation

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  14.20

Global Outcome:  3

 

3) Dengue fever, a zoonotic disease, is endemic in northern Mexico, but not in the U.S. Provide two plausible explanations for this dichotomy, and explain.

Section:  14.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3a

Learning Outcome:  14.19

Global Outcome:  8

 

4) When studying the epidemiology of a particular disease, why are retrospective studies commonly undertaken before prospective studies?

Section:  14.9

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3a

Learning Outcome:  14.20

Global Outcome:  1

 

5) Would you expect all EIDs to be on the notifiable infectious disease list? Explain.

Section:  14.8

Blooms Taxonomy:  Synthesis

ASMcue Outcome:  7.3a

Learning Outcome:  14.19

Global Outcome:  8

 

Microbiology: An Introduction, 12e (Tortora)

Chapter 28   Applied and Industrial Microbiology

 

28.1   Multiple-Choice Questions

 

1) A baker forgets to put yeast in his bread dough.  Which of the following do you expect to happen to the bread as a result?

  1. A) It will take longer to bake.
  2. B) Bacterial contaminants will now be able to grow.
  3. C) The bread will not rise.
  4. D) The bread will look normal but will be tough.
  5. E) The bread will have a sour taste.

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

 

2) Spoilage of canned foods stored at high temperatures, accompanied by gas production, is

  1. A) thermophilic anaerobic spoilage.
  2. B) flat sour spoilage.
  3. C) spoilage by mesophilic bacteria.
  4. D) caused by acid-tolerant fungi.
  5. E) putrefactive anaerobic spoilage.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.3

Learning Outcome:  28.1

 

3) Spoilage of canned foods due to inadequate processing, NOT accompanied by gas production, is

  1. A) thermophilic anaerobic spoilage.
  2. B) flat sour spoilage.
  3. C) spoilage by mesophilic bacteria.
  4. D) caused by acid-tolerant fungi.
  5. E) putrefactive anaerobic spoilage.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.1

 

4) Which of the following pairs is mismatched?

  1. A) Propionibacterium Swiss cheese
  2. B) Penicillium blue cheese
  3. C) Lactobacillus yogurt
  4. D) Acetobacter vinegar
  5. E) Bacillus beer

Answer:  E

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

5) Which of the following pertains to an improperly canned food product on a store shelf that has a bad odor and putrefaction of the canned material?

  1. A) mesophilic spoilage
  2. B) flat sour spoilage
  3. C) bacterial soft rot
  4. D) thermophilic anaerobic spoilage
  5. E) hydrogen sulfide spoilage

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  28.2

 

6) All of the following are fuels produced by microorganisms EXCEPT

  1. A) cellulose.
  2. B) ethanol.
  3. C) hydrogen.
  4. D) methane.
  5. E) oil from algae.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.8

Global Outcome:  5

 

 

7) Microorganisms play an active role in the formation of industrial products. Which of the following is mismatched?

  1. A) Penicillium treatment of disease
  2. B) Saccharomyces cerevisiae for fermentation
  3. C) Rhizobium increases nitrogen in the soil
  4. D) Bacillus thuringiensis insecticide
  5. E) algae citric acid

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.1

Learning Outcome:  28.6

8) Which of the following is an undesirable contaminant in wine-making?

  1. A) Acetobacter
  2. B) lactic acid bacteria
  3. C) Clostridium botulinum endospores
  4. D) Saccharomyces

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  2

 

9) Commercial sterilization differs from complete sterilization in that commercial sterilization

  1. A) kills all microorganisms.
  2. B) kills only bacteria.
  3. C) may result in the survival of thermophiles.
  4. D) employs a higher temperature.
  5. E) may result in the survival of fungal spores.

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  5

 

 

Figure 28.1

 

 

10) In Figure 28.1, assume the cells are your desired product and you want to maintain a continuous culture. Remember, the top lines/markings indicate the different phases observed in the curve below them. When would you harvest cells to maximize your yield?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d

Answer:  B

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  3

11) In Figure 28.1, assume that a secondary metabolite is your desired product. Remember, the top lines/markings indicate the different phases observed in the curve below them. When would you be able to obtain it?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d

Answer:  C

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  28.5

Global Outcome:  3

 

 

12) In Figure 28.1, assume the cells are producing penicillin which is collected during the idiophase. Remember, the top lines/markings indicate the different phases observed in the curve below them. When would you be able to collect the penicillin?

  1. A) a
  2. B) b
  3. C) c
  4. D) d

Answer:  C

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  7.1b

Learning Outcome:  28.5

Global Outcome:  3

 

13) Which of the following reactions is performed by yeast in wine-making?

  1. A) sugar ethanol
  2. B) ethanol acetic acid
  3. C) malic acid lactic acid
  4. D) carbon dioxide sucrose
  5. E) sugar CO2+ H2O

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

14) Which of the following reactions makes wine less acidic, and is important for good flavor when grapes with higher acidity are used?

  1. A) sugar ethanol
  2. B) ethanol acetic acid
  3. C) malic acid lactic acid
  4. D) carbon dioxide sucrose
  5. E) sugar CO2+ H2O

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

 

15) Commercial sterilization of processed canned foods uses a 12D treatment which is based upon a theoretical population of 1012 C. botulinum endospores in a can of food. After treatment, there would theoretically be how many endospores left?

  1. A) 120 endospores
  2. B) 10 endospores
  3. C) 100 endospores
  4. D) 12 endospores
  5. E) 1 endospore

Answer:  E

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  4

 

16) All of the following are advantages of a bioreactor instead of a flask culture EXCEPT

  1. A) larger culture volumes can be grown.
  2. B) instrumentation for monitoring environmental conditions.
  3. C) uniform aeration and mixing.
  4. D) aseptic sampling.
  5. E) None of the answers is correct; all of these are advantages of using a bioreactor instead of a flask culture.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  8.5

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  2

17) Microbial products can be improved by all of the following EXCEPT

  1. A) isolating new strains.
  2. B) mutating existing strains.
  3. C) genetically modifying strains.
  4. D) modifying culture conditions.
  5. E) sterilization.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  4.1

Learning Outcome:  28.7

Global Outcome:  5

 

 

18) Which of the following microorganisms is usually used in the fermentation of alcoholic beverages?

  1. A) Propionobacterium
  2. B) Lactobacillus
  3. C) Rhizopus
  4. D) Saccharomyces
  5. E) Penicillium

Answer:  D

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  5

 

19) All of the following are true of irradiation methods used for food preservation and sterilization EXCEPT

  1. A) they prolong shelf-life of fruits and vegetables.
  2. B) residual radioactivity is left behind on many foods.
  3. C) ionizing radiation such as X rays or gamma rays is used.
  4. D) they are used for the sterilization of many spices.
  5. E) they greatly reduce the number of pathogens present in meats and poultry.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.2

Global Outcome:  5

 

20) All of the following are industrial products produced by microbes EXCEPT

  1. A) amino acids in food supplements.
  2. B) antibiotics.
  3. C) industrial enzymes.
  4. D) uranium.
  5. E) vitamin B12 and riboflavin.

Answer:  D

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

 

21) All of the following are industrial products produced using microbial fermentations EXCEPT

  1. A) aspartic acid.
  2. B) citric acid.
  3. C) glutamic acid.
  4. D) riboflavin.
  5. E) saccharin.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

 

22) All of the following foods are produced using microbial fermentations EXCEPT

  1. A) sauerkraut.
  2. B) ketchup.
  3. C) sour cream.
  4. D) yogurt.
  5. E) coffee.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  5

 

23) Which of the following microbes produces a natural biopesticide?

  1. A) Penicillium chryssogenum
  2. B) Saccharomyces cerevisiae
  3. C) Bacillus thuringiensis
  4. D) Lactobacillus buggaricus
  5. E) Thiobacillus ferroxidans

Answer:  C

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

 

 

24) Biomass is a renewable energy source derived from the organic matter produced by living organisms.  All of the following are sources of biomass EXCEPT

  1. A) oxidation of metals.
  2. B) crops.
  3. C) bacteria.
  4. D) landfill sites.
  5. E) algae.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.8

Global Outcome:  5

25) All of the following are industrial enzymes made by microbial fermentations EXCEPT

  1. A) glucose isomerase.
  2. B) rennin.
  3. C) proteases.
  4. D) amylases.
  5. E) vitamin C.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.6

Global Outcome:  5

 

26) What process does yeast use to produce ethanol for automobile fuel from corn?

  1. A) anaerobic respiration
  2. B) fermentation
  3. C) the Krebs cycle
  4. D) oxidation
  5. E) photosynthesis

Answer:  B

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.8

Global Outcome:  5

 

 

27) The following steps are required for making cheese. What is the second step, which helps to provide the characteristic flavors and aromas of the cheese?

  1. A) enzymatic coagulation of milk
  2. B) fermentation of curd
  3. C) inoculation with lactic acid bacteria
  4. D) inoculation with Penicillium
  5. E) separation of curds and whey

Answer:  C

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Analysis

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

28) As cheese ages, it gets

  1. A) more acidic.
  2. B) more whey.
  3. C) more protein.
  4. D) saltier.
  5. E) more alcoholic.

Answer:  A

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Knowledge

ASMcue Outcome:  3.2

Learning Outcome:  28.3

29) Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans is used for the recovery of ________ from ore.

  1. A) sulfur
  2. B) copper
  3. C) iron
  4. D) sulfuric acid
  5. E) gold

Answer:  B

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.7

Global Outcome:  5

 

 

30) What role do lactic acid bacteria play in cheese production?

  1. A) curd formation
  2. B) production of holes in Swiss cheese
  3. C) ripening the cheese
  4. D) providing characteristic flavor and smell
  5. E) Lactic acid bacteria carry out each of these roles in cheese production.

Answer:  E

Section:  28.1

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  6.3

Learning Outcome:  28.3

Global Outcome:  2

 

31) You are growing Bacillus subtilis, an aerobic bacterium that can also carry out fermentation when required, in a bioreactor and notice that the growth rate has slowed and the pH has decreased. You suspect the bacteria are

  1. A) using the Krebs cycle.
  2. B) fermenting.
  3. C) photosynthesizing.
  4. D) using proteins.
  5. E) dead.

Answer:  B

Section:  28.2

Blooms Taxonomy:  Comprehension

ASMcue Outcome:  3.4

Learning Outcome:  28.4

Global Outcome:  2

32) You are growing Bacillus subtilis, an aerobic bacterium that can also carry out fermentation when required, in a bioreactor and notice that the growth rate has slowed and the pH has decreased. What could you add?

  1. A) glucose
  2. B) lactose
  3. C) peptides
  4. D) oxygen
  5. E) lactic acid
  6. <

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