Modern Management Concepts and Skills 12th Edition by Samuel C. Certo -Test Bank

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Modern Management Concepts and Skills 12th Edition by Samuel C. Certo -Test Bank

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WITH ANSWERS

Modern Management Concepts and Skills 12th Edition by Samuel C. Certo -Test Bank

Modern Management, 12e (Certo)

Chapter 2   Managing: History and Current Thinking

 

1) Henri Fayol was a major contributor to the field of classical management theory.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 28

Objective:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

2) Frederick W. Taylor is commonly called the father of scientific management.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 29

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

3) The primary investigative tool in F.W. Taylors research was motion study.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 30

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

4) Motion study consists of reducing each job to the most basic movements possible and eliminating unnecessary motions.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 30

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

5) Taylor pioneered a system in which workers could earn a bonus in addition to the piece rate if they exceeded their daily production quota.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 32

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

6) Henri Fayol is regarded as the pioneer of administrative theory.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 32

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

7) Henri Fayol was more aware of the human side of production. According to him, the interests of one person should take priority over the interests of the organization as a whole.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 33

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

8) Fayol defined centralization as raising the importance of the subordinate role.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 33

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

9) According to Fayol, employee retention should not be given high priority as recruitment and selection costs are lower than the cost of hiring new workers.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 33

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

10) A drawback of the classical approach is that it does not adequately emphasize human variables.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 34

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

11) The behavioral approach to management emphasizes increasing production through an understanding of people.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 34

Objective:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

12) The Hawthorne studies concluded that lighting and temperature changes within organizations could significantly influence production.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 34

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

13) One conclusion of the Hawthorne studies was that social groups in organizations could effectively exert pressure to influence individuals to disregard monetary incentives.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 35

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

14) Abraham Maslow was a major contributor to the human relations movement in management.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 35

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

15) The behavioral science approach suggests that managers can best improve their organizations by using the scientific method and mathematical techniques to solve operational problems.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 36

Objective:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

16) The use of mathematical models to investigate the decision situation is typical in management science applications.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 37

Objective:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

17) The contingency approach is based on the premise that there is one best way to solve a management problem in all organizations.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 37

Objective:  9

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

18) The management science approach emphasizes ifthen relationships: If this situational variable exists, then a manager probably would take this action.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 38

Objective:  9

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

19) A closed system is not influenced by, and does not interact with, its environment.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 38

Objective:  7

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

20) The use of three sources of information: classical, behavioral, and management science approaches, to analyze the management system is referred to as triangular management.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 40

Objective:  9

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

21) The ________ approach to management was the product of the first concentrated effort to develop a body of management thought. The management writers who participated in this effort are considered the pioneers of management study.

  1. A) behavioral
  2. B) management science
  3. C) classical
  4. D) contingency
  5. E) system

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 28

Objective:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

22) The classical approach to management recommends that ________.

  1. A) managers enhance organizational success by building appropriate relationships with people
  2. B) managers improve their organizations by using the scientific method and mathematical techniques to solve operational problems
  3. C) managers continually strive to increase organizational efficiency to increase production
  4. D) what managers do in practice depends on, or is contingent upon, a given set of circumstances
  5. E) to fully understand the operation of an entity, the entity must be viewed as a system

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 28

Objective:  1

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Conceptual

 

 

23) ________ consists primarily of the work of Frederick W.Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and Henry L. Gantt.

  1. A) Higher-level management analysis
  2. B) The behavioral approach
  3. C) Lower-level management analysis
  4. D) Management science
  5. E) Comprehensive management

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 28

Objective:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

24) Under classical management theory, comprehensive analysis of management concerns the management function as a whole. The primary contributor to this category was ________.

  1. A) Henri Fayol
  2. B) Frederick W.Taylor
  3. C) Henry L. Gantt
  4. D) Frank Gilbreth
  5. E) Ludwig von Bertalanffy

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 28

Objective:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

25) Lower-level management analysis concentrates on the one best way to perform a task. The process of finding this one best way is known as ________.

  1. A) higher-level management
  2. B) contingency management
  3. C) comprehensive management
  4. D) scientific management
  5. E) system management

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 28

Objective:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

 

26) Because of the significance of his contributions, ________ is commonly called the father of scientific management.

  1. A) Frank Gilbreth
  2. B) Henry L. Gantt
  3. C) Lillian Gilbreth
  4. D) Henri Fayol
  5. E) Frederick W.Taylor

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 29

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

27) F.W. Taylors approach was unpopular with workers and unions because they feared that reengineering their jobs would lead to ________.

  1. A) lower piecework rates
  2. B) a decrease in productivity
  3. C) workers losing their jobs
  4. D) longer work days
  5. E) an increase in quality

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 29

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

28) The primary investigative tool in the Gilbreths research was ________, which consists of reducing each job to the most basic movements possible.

  1. A) ergonomics
  2. B) motion study
  3. C) piecework
  4. D) reductionism
  5. E) division of work

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 30

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

 

29) Among the sample variables considered in analyzing motions, as pioneered by the Gilbreths, the environmental variables include ________.

  1. A) anatomy
  2. B) habits
  3. C) health
  4. D) brawn
  5. E) work clothes

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 30

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

30) The Gilbreths aimed to increase worker efficiency by ________.

  1. A) reducing the number of movements taken to accomplish a task
  2. B) enforcing minimum criteria for the types of workers hired for a job
  3. C) instituting the piece-rate system for remuneration
  4. D) understanding what motivates employees to complete a task
  5. E) encouraging teamwork rather than individual work

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 31

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Conceptual

31) Best Foot Limited (BFL) manufactures different types of footwear, including rubber/canvas footwear, leather footwear, and plastic footwear. The company has one plant in Norway which produces all the shoes. Nearly 800 workers are employed at this plant. Which of the following possible actions would indicate that BFL follows the scientific method of the Gilbreths, who primarily focused on motion-study?

  1. A) The company switched to a new assembly line process which requires employees to perform three steps per task compared to the earlier five steps.
  2. B) Every month the BFL management chooses three employees who have exceeded their targets for that month and awards each of them a special bonus.
  3. C) To help retain employees, the management awards workers a special loyalty bonus for every two years they complete at the organization.
  4. D) BFL has no strict guidelines regarding work clothes for their employees.
  5. E) The managers undergo regular training to enhance their interpersonal skills. This has helped increase productivity through better communication between employees.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 30-31

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Difficult

Classification:  Critical thinking

 

 

32) Which of the following approaches to management was advocated by Henry Gantt?

  1. A) the contingency approach
  2. B) using mathematical models to investigate the decision situation
  3. C) using human relations skills to manage workers
  4. D) work specialization and unity of command
  5. E) task-scheduling and rewarding innovation

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 32

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

33) According to Gantt, the role of a manager is to ________.

  1. A) divide specialized work among individuals and groups
  2. B) make it in employees interests to accomplish tasks
  3. C) choose the management tactics best suited to particular situations
  4. D) convince workmen to do work which they have no desire to do
  5. E) use mathematical models to investigate the decision situation

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 32

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

34) Managers use the Gantt chart to ________.

  1. A) encourage worker initiative
  2. B) conduct motion analysis of tasks
  3. C) retain productive employees
  4. D) monitor work schedules
  5. E) reward innovation by workers

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 32

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

 

35) Which of the following is true of Henry Gantts method of  management?

  1. A) The Gantt scheduling chart was found to be impractical and has fallen into disuse.
  2. B) It gave less importance to the human side of production than F.W. Taylors method.
  3. C) Gantt believed that worker compensation should correspond only to production.
  4. D) He considered that studying employee motivation was the role of scientific management.
  5. E) It dealt with lower-level management analysis and not comprehensive analysis.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 32

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Application

 

36) Under the piece-rate system pioneered by Taylor, ________.

  1. A) workers were paid according to the amount they produced
  2. B) managers develop their employees work-related skills
  3. C) each job was reduced to the most basic movement possible
  4. D) workers were paid more than their managers
  5. E) managers were paid only after the workers exceeded production

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 32

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

37) Which of the following did Gantt advocate in addition to Taylors piece-rate compensation system for workers?

  1. A) decentralizing authority
  2. B) a bonus for overproduction
  3. C) medical insurance coverage
  4. D) mandatory employee training
  5. E) tenure and job security

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 32

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

38) Gantt believed in worker compensation that corresponded to production through the piece-rate system, as well as the ________ system when production  exceeded the quota.

  1. A) staggered
  2. B) bonus
  3. C) pension
  4. D) interest
  5. E) profit

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 32

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

39) If BFL followed the scientific method as proposed by Henry Gantt, which one of the following actions by BFL will be the MOST likely outcome?

  1. A) The workers of the Ambition brand of shoes were recently moved to a new assembly line, where they now use only three steps per task compared to the earlier five steps.
  2. B) Every month the BFL management awards monetary incentives to employees who have exceeded their targets for that month and the top performer is designated as the employee of the month.
  3. C) The worker wages are not fixed but are dependent on the number of shoe parts they process in a month.
  4. D) BFL has no strict guidelines regarding work clothes for their employees.
  5. E) The managers undergo regular training to enhance their interpersonal skills. This has helped increase productivity through better communication between employees.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 32

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Difficult

Classification:  Critical thinking

 

40) Because of his writings on the elements and general principles of management, Henri Fayol is usually regarded as the pioneer of ________.

  1. A) strategic management applications
  2. B) organizational behavior
  3. C) business finance model
  4. D) operations management theory
  5. E) administrative theory

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 32

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

41) Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the ________ resources of the organization.

  1. A) human
  2. B) capital
  3. C) monetary
  4. D) material
  5. E) technological

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 33

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

42) One of the general principles of management explained by Fayol is unity of command. What does this principle mean?

  1. A) The entire organization should be moving toward a common objective.
  2. B) The interests of one person should take priority over the interests of the organization.
  3. C) Workers should receive orders from only one manager.
  4. D) All workers should be given the same orders by managers.
  5. E) All employees should be treated as equally as possible.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 33

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

43) Lynn is a manager in an organization that produces optical fiber cables. She follows the Fayol principle of esprit de corps in her interactions with the team. Which of the following does this imply?

  1. A) Lynns team members are independent.
  2. B) Lynns team members are fiercely competitive.
  3. C) Lynns team members enjoy working in a centralized hierarchical system.
  4. D) Lynns team members receive orders only from her.
  5. E) Lynns team members are harmonious and upbeat.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 33

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Application

 

44) One of the general principles of management suggested by Fayol is centralization. What is centralization?

  1. A) Centralization is increasing the importance of the subordinate role.
  2. B) Centralization directs that the entire organization should be moving toward a common objective.
  3. C) Centralization is lowering the importance of the subordinate role.
  4. D) Centralization directs that all materials and people related to a specific kind of work should be assigned to the same general location.
  5. E) Centralization directs that the entire organization need not be moving toward a common objective.

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 33

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

45) D&B Inc., conducted a review of its organizational practices, and concluded that changes to the current system would result in increased efficiency. The company proposed a change in work timings and remuneration policies and implemented it for a trial period. When the employees were surveyed by their managers to discover their reaction to the changes, most employees noted that the new system boosted productivity, though a few reported that accommodating to the new system was difficult. However, management decided to go ahead and implement the new system. The actions of the management can be explained by Fayols principle of ________.

  1. A) unity of command and direction
  2. B) lowering the importance of the subordinate role
  3. C) subordination of the individual to the general interest
  4. D) specialization of work
  5. E) esprit de corps

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 33

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Application

 

 

46) Each manager in an organization possesses certain amounts of authority. For example, the president possesses the most authority; the first-line supervisor, the least. According to Fayol, this is known as ________.

  1. A) unity of command
  2. B) esprit de corps
  3. C) scalability of tenure
  4. D) the scalar chain
  5. E) decentralization

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 33

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

47) In Fayols principles of management, decentralization implies that ________.

  1. A) the entire organization should be moving toward a common objective
  2. B) the importance of the subordinate role should be increased
  3. C) work should be divided among individuals
  4. D) the interests of one person should be prioritized over the interests of the organization
  5. E) workers should receive orders from a number of managers

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 33

Objective:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

48) Jane, a manager in a soda company, believes that the classical approach to management will help her to schedule her employees tasks and handle people better. But using only the classical approach may not be the ideal approach because ________.

  1. A) exact scientific knowledge of what could be done by a worker is substituted for opinion
  2. B) the scientific approach has proven to be ineffective in increasing production
  3. C) it is concerned with the entire range of managerial performance and not just the job design
  4. D) it does not adequately emphasize the human variables in the production process
  5. E) it does not have a one best way approach to management problems

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 34

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Application

 

 

49) Gene Co., a pharmaceutical company, directs its management to increase production through an understanding of people. The company believes that if managers understand their people and adapt their organizations to them, organizational success will follow. Which management approach is Gene Co. adopting in this scenario?

  1. A) system approach
  2. B) management science approach
  3. C) classical approach
  4. D) contingency approach
  5. E) behavioral approach

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 34

Objective:  3

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Application

50) The Hawthorne Studies were conducted in two phases: the relay assembly test room experiments and the bank wiring observation room experiment. Which of the following approaches was developed based on these studies?

  1. A) the behavioral approach
  2. B) the contingency approach
  3. C) the system approach
  4. D) the management science approach
  5. E) the classical approach

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 34

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

51) One of the phases of the Hawthorne studies was the relay assembly test room experiments. The experimenters believed that if they studied productivity long enough, under different working conditions, they would discover the working conditions that maximized production. Thus, these experiments originally had a ________ orientation.

  1. A) comprehensive management
  2. B) scientific management
  3. C) behavioral management
  4. D) contingency management
  5. E) system management

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 34

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

 

52) Which of the following conclusions was drawn by the experimenters from the relay assembly test room experiments of the Hawthorne studies?

  1. A) The subjects did not find working in the test room enjoyable.
  2. B) There is no consistent relationship between productivity and lighting intensity.
  3. C) Subjects continued to show decreased production under all lighting conditions.
  4. D) Worker productivity increased with higher light intensity than lower light intensity.
  5. E) Worker productivity increased with lower light intensity than higher light intensity.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 34

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

53) The purpose of the bank wiring observation room experiment, which is one of the phases of the Hawthorne studies, was to analyze ________.

  1. A) the impact of scientifically designed jobs on worker efficiency
  2. B) the most basic movements necessary to achieve a task
  3. C) system improvements through task-scheduling innovation
  4. D) the impact of social relationships in a work group
  5. E) the impact of unity of command in terms of productivity

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 34

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

54) Which one of the following conclusions was drawn by the experimenters from the bank wiring observation room experiment?

  1. A) The subjects did not find working in the test room enjoyable.
  2. B) Human factors within organizations could significantly influence production.
  3. C) Members of the work group pressured one another to work harder so that each group member would receive more pay.
  4. D) Improved working conditions resulted in increased production.
  5. E) Social groups in organizations could effectively exert pressure to influence individuals to disregard monetary incentives.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 34-35

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

 

55) Hawthorne study results helped managers to see that ________.

  1. A) better working conditions are subject to the managers discretion
  2. B) reducing each work task to the most basic movements improves worker efficiency
  3. C) worker bonuses for overproduction helped increase productivity
  4. D) the best way to increase productivity was to set a good piece-rate system
  5. E) understanding what motivates employees is a critical part of management

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 35

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

56) The Hawthorne Studies sparked the ________, a people-oriented approach to management in which the interaction of people in organizations is studied to judge its impact on organizational success.

  1. A) behavioral study movement
  2. B) human relations movement
  3. C) scientific management movement
  4. D) one best way model
  5. E) motion studies initiative

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 35

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

57) The ultimate objective of the human relations approach is to ________.

  1. A) find one best way of managing people in an organization
  2. B) analyze the impact of environmental factors on worker behavior
  3. C) increase production by analyzing mathematical models of human behavior
  4. D) develop workers job skills and reduce the movements necessary for them to accomplish a task
  5. E) study the interaction of workers in organizations to enhance organizational success

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 35

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Conceptual

 

 

58) Abraham Maslow believed that managers must understand the physiological, safety, social, esteem, and ________  needs of organization members.

  1. A) motivational
  2. B) leadership
  3. C) monetary
  4. D) self-actualization
  5. E) intrinsic

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 35

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

59) If BFL followed the management approach of the human relations movement, which one of the following will be the MOST likely outcome?

  1. A) BFL moves the workers of Ambition, its brand of shoes, to a new assembly line, where they now use only three steps per task compared to the earlier five steps.
  2. B) Every month, BFL management chooses three employees who have exceeded their targets for that month and awards each of them with special bonuses.
  3. C) To help retain employees, the management awards workers a special bonus for every three years they complete at the organization.
  4. D) BFL has no strict guidelines regarding work clothes for all their employees.
  5. E) BFL managers undergo regular training to enhance their technical and interpersonal skills. This has helped increase productivity through better communication between employees and management and appropriate process upgrades.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 35

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Difficult

Classification:  Critical thinking

60) The management science approach suggests that managers can best improve their organizations by ________.

  1. A) using the scientific method and mathematical techniques to solve operational problems
  2. B) understanding the physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs of organization members
  3. C) providing wage incentives to workers exceeding their target production
  4. D) reducing the number of steps involved in performing a particular task
  5. E) making sure that all employees are treated as equally as possible

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 36

Objective:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

 

61) Which one of the following approaches has its origin in World War II, when scientists were asked to help the military solve complex operational problems?

  1. A) classical approach
  2. B) operations research approach
  3. C) behavioral approach
  4. D) human relations approach
  5. E) systems approach

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 36

Objective:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

62) In the scientific approach to management advocated by management science researchers, after using a model to deduce how the system will behave under conditions, researchers must ________.

  1. A) observe the workings of the parts of the system
  2. B) separate the system into its component parts
  3. C) construct a generalized framework of the system
  4. D) observe the system whose behavior must be explained
  5. E) test the model by performing an experiment on the actual system

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 37

Objective:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

63) The scientific method dictates that scientists must test the model by performing an experiment on ________.

  1. A) the actual system to see whether the effects of changes predicted using the model actually occur when the changes are made
  2. B) various systems to see whether the effects of changes predicted using the model actually occur when the changes are made
  3. C) various systems to see whether the necessary changes can be incorporated
  4. D) the actual system and other systems to see whether the necessary changes can be incorporated
  5. E) various systems to see whether the necessary changes can be incorporated on the actual system

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 37

Objective:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

 

64) The use of mathematical models to investigate the decision situation is typical in ________.

  1. A) the classical approach
  2. B) lower level management analysis
  3. C) upper level management analysis
  4. D) management science applications
  5. E) motion study techniques

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 38

Objective:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

65) Which of the following statements is true for the management science approach?

  1. A) It is only suitable for management problems with a small number of variables.
  2. B) The use of behavioral models to investigate the decision situation is typical in management science applications.
  3. C) Management science techniques are not suited for analyzing quantifiable factors.
  4. D) Management science techniques decrease the effectiveness of managers in decision-making.
  5. E) Management science applications generally use economic implications as guidelines for making a particular decision.

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 37-38

Objective:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

66) Which of the following is a characteristic of situations in which management science techniques are applied?

  1. A) Managers need help analyzing a large number of variables.
  2. B) The use of behavioral models to investigate the decision situation is indicated.
  3. C) Managers want to determine the psychological and behavioral attitudes of employees.
  4. D) Managers want to determine quality of the customer experience.
  5. E) Social implications are used as guidelines for making a particular decision.

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 37-38

Objective:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

 

67) One of the primary characteristics present in situations in which management science techniques are applied is ________.

  1. A) that the management problems have only a few variables
  2. B) that the situation deals with quantifiable factors such as sales
  3. C) that the situation deals with the physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs of organization members
  4. D) that the situation deals with assessing qualitative factors of the workplace or environment
  5. E) that social implications are the guidelines for making a particular decision

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 37-38

Objective:  6

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

68) Leo is analyzing ways to improve efficiency and productivity in a particular organization. The management problems being studied are very complicated and he needs help analyzing a large number of variables. He also intends to construct mathematical models to represent reality to determine how the real-world situation might be improved. The approach Leo is applying in this scenario is the ________.

  1. A) systems approach
  2. B) management science approach
  3. C) lower-level management analysis approach
  4. D) motion-study techniques approach
  5. E) contingency approach

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 37

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Objective:  6

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Application

69) In simple terms, the ________ to management emphasizes that what managers do in practice depends on the given set of circumstances.

  1. A) classical approach
  2. B) lower level management analysis approach
  3. C) management science approach
  4. D) contingency approach
  5. E) comprehensive management analysis approach

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 38

Objective:  9

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

 

70) Jenna and two of her college friends recently initiated their own start-up. Jennas in charge of recruiting people and personnel management. She hasnt had any experience in managing people and wants to establish a clear approach to management. However, she notices that the decisions she makes often vary depending on the people and situations. She realizes that the way she manages programmers needs a different outlook from the way she manages accountants. The most appropriate approach that Jenna could use in this scenario is the ________ approach.

  1. A) classical
  2. B) behavioral
  3. C) management science
  4. D) comprehensive management analysis
  5. E) contingency

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 38

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Objective:  9

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Application

 

71) The ________ approach to management emphasizes ifthen relationships: If this situational variable exists, then a manager probably would take this action.

  1. A) contingency
  2. B) management science
  3. C) behavioral
  4. D) comprehensive management analysis
  5. E) classical

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 38

Objective:  9

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

72) The contingency approach attempts to outline the ________ in which various management methods have the best chance of success.

  1. A) conditions
  2. B) techniques
  3. C) tools
  4. D) guidelines
  5. E) methods

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 38

Objective:  9

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

 

73) Which of the following is true from the point of view of the contingency approach to management?

  1. A) There is one best way to solve a management problem in any organization.
  2. B) Managers decisions vary depending on the particular situation and the people involved.
  3. C) In most cases, solutions to similar problems will apply across organizations.
  4. D) Managers within the same organization should follow the same solution for similar problems.
  5. E) Managers should make decisions that are consistent from employee to employee.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 38

Objective:  9

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

74) Dress codes are a contentious subject in workplaces, with Gen Y workers favoring a more casual style than older workers, who are often uncomfortable with the idea of wearing casual clothes to work. Human resources departments often find it difficult to enforce company dress codes appropriately. Managers find that one of the ways to address this situation is using the contingency approach. Which of the following is the best example of the contingency approach to management?

  1. A) Rotec Inc. requires all employees to dress formally throughout the week, and allows business casuals on Fridays.
  2. B) Sandman Designs allows employees who dont meet clients to dress casually, while employees who must meet clients are required to wear formals.
  3. C) G&B Solutions developed a series of guidelines to let employees know what is considered appropriate and inappropriate office wear.
  4. D) Waterstones observed and compared employee behavior and productivity on formal wear and casual wear days and used the findings to devise a company dress code.
  5. E) Letterman Inc. invited employees to share their clothing preferences and used these suggestions to frame a company dress code.

Answer:  B

Page Ref: 38

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Objective:  9

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Application

75) ________ is recognized as the founder of general system theory.

  1. A) Ludwig von Bertalanffy
  2. B) Henri Fayol
  3. C) Abraham Maslow
  4. D) L.Thomas Hopkins
  5. E) F.W. Taylor

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 38

Objective:  7

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

76) Regardless of the weather, a televisions screen, controls and other parts must function in a predetermined way if the television as a whole is to exist and serve its purpose. This is an example of a(n) ________ system.

  1. A) static
  2. B) open
  3. C) passive
  4. D) closed
  5. E) conditional

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 39

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Objective:  7

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Application

 

77) A human is an example of a(n) ________ system. Constant interaction with the environment influences the persons state of existence and future.

  1. A) static
  2. B) inert
  3. C) closed
  4. D) conditional
  5. E) open

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 39

Objective:  7

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Application

 

78) According to the guidelines suggested by L.Thomas Hopkins for anyone conducting system analysis, the nature of the part and its function is determined by its ________.

  1. A) position in the whole
  2. B) importance to the operation
  3. C) structural integrity
  4. D) source and origin
  5. E) design and orientation

Answer:  A

Page Ref: 39

Objective:  7

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

79) In terms of management system, the cheese used in the making of a sandwich at a restaurant is a(n) ________.

  1. A) finished good
  2. B) organizational output
  3. C) production process
  4. D) organizational process
  5. E) organizational input

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 39

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Objective:  7

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Application

 

80) The use of the classical, behavioral and management science approaches as sources of information to analyze the management system is referred to as ________ management.

  1. A) open-system
  2. B) democratic
  3. C) triangular
  4. D) laissez-faire
  5. E) lower-level

Answer:  C

Page Ref: 40

Objective:  9

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

81) Every Monday morning, the hundred-odd employees at Axis Systems Ltd. meet to discuss the work situation. The managers of various departments summarize what their departments have done over the past week. Employees can track the various stages of any project and understand how their tasks fit into the whole process. This illustrates the ________ aspect of a learning organization.

  1. A) the behavioral approach
  2. B) team learning
  3. C) triangular management
  4. D) systems thinking
  5. E) the contingency approach

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 41

Objective:  8

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

82) In a learning organization, every organization member should understand his or her own job and how the jobs fit together to provide final products to the customer. This is known as ________.

  1. A) personal mastery
  2. B) team learning
  3. C) challenging of mental models
  4. D) shared vision
  5. E) systems thinking

Answer:  E

Page Ref: 41-42

Objective:  8

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

83) Which of the following is the best example of a learning organization?

  1. A) Patersons, a family firm, has been in business for a century and operates in much the same way as it did when it first began. Many find the company culture paternalistic, but it provides generous employee benefits, which is a definite advantage.
  2. B) Lowry Ltd emphasizes the reductionist philosophy in management: the company attempts to analyze and understand operational problems by reducing them to the interactions of their parts.
  3. C) Cleary Consulting takes pride in the fact that all its departments are autonomous and self-sufficient. Each functions independently, with minimal interaction with other departments.
  4. D) Nesbit & White has been in business for just two years, and the small firm still operates almost informally. The weekly company meeting gives employees a sense of community and a chance to know how everyone is working to achieve their common goals .
  5. E) Park Systems has been immensely successful in a very short time. The key to this has been the individual freedom that it offers employees, who develop their own ways of working and solving problems. The company concentrates only on the end result.

Answer:  D

Page Ref: 41-42

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Objective:  8

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Application

 

84) How is lower-level management analysis different from comprehensive analysis of management? Is the latter approach suitable for an organization focusing on increasing productivity by concentrating on the one best way to perform a task? Explain your answer.

Answer:  The two areas in the classical approach are the lower-level management analysis and comprehensive analysis of management.

Lower-level management analysis consists primarily of the work of Frederick W.Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, and Henry L. Gantt. These individuals studied mainly the jobs of workers at lower levels of the organization. Lower-level management analysis concentrates on the one best way to perform a task; that is, it investigates how a task situation can be structured to get the highest production from workers.

Managers who embrace the comprehensive view are concerned with the entire range of managerial performance. The most notable contributor to this view was Henri Fayol. The elements of management he outlinedplanning, organizing, commanding, coordinating, and controlare still considered worthwhile divisions under which to study, analyze, and affect the management process

For an organization focusing on increasing productivity by concentrating on the one best way to perform a task, the lower-level management approach is best suited if the tasks are applicable only to the workers and lower management. But by embracing the comprehensive view the organization can address the entire range of managerial performance, if required.

Page Ref: 32

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Application

 

 

85) List any seven general principles of management and their defining themes as described by Fayol.

Answer:  Students may write about any seven of the following points.

Fayols general principles of management cover a broad range of topics, but organizational efficiency, the handling of people, and appropriate management action are the three general themes he stresses.

  1. Division of workWork should be divided among individuals and groups to ensure that effort and attention are focused on special portions of the task. Fayol presented work specialization as the best way to use the human resources of the organization.
  2. AuthorityThe concepts of authority and responsibility are closely related. Authority was defined by Fayol as the right to give orders and the power to exact obedience. Responsibility involves being accountable, and is therefore naturally associated with authority. Whoever assumes authority also assumes responsibility.
  3. DisciplineA successful organization requires the common effort of workers. Penalties should be applied judiciously to encourage this common effort.
  4. Unity of commandWorkers should receive orders from only one manager.
  5. Unity of directionThe entire organization should be moving toward a common objective, in a common direction.
  6. Subordination of individual interests to the general interestsThe interests of one person should not take priority over the interests of the organization as a whole.
  7. RemunerationMany variables, such as cost of living, supply of qualified personnel, general business conditions, and success of the business, should be considered in determining a workers rate of pay.
  8. CentralizationFayol defined centralization as lowering the importance of the subordinate role. Decentralization is increasing the importance. The degree to which centralization or decentralization should be adopted depends on the specific organization in which the manager is working.
  9. Scalar chainManagers in hierarchies are part of a chainlike authority scale. Each manager, from the first-line supervisor to the president, possesses certain amounts of authority. The president possesses the most authority; the first-line supervisor, the least.

Lower-level managers should always keep upper-level managers informed of their work activities. The existence of a scalar chain and adherence to it are necessary if the organization is to be successful.

  1. OrderFor the sake of efficiency and coordination, all materials and people related to a specific kind of work should be assigned to the same general location in the organization.
  2. EquityAll employees should be treated as equally as possible.
  3. Stability of tenure of personnelRetaining productive employees should always be a high priority of management. Recruitment and selection costs, as well as increased product reject rates, are usually associated with hiring new workers.
  4. InitiativeManagement should take steps to encourage worker initiative, which is defined as new or additional work activity undertaken through self-direction.
  5. Esprit de corpsManagement should encourage harmony and general good feelings among employees.

Page Ref: 33

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

86) What is the behavioral approach to management?

Answer:  The behavioral approach to management emphasizes increasing production through an understanding of people. According to proponents of this approach, if managers understand their people and adapt their organizations to them, organizational success will usually follow.

Page Ref: 34

Objective:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

87) What is the human relations movement in management theory? How would you, as a manager in an organization, use the human relations approach to manage employees?

Answer:  The Hawthorne Studies sparked the human relations movement, a people-oriented approach to management in which the interaction of people in organizations is studied to judge its impact on organizational success. The ultimate objective of this approach is to enhance organizational success by building appropriate relationships with people.

Student answers may vary but they need to explain how they would incorporate humane methods in managing people, focus on building appropriate relationships with people and what facilities would encourage these tasks.

Page Ref: 35

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Application

88) How does a managers understanding of his employees physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs improve productivity?

Answer:  Student answers may vary.

An individual pursues a task that best meets his needsan employee is no different. Employees continue with organizations that meet their needs, and once they dont, the employees move on to other avenues. By understanding the various needs of an employee, such as physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization needs the manager can create an environment that is conducive to meet these needs. This motivational environment is ideal for encouraging employee behaviors that result in increased productivity.

Page Ref: 35

AACSB:  Analytic Skills

Objective:  4

Difficulty:  Difficult

Classification:  Application

 

 

89) What are the steps involved in using the scientific method?

Answer:  The scientific method dictates that scientists:

  1. Systematically observe the system whose behavior must be explained to solve the problem.
  2. Use these specific observations to construct a generalized framework (a model) that is consistent with the specific observations and from which consequences of changing the system can be predicted.
  3. Use the model to deduce how the system will behave under conditions that have not been observed but could be observed if the changes were made.
  4. Finally, test the model by performing an experiment on the actual system to see whether the effects of changes predicted using the model actually occur when the changes are made.

Page Ref: 37

Objective:  5

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

90) How is the contingency approach different from the behavioral science approach? Why is perceiving organizational situations as they actually exist a challenge while using the contingency approach?

Answer:  The behavioral approach to management emphasizes increasing production through an understanding of people. According to proponents of this approach, if managers understand their people and adapt their organizations to them, organizational success will usually follow.

The contingency approach to management emphasizes that what managers do in practice depends on, or is contingent upon, a given set of circumstancesa situation. In essence, this approach emphasizes ifthen relationships: If this situational variable exists, then a manager probably would take this action.

Perceptions of organizational situations can vary from person to person. They are dependent on what understanding the individual has drawn on the situation and these understandings need not be universal. But in order to apply the right management tactics for a particular situation, it is important to have a realistic perception, rather than an assumed perception of the situation. One of the ways this could be achieved is by gathering information about the situation from all the entities involved and deducing a wholesome and realistic perception of the situation.

Page Ref: 34, 38

Objective:  3, 9

Difficulty:  Difficult

Classification:  Conceptual

 

91) What is a system? What guidelines should you follow while conducting system analysis? Using the general system theory, explain what kind of system you think the Internet is.

Answer:  The system approach to management is based on general system theory. The main premise of the theory is that to fully understand the operation of an entity, the entity must be viewed as a system. A system is a number of interdependent parts functioning as a whole for some purpose. The two basic types of systems are closed systems and open systems. A closed system is not influenced by, and does not interact with, its environment. The second type of system, the open system, is continually interacting with its environment.

The system must be viewed as a whole and modified only through changes in its parts. Before modifications of the parts can be made for the overall benefit of the system, a thorough knowledge of how each part functions and the interrelationships among the parts must be present.

L.Thomas Hopkins suggested the following six guidelines for anyone conducting system analysis:

  1. The whole should be the main focus of analysis, with the parts receiving secondary attention.
  2. Integration is the key variable in wholeness analysis. It is defined as the interrelatedness of the many parts within the whole.
  3. Possible modifications in each part should be weighed in relation to possible effects on every other part.
  4. Each part has some role to perform so that the whole can accomplish its purpose.
  5. The nature of the part and its function is determined by its position in the whole.
  6. All analysis starts with the existence of the whole. The parts and their interrelationships should then evolve to best suit the purpose of the whole.

(Student answers may vary)

The Internet, which is a constantly evolving system, is an open system because its existence is dependent on the environmental factors such as peoples input, research, modifications, upgrades, and different usages for it to exist and serve its purpose.

Page Ref: 38

AACSB:  Reflective Thinking Skills

Objective:  7

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Critical thinking

 

92) What is triangular management? How is it related to the contingency approach?

Answer:  The use of three sources of informationthe classical approach, behavioral approach and management science approach, to analyze the management system is referred to as triangular management.

(Student answers may vary)

The contingency approach to management emphasizes that what managers do in practice depends on, or is contingent upon, a given set of circumstancesa situation. The situation may demand dealing with operations, people, or problem-solving. Organizations pursuing the contingency approach can use the triangular management to arrive at the ideal course of action for a given situation.

Page Ref: 38, 40-41

Objective:  3, 9

Difficulty:  Moderate

Classification:  Conceptual

93) What is a learning organization? Which features within an organization, according to Senge, help in building a learning organization?

Answer:  A learning organization is an organization that does well in creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge, and in modifying behavior to reflect new knowledge. Learning organizations emphasize systematic problem solving, experimenting with new ideas, learning from experience and past history, learning from the experiences of others, and transferring knowledge rapidly throughout the organization.

According to Peter Senge, building a learning organization entails building five features within an organization:

  1. Systems thinkingEvery organization member understands his or her own job and how the jobs fit together to provide final products to the customer.
  2. Shared visionAll organization members have a common view of the purpose of the organization and a sincere commitment to accomplish the purpose.
  3. Challenging of mental modelsOrganization members routinely challenge the way business is done and the thought processes people use to solve organizational problems.
  4. Team learningOrganization members work together, develop solutions to new problems together, and apply the solutions together. Working as teams rather than as individuals will help organizations gather collective force to achieve organizational goals.
  5. Personal masteryAll organization members are committed to gaining a deep and rich understanding of their work. Such an understanding will help organizations successfully overcome important challenges that confront them.

Page Ref: 41-42

Objective:  8

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

 

Modern Management, 12e (Certo)

Chapter 4   Management and Diversity

 

1) The minority group in an organization lacks critical power, resources, acceptance, and social status.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 82

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

Objective:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

2) The term majority group does not necessarily refer to the group with a numerical majority.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 82

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

Objective:  1

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

3) Diversity in the managerial ranks can enhance decision-making, but has little influence on gaining market share.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 83

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

4) Including nontraditional employees in fair competition for advancement decreases the quality of management in the organization.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 84

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

5) One of the advantages of a diverse workforce is that it is more resilient when faced with change.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 84

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

Objective:  2

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

6) The belief that ones own group, culture, country, or customs are superior to that of others is known as ethnocentrism.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 86

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

Objective:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

7) A stereotype is a positive or negative assessment of members of a group or their perceived attributes.

Answer:  TRUE

Page Ref: 86

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

Objective:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

8) Discrimination is a preconceived judgment, opinion, or assumption about an issue, behavior, or group of people.

Answer:  FALSE

Page Ref: 86

AACSB:  Multicultural and Diversity Understanding

Objective:  3

Difficulty:  Easy

Classification:  Conceptual

 

9) Token employees are always given very high

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