Microbiology Principles And Explorations 9th Edition by Jacquelyn G. Black -Test Bank

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Microbiology Principles And Explorations 9th Edition by Jacquelyn G. Black -Test Bank

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Microbiology Principles And Explorations 9th Edition by Jacquelyn G. Black -Test Bank

Chapter 4: Characteristics of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells

 

 

Question Type: Multiple Choice

 

 

1) Which of the following groups of organisms is not prokaryotic?

 

  1. a) Archaea
  2. b) Bacteria
  3. c) Eubacteria
  4. d) Eukarya

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

2) Which of the following is not a common bacterial shape?

 

  1. a) Spirochete
  2. b) Coccus
  3. c) Disc
  4. d) Bacillus

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

3) A small comma shaped bacteria is described as being a ________.

 

  1. a) spirochete
  2. b) bacillus
  3. c) spirillum
  4. d) vibrio

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

4) Which of the following statements about the prokaryotic cells surface-to-volume ratio is false?

 

  1. a) Because of their small size, bacteria have a small surface-to-volume ratio
  2. b) Eukaryotes have surface-to-volume ratio that is only 1/10 that of prokaryotes
  3. c) The prokaryotes surface-to-volume ratio means that nutrients can easily and quickly reach all parts of the cell as no internal part of the cell is very far from the surface.
  4. d) A bacteria with a surface area of about 12 microns squared and a volume of 4 cubic microns has a surface-to-volume ratio of 3:1

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

5) While division in one plane produces cells in pairs, what does random division produce?

 

  1. a) Sarcinae
  2. b) Eight cells arranged in a cube
  3. c) Grapelike clusters (staphylo-)
  4. d) Four cells arranged in a cube

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

6) _____ occurs when bacteria differ widely in form.

  1. a) Pleomorphism
  2. b) Polymorphism
  3. c) Anamorphism
  4. d) Telomorphism

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

7) Which of the following is not found in bacterial cells?

 

  1. a) A cell membrane, usually surrounded by a cell wall
  2. b) An internal cytoplasm with ribosomes, a nuclear region and in some cases granules
  3. c) A variety of external structures, such as capsules, flagella and pili
  4. d) Respiratory enzymes contained in an internal structure surrounded by membranes

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

8) Which of the following cellular structures are found only in prokaryotic cells?

 

  1. a) endoplasmic reticulum
  2. b) pili
  3. c) nucleolus
  4. d) lysosomes

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

9) Extrachromosomal DNA in prokaryotic cells can be found in the form of _____.

 

  1. a) chromosomes
  2. b) plasmids
  3. c) mitochondria
  4. d) chloroplasts

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

10) Which of the following cellular structures can be found in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?

 

  1. a) Golgi apparatus
  2. b) lysosomes
  3. c) peroxisomes
  4. d) ribosomes

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

11) Coccus-shaped cells which divide along two planes will produce cells arranged into _____.

 

  1. a) diplococci
  2. b) streptococci
  3. c) tetrads
  4. d) staphylococci

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

12) Prokaryotic cells divide by _____.

 

  1. a) mitosis
  2. b) binary fission
  3. c) meiosis
  4. d) mitosis asexually and meiosis sexually

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

13) Bacilli produce fewer arrangements than cocci because _____.

 

  1. a) cocci are smaller than bacilli
  2. b) bacilli only reproduce asexually
  3. c) bacilli divide along several different planes while cocci divide along a single plane
  4. d) cocci divide along several different planes while bacilli divide along a single plane

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

14) The shape of a bacterial cell is determined (and maintained) by the _____.

 

  1. a) cell membrane
  2. b) cell wall
  3. c) capsule
  4. d) slime layer

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

15) The most important structural component of bacterial cell walls is _____.

 

  1. a) teichoic acid
  2. b) lipotechoic acid
  3. c) peptidoglycan
  4. d) glutamic acid

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

16) The outer (cell) membrane component of the cell wall _____.

 

  1. a) is found only in Gram positive bacteria
  2. b) is made primarily of peptidoglycan
  3. c) contains lipopolysaccharrides
  4. d) is primarily a reproductive structure

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

17) Removal of the cell wall of a Gram positive bacteria results in the formation of a _____.

 

  1. a) protoplast
  2. b) spheroplast
  3. c) periplast
  4. d) polyplast

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

18) The periplasmic space is found _____.

 

  1. a) only in Gram positive organisms
  2. b) between the nuclear area and the cell membrane
  3. c) primarily in acid fast bacteria
  4. d) between the inner cell membrane and outer cell wall membrane

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

19) Mycolic acid would be found primarily in the cell wall of:

 

  1. a) Gram positive bacteria
  2. b) Gram negative bacteria
  3. c) Gram variable bacteria
  4. d) acid-fast bacteria

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

20) Peptidoglycan makes up more than 50% of a ________ cell wall.

 

  1. a) Gram negative
  2. b) Gram positive
  3. c) Gram variable
  4. d) acid-fast

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

21) Which of the following is true about bacteria?

 

  1. a) All bacterial cells are smaller than 100 micrometers in diameter.
  2. b) The cell wall controls the movement of small molecules into and out of the cell.
  3. c) Gram-negative bacteria become protoplasts when their cell wall is digested away.
  4. d) Bacterial endospores are reproductive structures.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

22) Penicillin controls the growth of bacteria by _____.

 

  1. a) destroying cell membranes
  2. b) preventing protein synthesis
  3. c) removing cell walls
  4. d) preventing peptidoglycan synthesis

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

23) Lysozyme, found in human tears, controls the growth of bacteria by _____.

 

  1. a) fusing with vacuoles
  2. b) containing multiple kinds of digestive enzymes
  3. c) digesting peptidoglycan
  4. d) preventing peptidoglycan synthesis

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

24) Which bacterial genus normally lacks a cell wall?

 

  1. a) Mycobacterium
  2. b) Streptococcus
  3. c) Mycoplasma
  4. d) Bacillus

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

25) The fluid-mosaic model describes the structure of _____.

 

  1. a) cell walls
  2. b) cell membranes
  3. d) capsules
  4. d) endosymbiotic relationships

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

26) The _____ portion of the cell membrane functions as a barrier while the ______ portion provides specific functions, including pumps, receptors, adhesion, etc.

 

  1. a) carbohydrate; nucleic acid
  2. b) lipid; protein
  3. c) lipid; carbohydrate
  4. d) nucleic acid; lipid

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

27) In bacteria, the cell membrane functions in the all of the following ways EXCEPT:

 

  1. a) regulates movement of materials into and out of the cell
  2. b) synthesizes cell wall components
  3. c) serves as the site for protein synthesis
  4. d) assists with DNA replication

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

28) The charged, phosphate end of a membrane phospholipid is:

 

  1. a) water-fearing
  2. b) hydrophilic
  3. c) hydrophobic
  4. d) none of the above

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

29) Bacterial ribosomes:

 

  1. a) have a sedimentation rate of 70S
  2. b) are made up of 30S and 40S subunits
  3. c) have a sedimentation rate of 80S
  4. d) are made up of 50S and 30S subunits

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

30) Genetic information in bacteria is:

 

  1. a) found in the nucleus
  2. b) found only in RNA
  3. c) found in DNA condensed by histones
  4. d) sometimes found in the form of plasmids

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

31) Inclusions found in bacteria generally would not include:

 

  1. a) granules
  2. b) volutin
  3. c) metachromatic granules
  4. d) ribosomes

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

32) Endospores are typically found in the genus:

 

  1. a) Streptococcus
  2. b) Clostridium
  3. c) Mycobacterium
  4. d) Staphylococci

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

33) Endospores are usually induced to form when:

 

  1. a) temperatures rise
  2. b) certain nutrients are depleted
  3. c) radiation is detected
  4. d) water is lost from the cell

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

34) Bacteria move by means of:

 

  1. a) cilia
  2. b) flagella
  3. c) fimbriae
  4. d) pili

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

35) Bacteria with flagella all over their surface are said to be:

 

  1. a) monotrichous
  2. b) peritrichous
  3. c) amphitrichous
  4. d) lophotrichous

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

36) Which of the following structures is not normally part of a bacterial flagellum?

 

  1. a) Hook
  2. b) Filament
  3. c) Basal body
  4. d) Anchor

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

37) Some bacteria can transfer DNA to another cell using:

 

  1. a) conjugation pili
  2. b) fimbriae
  3. c) axial filaments
  4. d) lophotrichous flagella

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

38) Eukaryotic cells add rigidity to their plasma membrane by including what component in the membrane?

 

  1. a) Protein
  2. b) Lipids
  3. c) Sugars
  4. d) Sterols

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.2 Describe the organelles and motility structures commonly found in eukaryotic cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells

 

 

39) Which of these statements about eukaryotic cell division is false?

 

  1. a) the nuclei of eukaryotic cells divide via the process of mitosis
  2. b) haploids are cells that receive only one chromosome from each pair of chromosomes
  3. c) a single round of mitosis results in the production of four haploid cells
  4. d) during mitosis the nuclear envelope breaks apart and the spindle apparatus forms

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.2 Describe the organelles and motility structures commonly found in eukaryotic cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells

 

 

40) Mitochondria:

 

  1. a) are responsible for converting sunlight to chemical energy
  2. b) are present only in photosynthetic organisms
  3. c) have a double membrane
  4. d) are responsible for protein synthesis

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.2 Describe the organelles and motility structures commonly found in eukaryotic cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells

 

 

41) Which of the following is responsible for converting sunlight into chemical energy?

 

  1. a) Chromatophores
  2. b) Chloroplasts
  3. c) Endoplasmic reticulum
  4. d) Two of the above

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.2 Describe the organelles and motility structures commonly found in eukaryotic cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells

 

 

42) The rough endoplasmic reticulum appears rough because of _____.

 

  1. a) sterols in its membrane
  2. b) fats and sugars on its surface
  3. c) multiple ribosomes on its surface
  4. d) proteins in the lumen of the ER

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.2 Describe the organelles and motility structures commonly found in eukaryotic cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells

 

 

43) The cytoskeleton consists of _____.

 

  1. a) microfilaments and sterols
  2. b) microtubules and proteins
  3. c) microfilaments and microtubules
  4. d) sterols and proteins

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.2 Describe the organelles and motility structures commonly found in eukaryotic cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells

 

 

44) Which of the following statements about the endosymbiotic hypothesis is false?

 

  1. a) Eukaryotic cells have both 70S and 80S ribosomes.
  2. b) Mitochondria have their own DNA.
  3. c) When removed from cells, mitochondria continue to grow and divide.
  4. d) Mitochondria are about the same size as prokaryotic cells.

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.3 Explain the evidence for the endosymbiosis theory.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.4 Evolution by Endosymbiosis

 

 

45) During diffusion, molecules _____.

 

  1. a) move from hotter areas to cooler areas
  2. b) move from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration
  3. c) move from areas of lower concentration to areas of higher concentration
  4. d) expend energy to more around

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.4 Describe ways in which molecules may move across a semi-permeable membrane and the phenomena of endocytosis and exocytosis.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.5 The Movement of Substances Across Membranes

 

 

46) A charged molecule which moves down its concentration gradient and across a pore in a cell membrane without energy being expended by the cell is experiencing _____.

 

  1. a) simple diffusion
  2. b) osmosis
  3. c) active transport
  4. d) facilitated diffusion

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.4 Describe ways in which molecules may move across a semi-permeable membrane and the phenomena of endocytosis and exocytosis.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.5 The Movement of Substances Across Membranes

 

 

47) Osmosis most directly involves:

 

  1. a) water moving down a concentration gradient
  2. b) organic molecules crossing a membrane
  3. c) energy being expended to import large molecules into the cell
  4. d) sugars and salts moving down their concentration gradient

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.4 Describe ways in which molecules may move across a semi-permeable membrane and the phenomena of endocytosis and exocytosis.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.5 The Movement of Substances Across Membranes

 

 

48) When the fluid within a cell has a higher concentration of dissolved substances than the fluid surrounding the cell, we say the fluid surrounding the cell is _____.

 

  1. a) hypertonic
  2. b) isotonic
  3. c) superhypertonic
  4. d) hypotonic

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.4 Describe ways in which molecules may move across a semi-permeable membrane and the phenomena of endocytosis and exocytosis.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.5 The Movement of Substances Across Membranes

 

 

49) A typical bacterial cell has a salt concentration of about 1%.  If the cell is placed in a solution containing 10% salt, the net flow of water will be _____.

 

  1. a) out of the cell
  2. b) into the cell
  3. c) equally in and out of the cell
  4. d) none of the above since water doesnt cross bacterial cell membranes

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.4 Describe ways in which molecules may move across a semi-permeable membrane and the phenomena of endocytosis and exocytosis.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.5 The Movement of Substances Across Membranes

 

 

50) Which of the following statements about cell walls is false?

 

  1. a) All bacterial cell walls contain teichoic acids.
  2. b) Plants and fungi have cell walls.
  3. c) Bacteria which have lost their cell wall are known as L-forms.
  4. d) Algal protists have cell walls.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.2 Describe the organelles and motility structures commonly found in eukaryotic cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells

 

 

51) Which of the following statements about outer membranes is true?

 

  1. a) It contains an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) which is responsible for fever and potentially serious complications in human infections.
  2. b) It prevents the cell from lysing when fluids flow into the cell.
  3. c) Treatment with antibiotics which kill the bacteria will reduce the concentration of endotoxin.
  4. d) It is a space that is very active in cell metabolism

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

52) Which is the correct ordering of cell wall components starting from outside the cell and going inward?

 

  1. a) In Gram-positive bacteria: peptidoglycan, cell membrane
  2. b) In Gram-negative bacteria: peptidoglycan, lipopolysaccharide, periplasmic space, outer membrane, cell membrane
  3. c) In acid fast bacteria: peptidoglycan, lipid layer, cell membrane
  4. d) In Gram-negative bacteria: peptidoglycan, periplasmic space, lipid membrane

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

53) Which of the following statements about motility is false?

 

  1. a) Chemotaxis is the movement of bacteria toward or away from a chemical.
  2. b) Pseudopodia are associated with fungi.
  3. c) Bacteria use helical flagellar movements to orient towards external signals.
  4. d) Pseudopodia are temporary projections of cytoplasm.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.; LO 4.2 Describe the organelles and motility structures commonly found in eukaryotic cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells; Section 4.3 Eukaryotic Cells

 

 

54) What is the function of gas-filled vacuoles in aquatic photosynthetic bacteria?

 

  1. a) transducers to detect chemicals and signal the cells to respond
  2. b) regulate the depth at which they float by changing amount of gas in vacuoles
  3. c) change the handedness of the helix in which the bacteria is moving
  4. d) allows the bacteria to respond to magnetic fields

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

55) Attachment pili do all of the following except,

 

  1. a) help bacteria adhere to surfaces
  2. b) allow bacteria to form a pellicle at the air-water interface of a broth culture
  3. c) clump blood cells in a process called hemagglutination
  4. d) prevent the pathogenicity of certain bacteria

 

Answer: d

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

56) Which of the following statements is false?

 

  1. a) All bacteria are capable of forming capsules.
  2. b) The chemical composition of each capsule is unique to a particular strain of bacteria.
  3. c) Slime layers are usually thinner than capsules.
  4. d) A slime layer protects bacteria against drying and helps trap nutrients near a cell.

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Hard

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

57) Endocytosis:

 

  1. a) releases material in the form of phagosomes.
  2. b) is the process of taking materials into the cell.
  3. c) directs material to the endoplasmic reticulum.
  4. d) uses simple diffusion move material across the plasma membrane.

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.4 Describe ways in which molecules may move across a semi-permeable membrane and the phenomena of endocytosis and exocytosis.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.5 The Movement of Substances Across Membranes

 

 

58) This type of cell is a _____.

  1. a) prokaryote.
  2. b) eukaryote.
  3. c) Both A and B are correct
  4. d) Neither A nor B are correct

 

Answer: a

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

Wall and D for Cell Membrane; Remove leader lines for all remaining structures]

59) This structure can be Gram positive or Gram negative.

  1. a) A
  2. b) B
  3. c) C
  4. d) D

 

Answer: c

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

60) The flagellar arrangement represented in this image is_____.

  1. a) monotrichous
  2. b) peritrichous
  3. c) amphitrichous
  4. d) lophotrichous

 

Answer: b

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

Question Type: Essay

 

 

61) Give examples of microorganisms that are prokaryotes and eukaryotes.  What microorganism does not fit in either category?  Describe three differences between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

 

Answer: Prokaryotes include bacteria. Eukaryotes that are microorganisms include protists (e.g., Amoeba, Paramecium and malaria parasites) and fungi.  Both viruses and prions do not fit in either category.

There are three important differences between eukaryotes and prokaryotes.  First, in eukaryotes, DNA is in a nucleus (surrounded by a nuclear envelope), in prokaryotes it is found in a region but is not in an membrane envelope.  Eukaryotes also have organelles (membrane enclosed), which prokaryotes lack.  Prokaryotes divide by mitosis, while eukaryotes can divide by both mitosis and meiosis.  Other more minor differences include the presence of paired chromosomes, histones, mitotic spindle, cytoskeleton and cilia in eukaryotes and the presence of pili in prokaryotes.  In addition the composition and structure of cell walls, ribosomes, and membranes differ.

 

Difficulty: Easy

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.1 Compare and contrast prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell types, describing typical sizes, shapes, and arrangements of bacterial cells.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.2 Prokaryotic Cells

 

 

62) What supports the idea that prokaryotes were involved in the evolution of eukaryotes by means of endosymbiosis?

 

Answer: Evidence supporting the idea that prokaryotes were involved in the evolution of eukaryotes comes from the similarity of eukaryotic organelles to prokaryotes and the frequency of endosymbiosis between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in the natural world.  Eukaryotic organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts are: the same size as prokaryotes; have their own DNA (whose sequence shows significant homology to the DNA sequences of certain modern prokaryotes), 70Sribosomes and membranes with the same structure as prokaryotes. Protein synthesis within these organelles is carried out like prokaryotes and is inhibited by antibiotics. Organellar DNA division by binary fission is independent of the eukaryotic cell cycle. In addition, there are many present day examples of bacteria living endosymbiotically in eukaryotes and in many of these examples the bacteria perform metabolic functions (similar to mitochondria) or other functions (motility) in exchange for nutrients.  This provides mechanistic evidence for the endocytotic function occurring in ages past.

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.3 Explain the evidence for the endosymbiosis theory.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.4 Evolution by Endosymbiosis

 

 

63) Three bags, permeable to water but not salt, are placed in beakers containing an isotonic, hypotonic and hypertonic solution.  Describe how you could determine which beaker was which.  If the bag were a cell what would happen to it if it was placed in each beaker.

 

Answer: The concentration of the dissolved material in the environment compared to the concentration dissolved inside the bag will determine in which direction the water will flow.  Water will flow from an area of greater concentration of water to one of lower water concentration (e.g., down a concentration gradient).  If there is no water flow, the beaker is isotonic as the bag and environment have the same concentration so there would be equal flow into and out of the bag.  If the water flows into the bag, the solution is hypotonic.  If the water flows out of the bag the solution is hypertonic.

In the isotonic solution was nothing would happen to the cell.  In the hypotonic solution the cell would gain water, swell and may burst.  In the hypertonic solution the cell will lose water and shrink.

 

Difficulty: Medium

Learning Objective 1: LO 4.4 Describe ways in which molecules may move across a semi-permeable membrane and the phenomena of endocytosis and exocytosis.

Section Reference 1: Section 4.5 The Movement of Substances Across Membranes

 

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