Natural Hazards And Disasters 4th Edition by Donald Hyndman Test Bank

<< Neeb Fundamentals of Mental Health Nursing 4th Edition- Linda M. Test Bank MR 2 2nd Edition by Tom J. Brown -Test Bank >>
Product Code: 222
Availability: In Stock
Price: $24.99
Qty:     - OR -   Add to Wish List
Add to Compare

Natural Hazards And Disasters 4th Edition by Donald Hyndman Test Bank

Description

WITH ANSWERS

Natural Hazards And Disasters 4th Edition by Donald Hyndman Test Bank

Chapter 6

VOLCANOES: TECTONIC ENVIRONMENTS AND ERUPTIONS

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

1.         What two main factors result in more violent eruptions?

a.       not too much water and low enough viscosity

b.      more water and higher viscosity of the magma

c.       higher viscosity and narrow enough vent

d.      strong rocks around the vent and more water

e.       a large enough volcano with low-viscosity magma

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. What causes a big bulge to slowly grow on the flank of an active Cascades volcano?

a.   Thick lava flows pile up around the vent.

b.   A huge gas bubble released from the magma inflates it.

c.   The magma reacts with snow on the volcano, causing magma inflation.

d.   The hot magma melts older ash, causing it to expand.

e.   Rising magma is pushing it up.

 

ANSWER: e

 

3.         How does pahoehoe lava differ from aa lava?

a.       Pahoehoe is full of gas holes, and aa is solid lava.

b.      Pahoehoe has a ragged top, and aa is smooth on top.

c.       Pahoehoe is ropy-looking, and aa is clinkery.

d.      Pahoehoe is rhyolite, and aa is basalt.

e.       Pahoehoe is basalt, and aa is andesite.

 

ANSWER: c

 

4.         About how fast can erupting steam travel?

a.       up to 4 to 7 km per hour

b.      up to about 14 km per hour

c.       generally slower than you can run

d.      between 400 and 700 km per hour; up to 1,200 km per hour

e.       more than 1,600 km per hour

 

ANSWER: d

 

 

5.         A basalt magma typically erupts in what form?

a.       pale ash flows

b.      pale air-fall ash

c.       giant Plinian eruptions that rise 50 km into the atmosphere

d.      violent steam-rich surge blasts

e.       lava flows

 

ANSWER: e

 

6.         A rhyolite magma typically erupts in what form?

a.       thin, fast-moving lava flows

b.      thick, fast-moving lava flows

c.       thin, slow-moving ash flows

d.      fine ash

e.       Rhyolite magma never erupts.

ANSWER: d

 

7.         What are the two most abundant gases in magmas?

a.       water vapor and oxygen

b.      water vapor and carbon dioxide

c.       hydrogen and methane

d.      methane and helium

e.       carbon dioxide and oxygen

 

ANSWER: b

 

8.   Which of the two main volcanic gases is heavier than air, collects in low areas, and can asphyxiate people or animals if it is in high concentrations?

a.       water vapor

b.      hydrogen

c.       carbon dioxide

d.      ethane

e.       helium

 

ANSWER: c

 

9.         What can cause water to separate from a water-bearing basaltic magma to drive an eruption?

a.       Injection of dry rhyolite magma into the basalt magma chamber from below can cause water to separate.

b.      A decrease in pressure as the magma rises can cause water to separate.

c.       Water streaming up into the magma chamber from the Earths mantle can cause this.

d.      Once water gets into a basalt magma, it cant separate.

e.       Basalt magmas only erupt as lava flows; water is irrelevant.

 

ANSWER: b

10. If a bulge grows steep enough, it may collapse. Explain how this can trigger an explosive eruption.

a.       It removes the cover over the magma, so it can escape.

b.      It slices through some of the gas bubbles, making them pop.

c.       It doesnt trigger an explosive eruption; it does, however, create a devastating landslide.

d.      The friction of the landslide heats that part of the magma, so the dissolved water flashes into steam.

e.       It decreases pressure on gases dissolved in the magma, permitting them to expand.

 

ANSWER: e

 

11. Which of the following locations five kilometers from the crater of a volcano would likely be safe from a large pyroclastic flow, if any?

a.   far side of a steep-sided, 100-meter-high hill

b.   far side of a five-kilometer-wide lake

c.   behind a large tree with an 80-centimeter-diameter (2 feet) trunk

d.   None of the locations are safe: ash flows can flow over large hills, can cross large expanses of water, and can fell very large trees.

e.   All of the locations are safe: ash flows cannot flow over large hills, cannot cross large expanses of water, and cannot topple very large trees.

 

ANSWER: d

12. If you see an extremely large volcano with very gentle slopes, what kind of a volcano is it and what rock is it likely made of?

a.       a stratovolcano made of andesite

b.      a stratovolcano made of basalt lava flows

c.       a stratovolcano made of rhyolite lava flows

d.      a shield volcano made of basalt lava flows

e.       a cinder cone made of basalt

 

ANSWER: d

 

13. If you see a large, steep-sided volcano in the distance, what type of volcano is it and what is the rock composition?

a.       a stratovolcano made of andesite lava flows and ash

b.      a stratovolcano made of rhyolite lava flows

c.       a stratovolcano made of basalt lava flows

d.      a shield volcano made of andesite ash

e.       a shield volcano made of rhyolite lava flows

 

ANSWER: a

 

 

14. If you see in the distance a small, steep, smooth-sided volcano, what type of volcano is it and what is it likely made of?

a.       a stratovolcano made of andesite lava flows and ash

b.      a stratovolcano made of rhyolite lava flows

c.       a stratovolcano made of basalt lava flows

d.      a shield volcano made of andesite ash

e.       a cinder cone made of basalt fragments

 

ANSWER: e

 

15. Why do shield volcanoes have very gently sloping sides?

a.       Their andesite composition produces huge ash flows that spread over a large area.

b.      Their andesite and rhyolite have low viscosity because of their water content, and spread over a low slope.

c.       Their basalt flows have low viscosity, so the lava solidifies as gentle slopes.

d.      Their basalt ash spreads out widely in the strong winds over the open ocean.

e.       Their basalt magmas blow out violently from all of their pent up steam.

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. Highly explosive magmas are controlled by which of the following?
  2. high magnesium content and high water

b.      high silica content and high water

  1. low silica content and high water
  2. high silica content and low water
  3. high iron content and low water

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. What is magma that is forcefully ejected into the atmosphere as particles?
  2. lava
  3. pahoehoe
  4. plutonic
  5. pyroclastic
  1. lahar

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. Eruptions dominated by basalt compositions are found where?
  2. along convergent margins involving oceanic and continental crust
  3. along divergent boundaries at mid-oceanic ridges
  4. over continental hotspots
  5. between plates along transform boundaries
  6. along convergent margins involving oceanic crust

 

ANSWER: b

  1. Which of the following statements about volatiles is true?
  2. Carbon dioxide is the most abundant gas in volcanoes.
  3. Magmas that contain little water erupt violently.
  4. Water content determines the violence of a volcanic eruption.
  5. Water exposed to high temperatures of magma becomes a solid.
  6. Basaltic magmas have the highest volatile content.

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. Which of the following statements about basalt is NOT true?
  2. Basalt is at the more fluid end of the spectrum.
  3. Basalt, like most dark magmas, has a high amount of silica.
  4. Basalt has low viscosity.
  5. Basalt has a black/brownish-black color.
  6. Basaltic magmas have the highest volatile content.

 

ANSWER: b

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

1.      About how far can a pyroclastic flow travel?

ANSWER: Up to 20 kilometers.

2.      What are the two most abundant gases in magmas?

ANSWER: Water vapor and carbon dioxide.

3.      Which common volcanic gases are poisonous? Name two.

ANSWER: Carbon dioxide in high concentrations and sulfur oxides (or hydrogen sulfide).

4.      What two main influences on a water-bearing basaltic magma can cause water to separate from a magma to drive an eruption?

ANSWER: Decrease in pressure and crystallization.

5.      What two main factors dictate that an erupting magma will be explosive?

ANSWER: High water content, high viscosity.

6.      If a bulge grows steep enough, it may collapse. Explain how this can trigger an explosive eruption.

ANSWER: Collapse of a bulge decreases pressure on gases dissolved in the magma, which permits them to separate from the magma, expand rapidly, and drive the explosive eruption.

7.      A large, steep-sided volcano is likely made of what composition of rock? In what form was the rock erupted? What type of volcano is it?

ANSWER: Andesite lava flows and ash; a stratovolcano.

8.      Why do landslides sometimes trigger explosive eruptions?

ANSWER: Removal of load by landsliding decreases pressure on gases in the magma and permits them to expand explosively.

9.      How does lava differ from magma?

ANSWER: Lava is magma that erupts onto the Earths surface.

  1. What property(s) of magma determine the magnitude of an eruption?

ANSWER: Volume.

 

CRITICAL THINKING ESSAY QUESTIONS

1.      What are the main distinctions between basalt and rhyolite? Compare them based on color, silica content, relative viscosity, relative explosiveness, and the most abundant gas in each.

ANSWER:

                                                                                                Basalt                                      Rhyolite

Color:                                                                               Black or dark              White or pale colors

Silica percent:                                                        50 percent                               70 percent

Viscosity (relative):                                   Low                                         High

How explosive (relative):              Not very                                  Very

Most abundant gas:                                   Carbon dioxide           Water (or steam)

  1. List the styles of explosive eruptions, and give a brief explanation of two of them.

ANSWER: Phreatic: violent steam-driven explosions generated by vaporization of shallow water in the ground.

Phreatomagmatic: when magma incorporates groundwater.

Strombolian: fluid nature of magma; mild eruptions; magma interacts with groundwater or seawater; steam bubbles in magma blow it into cinders and bomb-size blocks that fall around the vent and tumble down steep slopes to form a cinder cone.

Vulcanian: highly viscous; andesitic magmas rich in gas; dark eruption.

Pelan: ash columns that collapse to form incandescent pyroclastic flows.

Plinian: powerful, continuous blasts of gas that carry huge volumes of pumice high into the atmosphere; can be catastrophic for a nearby population.

 

  1. List and describe the types of tectonic environments where volcanic eruptions take place.

ANSWER: Spreading zones: spreading of oceanic plates erupts basaltic lava flow.

Subduction zones: oceanic lithosphere slides under the continental crust; most spectacular and violent eruptions.

Hotspots: grow within tectonic plates at random locations.

  1. Why were the predictions and mitigation of the hazards for the eruption at Mount Pinatubo so successful? What types of strategies did authorities use to evacuate people?

ANSWER: They were successful because they provided ample warning, the geologists correctly anticipated most of the events, local officials efficiently managed evacuations, and local people cooperated. The authorities tried to educate people and evacuate them.

  1. If you had to choose between enduring a Strombolian eruption and a Vulcanian eruption, which would you choose and why?

ANSWER: Even though steam bubbles in the magma create blocks and cinders, a Strombolian eruption is generally mild compared to a Vulcanian eruption. Vulcanian eruptions are characterized by highly viscous magma, ash falls, pyroclastic flows, and lateral-blast eruptions.

 

 

 

 

 

Chapter 7

VOLCANOES: HAZARDS AND MITIGATION

 

MULTIPLE-CHOICE QUESTIONS

  1. A big bulge sometimes slowly grows on the flank of an active Cascades volcano. Why?

a.       Thick lava flows pile up around the vent.

b.      A huge gas bubble released from the magma inflates it.

c.       The magma reacts with snow on the volcano, causing magma inflation.

d.      The hot magma melts older ash, causing it to expand.

e.       Rising magma is pushing it up.

 

ANSWER: e

 

2.   What evidence is NOT used by scientists to decide whether a stratovolcano may be getting ready to erupt?

a.       whether there are changes in the temperatures of volcanoes and erupted steam

b.      whether numerous microearthquakes are occurring

c.       whether a large bulge is growing on the flank of the volcano

d.      whether there is an increase in sulfur oxide gas emissions from the volcano

e.       whether red-hot molten magma is visible when looking down the crater

 

ANSWER: e

 

  1. Which of these is NOT a Cascade volcano of western North America?
  2. Mount St. Helens
  3. Mount Rainier
  4. Mount Vesuvius
  5. Mount Hood
  6. Three Sisters

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. What is a surge?
  2. a tremendous earthquake
  3. a type of volcano
  4. a high speed, violent ash-rich shock wave
  5. an underground magma flow
  6. a mixture of hot volcanic ash and steam that rushes down the volcanos slope

 

ANSWER: c

 

 

  1. What is the best way to avoid a mudflow?
  2. Run away from it as fast as you can.
  3. Climb up the valley wall.
  4. Crawl up into a ball.
  5. Jump over it.
  6. Climb a tree.

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. What are harmonic tremors?
  2. a variation of a surge
  3. volcanic eruptions
  4. a type of lava flow
  5. a rare mountain building event
  6. a low-frequency rolling ground movement

 

ANSWER: e

 

  1. What is the smallest amount of volcanic ash on a roof that would commonly cause it to collapse?

a.       no amount of ash would cause collapse; it is too light to be a problem

b.      more than about 3 cm

c.       more than about 20 cm

d.      more than 2 meters

e.   more than 20 meters

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. Following the May 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens, Washington, thousands of trees lay on the ground, all parallel to one another. Why?

a.       A lateral blast at the beginning of the eruption blew them all down.

b.      A big earthquake at the beginning of the eruption shook them down.

c.       Huge mudflows racing downslope flattened them.

d.      A giant landslide from the volcano toppled them.

e.       Thermal winds during the eruption toppled them.

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. If an ash flow approaches you from across a kilometer-wide lake, are you likely to be safe or not? Explain why.

a.       Safe. Hot ash flows would chill and stop as soon as they hit cold water.

b.      Safe. Ash flows move along the ground; they would continue harmlessly underwater.

c.       Safe. Hot ash flows would boil the water, and that would stop them.

d.      Not safe. A fast-moving ash flow would cause a deadly tsunami wave.

e.       Not safe. Ash flows can cross much wider bodies of water.

 

ANSWER: e

10. If an ash flow approaches you from the opposite side of a large hill, are you likely to be safe?

a.       Safe. You are fine being behind a hill; ash flows go down valleys.

b.      Safe. The ash flow would stop at the hill or go around the sides of it.

c.       Safe. You can duck, and it will go over the top of you.

d.      Not safe. If you are close to the volcano, fast-moving ash flows can go over nearby hills.

  1. Not safe. Even well away from the volcano, when the ash flow reaches the top of a hill, it picks up speed going down the far side, and that takes it to the top of the next hill, and so on.

 

ANSWER: d

11. In contrast to an old ash-flow deposit, an old ash-fall tuff does NOT include which of the following?

a.       thin layers

b.      layers that become coarser-grained toward the base

c.       ash that evenly coats hills and valleys

d.      ash that is never welded to black obsidian

e.       differences in thickness based on valleys and hills

 

ANSWER: e

 

  1. Volcanic mudflows are caused when which of the following combine?
  2. rocks and lava
  3. water and dirt
  4. ash and water
  5. ash and lava
  6. lava and dirt

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. What is the term describing the process of gases coming out of solution, when the pressure drops and magma rises?
  2. expire
  3. vog
  4. lahar
  5. exsolve
  6. absorption

 

ANSWER: d

 

 

  1. What is tuff?
  2. ash after deposition forms a rock
  3. ash hardened from ash flow
  4. broken and hardened magma
  5. frothy rock light enough to float
  6. pillow shaped lava fragments

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Where were the first tiltmeters installed in the 1920s?
  2. Mount Vesuvius, Italy
  3. Mount St. Helens
  4. Yellowstone, Wyoming
  5. Kilauea, Hawaii
  6. Santorini, Greece

 

ANSWER: d

 

  1. The first tiltmeters were simple levels made with water tubes __________ long.
  2. 25 feet
  3. 25 yards
  4. 5 meters
  5. 50 meters
  6. 25 meters

 

ANSWER: e

 

  1. According to the text, which of the following is one of the most hazardous volcanic areas in the world?
  2. Campi Flegrei
  3. Mount Vesuvius
  4. Mount St. Helens
  5. Mount Hood
  6. Mount Mazama

 

ANSWER: a

 

  1. Which volcanoes are thought to have been about the same size prior to major eruptions?
  2. Three Sisters
  3. Mount Mazama and Mount Shasta
  4. Mount Mazama and Mount Lassen
  5. Mount Mazama and Mount Hood
  6. Mount Shasta and Mount St. Helens

 

ANSWER: b

 

  1. Three Sisters are located just west of which city?
  2. Redding, California
  3. Portland, Oregon
  4. Bend, Oregon
  5. Cascade, Oregon
  6. Weed, California

 

ANSWER: c

 

  1. Which of the following is the largest, highest, and most spectacular volcano in the main line of the High Cascades?
  2. Mount St. Helens
  3. Mount Hood
  4. Mount Shasta
  5. Mount Rainier
  6. Mount Mazama

 

ANSWER: d

 

SHORT ANSWER QUESTIONS

1.   What signs suggest that a volcano may be getting ready to erupt?

ANSWER: Numerous small earthquakes, harmonic tremors, steam blasts, small ash eruptions, opening fractures, growth of a bulge, burning methane.

  1. Harmonic tremors recorded on seismographs near volcanoes are generally interpreted as __________.

ANSWER: Moving magma.

  1. Why, in some cases, are the gases of an eruption more dangerous than lava flows, debris flows, or ash flows?

ANSWER: Sometimes immense amounts of CO2 are released, which can very quickly suffocate aerobic organisms.

  1. What is paleovolcanology?

ANSWER: It is the interpretation of deposits from prehistoric eruptions and the reconstruction of a record using age dates on plant material charred in past eruptions or dates on the volcanic rocks themselves.

5.   What evidence do scientists use to decide whether a volcano may be getting ready to erupt?

ANSWER: Whether a steam or ash cloud contains shreds of fresh volcanic glass, whether the flank of the volcano is bulging or tilting, whether volcanic gases show an increase in emissions of sulfur compounds or the ratio of sulfur to chlorine, and/or whether the surface temperature of the volcano is increasing.

 

  1. What characteristics of an old ash-fall tuff will permit you to distinguish it from an old ash-flow tuff?

ANSWER: An ash-flow tuff is not thinly layered, and pumice fragments in it generally become coarser upward. Its lower part is commonly cross-bedded. It forms thicker deposits in valleys, and its lower part may show lenses of black obsidian.

  1. What is Wizard Island in Crater Lake?

ANSWER: A new volcano that grew in the floor of the caldera, barely emerging above the surface of the lake.

  1. Why is Mount Shasta considered a major hazard as it currently stands?

ANSWER: It is essentially an enormous pile of loose andesite ash and rubble stacked at a steep angle to a height of 3,000 meters with only a few lava flows holding it together.

  1. What two factors, according to the text, encourage people to settle close to active volcanoes?

ANSWER: Growing populations and great fertility of volcanic soils.

  1. How can you approximate the travel distance and which hills a pyroclastic flow might cross?

ANSWER: By imagining an energy line sloping downward from the top of the gas-thrust zone of the eruption.

 

CRITICAL THINKING ESSAY QUESTIONS

  1. You work at an international airport in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska. Your airport has just canceled all flights for the next 3 days and shut down all flight operations. Explain to angry customers why their flights have been canceled.

ANSWER: Ash from erupting volcanoes can cause serious problems for aircraft because jet engines can freeze up and stall as they enter an ash cloud. Past examples include June 1982 when a Boeing 747 flew into an ash cloud, lost engine power, and fell about 7,000 feet before the crew was able to restart the engines.

  1. Why is paleovolcanology important in predicting future volcanic eruptions?

ANSWER: Geoscientists can learn about and study past patterns of eruption for a certain volcano and then apply that pattern to the future. To do this, they might study deposits near the volcano from previous pyroclastic flows, ash-fall deposits, and mudflows. Also, paleovolcanology can help determine if the volcano is still active.

  1. What are some strategies used to mitigate damage from volcanoes?

ANSWER: Controlling lava flows with barriers and levees and installing warning systems to alert people of mudflows. Even though these systems are in place, they have varying success.

 

  1. Why would a volcanic eruption at Mount Vesuvius pose a huge hazard?

ANSWER: 700,000 people live near Mount Vesuvius, evacuation routes are already taxed beyond capacity on normal days, Mount Vesuvius has a history of pyroclastic flows occurring there, and it is due to erupt anytime.

  1. Describe the process that created Crater Lake and how this differs from what geologists originally thought occurred. What evidence supports this conclusion?

ANSWER: As Mount Mazama erupted, the peak sank into the emptying magma chamber beneath the volcano. Rain and groundwater filled the caldera to make Crater Lake. Originally, scientists believed that Mount Mazama had blown itself to smithereens, which created the caldera. However, they later discovered that there was a lack of old altered volcanic rock in the debris blanket around Crater Lake, which suggests that the material had instead sunk back into the magma chamber.

 

 

Write a review

Your Name:


Your Review: Note: HTML is not translated!

Rating: Bad           Good

Enter the code in the box below:



 

Once the order is placed, the order will be delivered to your email less than 24 hours, mostly within 4 hours. 

If you have questions, you can contact us here