Microbiology Principles and Explorations 8th Edition by Jacquelyn G. Black test bank

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Microbiology Principles and Explorations 8th Edition by Jacquelyn G. Black test bank

Description

Package Title: Testbank
Course Title: Viruses
Chapter: 10

Question Type: Multiple Choice

1) Viruses have some of the properties of cellular life forms. Which of the following is a characteristic of all organisms except viruses?

a) presence of a plasma membrane
b) capable of mutation
c) ability to reproduce inside a living host
d) grow in response to their environment conditions

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.1 Describe the structural components, shapes, and sizes of viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.1 General Characteristics of Viruses

2) Viruses are referred to as obligate intracellular parasites because:

a) viral DNA inserts itself into host DNA.
b) they reproduce and then exit the cell.
c) they use the hosts energy to live.
d) they must use the hosts machinery to synthesize components required for assembly into new virus particles.

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.1 Describe the structural components, shapes, and sizes of viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.1 General Characteristics of Viruses

3) Which of the following structures do viruses use to attach themselves and enter the host cells?

a) viral spikes
b) viral tails
c) viral particles
d) viral nucleic acid

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.1 Describe the structural components, shapes, and sizes of viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.1 General Characteristics of Viruses

4) Some viruses have a lipid bilayer, also known as the viral envelope. The viral envelope is most likely to come from the following source:

a) host cell plasma membrane
b) host membrane bound organelles
c) host nucleus
d) another virus

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.1 Describe the structural components, shapes, and sizes of viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.1 General Characteristics of Viruses

5) Advantages provided by the viral envelope include:

a) helping viruses infect new cells by fusion of the envelope with the hosts plasma membrane.
b) helping viruses hide from attack by the hosts immune system.
c) resistance to extreme pH (below 6 or above 8).
d) both helping viruses infect new cells by fusion of the envelope with the hosts plasma membrane and helping hide from attack by the hosts immune system.

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.1 Describe the structural components, shapes, and sizes of viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.1 General Characteristics of Viruses

6) A naked virus:

a) has no protein coat around its nucleic acid.
b) is unable to attach itself to a host cell.
c) has no envelope
d) has no infectious piece of DNA

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1:LO 10.1 Describe the structural components, shapes, and sizes of viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.1 General Characteristics of Viruses

7) Which structure of the herpesvirus is represented by the arrow?

a) Capsid
b) Nucleic acid core
c) Spikes
d) Envelope

Answer: d

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.1 Describe the structural components, shapes, and sizes of viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.1 General Characteristics of Viruses

8) A minus (antisense) strand virus might synthesize proteins within a host cell through the following synthesis pathway:

a) minus strand RNA protein
b) minus strand RNA plus strand RNA protein
c) RNA DNA protein
d) RNA RNA DNA protein

Answer: b

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

9) DNA viruses are grouped into families based on the following characteristics except:

a) presence of an envelope
b) presence of a capsid
c) whether DNA is single stranded or double stranded
d) whether DNA is linear or circular

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

10) The families of RNA viruses are distinguished from one another by all of the following except:

a) presence of an envelope
b) shape of the capsid
c) sense or antisense RNA
d) whether RNA is linear or circular

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

11) Viruses that have plus strand RNA chromosomes that acts as a template for DNA synthesis are known as:

a) retroviruses.
b) proviruses.
c) viroids.
d) bacteriophages.
e) lytic phages.

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

12) You have isolated an unknown virus. It is a double-stranded DNA virus and does not have an envelope. To which virus family does it mostly likely belong?

a) Paramyxoviridae
b) Retroviridae
c) Adenoviridae
d) Parvoviridae

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

13) Common colds and influenza are caused by which of the following pair of virus families?

a) Adenoviridae & Orthomyxoviridae
b) Enterovirus &Retrovirus
c) Flavivirus & Rhinovirus
d) Poxvirus & Papillomavirus

Answer: a

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

14) All of the following viruses may stay inside of a cell for many years and remain inactive except:

a) herpes simplex
b) chickenpox
c) HIV
d) enterovirus

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

15) Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is caused by a retrovirus. Which of the following best represents the genetic information flow used by retroviruses?

a) DNA mRNA protein
b) DNA protein
c) RNA DNA mRNA protein
d) RNA protein

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

16. The reason that retroviruses can direct the formation of DNA from RNA is because most retroviruses contain the following enzyme

a) RNA polymerase
b) DNA polymerase
c) DNA ligase
d) reverse transcriptase

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

17) A viral infection is treated with a drug designed to inhibit reverse transcriptase. Which of the following viruses would not be affected?

a) Human Immunodeficiency virus
b) Murine leukemia virus
c) Hepatitis B virus
d) none of these choices

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

18) A latent viral infection is an infection in which:

a) viral replication is slow
b) viruses remains within host cells without causing a disease
c) a viral infection causes a disease progression gradually over a long period
d) viral replication has stopped but may resume years or decades later upon reactivation

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

19) Which of the following viruses are known for causing latent infections?

a) adenoviruses
b) herpesviruses
c) poxviruses
d) parvoviruses

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

20) Which of the following diseases is NOT caused by a poxvirus?

a) smallpox
b) chickenpox
c) cowpox
d) monkeypox

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

21) Reactivation of chickenpox long after the initial infection leads to:

a) cancer
b) influenza
c) shingles
d) varicella

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

22) Viral host range refers to the:

a) tissue types able to be infected by a virus
b) number of species that are infected by a virus
c) number of eukaryotic kingdoms able to be infected by a virus
d) none of these choices

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.2 Identify the main characteristics used to classify viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.2 Classification of Viruses

23) A virus that is specific for a bacterial host is called a:

a) phage
b) prion
c) viroid
d) virion

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

24) Which is the best scientific explanation for the increasing concern over the recent outbreaks of avian influenza in Hong Kong and other Asian locations?

a) avian influenza may infect humans.
b) human influenza viruses may exchange genetic material with avian influenza viruses and infect humans more efficiently.
c) avian influenza may spread to other countries.
d) avian influenza may change to another virus that could infect humans.

Answer: b

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.3 Explain what is meant by the term emerging viruses, providing an example of such a virus.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.3 Emerging Viruses

25) Select the true statement regarding yellow fever.

a) Yellow fever is endemic to the United States.
b) Yellow fever is only transmitted by one mosquito species
c) Yellow fever is transmitted by ticks and mosquitoes
d) Yellow fever is caused by a flavivirus.

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.3 Explain what is meant by the term emerging viruses, providing an example of such a virus.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.3 Emerging Viruses

26) In the early 1990s, this emerging virus was of concern to the United States. It is
transmitted from rodent feces and urine to human beings. This emerging virus is the:

a) influenza virus
b) rhinovirus
c) hantavirus
d) poliovirus

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.3 Explain what is meant by the term emerging viruses and provide an example of such a virus
Section Reference 1: Section 10.3 Emerging Viruses

27) Which of the following represents the correct order of steps in a typical virus replication cycle?

a) maturation adsorption penetration release synthesis
b) adsorption penetration release maturation synthesis
c) adsorption penetration synthesis maturation release
d) adsorption penetration maturation synthesis release

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

28) Assembly of new viral components into a complete virion takes place during viral _____.

a) maturation
b) adsorption
c) penetration
d) synthesis

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

29) Which of the following is used by negative strand RNA viruses such as measles and influenza during their replication cycle?

a) synthesize DNA via reverse transcriptase
b) synthesize a double stranded RNA intermediate
c) synthesize an RNA:DNA hybrid whose RNA is a (+) strand
d) synthesize an RNA:DNA hybrid whose DNA is a () strand

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

30) Identify the portion of the growth curve that represents the time after penetration through the release of mature phages.

a) A
b) B
c) C

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

31) Much of the information about how viruses work has been gleaned from studying T-
even phages that infect:

a) bacteria
b) human cells
c) mammalian cells
d) plant cells

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

32) Bacteriophages contain the enzyme lysozyme, which is used to:

a) replicate viral DNA.
b) shut down bacterial cell metabolism.
c) weaken bacterial cell walls.
d) help recognize the proper bacterial host.

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

33) Bacteriophage DNA is transcribed to mRNA during the ________ phase of viral replication.

a) penetration
b) synthesis
c) maturation
d) release

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

34) What would be a reasonable number of new phages to expect from one round of viral replication in one cell?

a) 2
b) 100
c) 1000
d) 10000

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

35) Because viruses such as bacteriophages lead to bursting of the bacterial host cell they are known as ________ viruses.

a) lytic
b) lysogenic
c) recurring
d) lethal

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

36) Plaques are:

a) bacterial colonies
b) another name for single viruses
c) areas where bacterial cells have been lysed
d) bacterial film

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

37) Temperate phages:

a) do not always undergo a lytic cycle
b) only replicate at certain temperatures
c) are those that cause disease
d) form plaques on bacterial lawns

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

38) Viral DNA lying within a bacterial chromosome is called a ________ while the combination of a bacterial cell and its temperate phage is called a ________.

a) prophage, lysogen
b) plaque, lysogen
c) lysogen, prophage
d) prophage, retrovirus

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

39) Prophages are responsible for production of the toxins found in:

a) Staphylococcus aureus
b) Micrococcus luteus
c) Clostridium botulinum
d) Streptococcus lactis

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

40) Growth of a bacterium which contains a prophage represents a:

a) lytic cycle
b) temperate cycle
c) lysogenic cycle
d) induction

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

41) A lysogenic phage which enters a lytic cycle is said to have undergone:

a) transformation
b) induction
c) transcription
d) lysogenic conversion

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

42) Recognition of the proper host cell by an animal virus may be aided by the ________ of the virus.

a) spikes
b) tail fibers
c) DNA
d) cell membrane

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.5 Evaluate the use of eggs, living animals, and cell cultures for harvesting animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.5 Culturing of Animal Viruses

43) Which of the following would be the best host system to study influenza A viruses?

a) Primary cell culture
b) Diploid fibroblast strain
c) Continuous cell line
d) Embryonated chicken egg

Answer: d

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.5 Evaluate the use of eggs, living animals, and cell cultures for harvesting animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.5 Culturing of Animal Viruses

44) Cells taken directly from an animal and cultured in vitro represent:

a) primary cell cultures
b) diploid fibroblast strains
c) continuous cell lines from human embryos
d) continuous cell lines that have been re-isolated from animal tissues

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.5 Evaluate the use of eggs, living animals, and cell cultures for harvesting animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.5 Culturing of Animal Viruses

45) Enveloped animal viruses typically leave the host cell by:

a) host cell lysis
b) host cell rupture
c) budding
d) animal viruses never leave the host cell

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.4 Describe the five key steps of viral replication as they occur in bacteriophages and animal viruses.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.4 Viral Replication

46) A drug or other agent that induces defects during embryonic development is known as a:

a) syncytia
b) capsomere
c) teratogen
d) carcinogen

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.6 Identify viruses that may cause developmental defects.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.6 Viruses and Teratogenesis

47) What type of effect is occurring with these cells infected by RSV?

a) Cytopathic effect
b) CPE
c) Nuclear effect
d) Cytoplasmic effect
e) Both Cytopathic effect and CPE are correct

Answer: e

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.6 Identify viruses that may cause developmental defects.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.6 Viruses and Teratogenesis

48) A prion is composed of:

a) RNA
b) DNA
c) proteins
d) both DNA and RNA

Answer: c

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.7 Review the characteristics of satellites, viroids, and prions.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.7 Viruslike Agents: Satellites, Viroids and Prions

49) Diseases such as Creutzfeld-Jacob disease (variant), kuru, and mad cow disease are caused by:

a) RNA viruses
b) DNA viruses
c) bacteria
d) prions

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.7 Review the characteristics of satellites, viroids, and prions.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.7 Viruslike Agents: Satellites, Viroids and Prions

50) Viroids are composed of ______.

a) single infectious proteins
b) double stranded RNA
c) single-stranded linear DNA
d) single-stranded circular RNA

Answer: d

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.7 Review the characteristics of satellites, viroids, and prions.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.7 Viruslike Agents: Satellites, Viroids and Prions

51) Which of the following viruses plays an important role in the development of cervical cancer?

a) adenoviruses
b) herpes viruses
c) human papilloma viruses
d) slow viruses

Answer: c

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective: LO 10.8 Describe proto-oncogenes and oncogenes and explain their relevance to cancer.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.8 Viruses and Cancer and Human Cancer Viruses

52). A rare form of cancer that has become common among men with AIDS is:

a) Kaposis sarcoma
b) Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia
c) tuberculosis
d) Burkitts lymphoma

Answer: a

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.8 Describe proto-oncogenes and oncogenes and explain their relevance to cancer.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.8 Viruses and Cancer and Human Cancer Viruses

53) The most conclusive evidence that viruses cause cancers is provided by:

a) the presence of oncogenes in humans
b) the presence of antibodies against viruses in cancer patients
c) treating cancer patients with antibiotics
d) development of a cancer following an injection of viruses

Answer: d

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.8 Describe proto-oncogenes and oncogenes and explain their relevance to cancer.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.8 Viruses and Cancer and Human Cancer Viruses

54) Malignant tumors and their cells can ____ to other locations and organs in the body.

a) metastasize
b) begin
c) stagnate
d) end

Answer: a

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.8 Describe proto-oncogenes and oncogenes and explain their relevance to cancer.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.8 Viruses and Cancer and Human Cancer Viruses

55) Which of the following explains how DNA tumor viruses may cause human cancers?

a) viral proteins infect other uninfected host cells
b) viral proteins block the effect of tumor-suppressor genes which prevent uncontrolled cell division
b) viral particles infect sex cells and transmit the virions to offspring.
c) use viral reverse transcriptase to integrate the DNA tumor viruses into the host chromosome

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.8 Describe proto-oncogenes and oncogenes and explain their relevance to cancer.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.8 Viruses and Cancer and Human Cancer Viruses

56) An uncontrolled, invasive growth of abnormal cells is referred to as _____.

a) transduction
b) cancer
c) induction
d) transformation
e) None of these choices

Answer: b

Difficulty: Medium
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.8 Describe proto-oncogenes and oncogenes and explain their relevance to cancer.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.8 Viruses and Cancer and Human Cancer Viruses

57) The scientist who discovered that some viruses may cause cancer is:

a) Diener
b) Rous
c) Prusiner
d) Prioux

Answer: b

Difficulty: Easy
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.8 Describe proto-oncogenes and oncogenes and explain their relevance to cancer.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.8 Viruses and Cancer and Human Cancer Viruses

Question Type: Essay

58) Why was it previously believed that only DNA viruses can cause cancer? How can RNA viruses cause cancer?

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.8 Describe proto-oncogenes and oncogenes and explain their relevance to cancer.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.8 Viruses and Cancer and Human Cancer Viruses

59) Why did scientists initially resist the idea of an infectious, self-replicating protein?

Answer:

Difficulty: Hard
Learning Objective 1: LO 10.7 Review the characteristics of satellites, viroids, and prions.
Section Reference 1: Section 10.7 Viruslike Agents: Satellites, Viroids and Prions

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