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Chapter 2 Carbohydrates
Answer, K/A, page(s) K = knowledge question; A = application question
T K 34 1. Whenever carbohydrate is available to the body, the human brain depends exclusively on it as an energy source.
F K 36 2. Most food fiber is kcalorie-free.
T A 40 3. A client consumes 2600 kcalories per day and 50 grams of carbohydrate from concentrated sweets. According to the USDA Food Guide recommendations, the clients sugar intake is within the guidelines.
F K 39 4. Experts agree that moderate amounts of sugar in the diet may pose a number of major health risks.
F A 48 5. A client consumes 2000 kcalories per day and 200 grams of carbohydrate. This person meets the current dietary recommendations for carbohydrate intake.
T A 48, 50 6. Cindy consumed 2 servings of vegetables, 2 servings of fruit, 5 servings of whole grains, and 2 servings of legumes during the day. Cindy meets the DV recommendation for fiber for the day.
a K 34 1. The main function of carbohydrates in the body is to:
c K 34 2. Which of the following is a simple carbohydrate?
a K 34 3. The _____ are the basic units of all carbohydrates.
e K 34-35 4. Three monosaccharides important in nutrition are:
d K 34 5. The primary source of energy for the brain and nervous system under normal conditions is:
b K 35 6. The hormone that moves glucose from the blood into the cells is:
d K 35 7. Which of the following does not come exclusively from plants?
a K 35 8. Fructose is:
d K 35 9. Fructose occurs naturally in:
d K 35 10. Which monosaccharide is found most often in nature as a part of a disaccharide?
c K 35 11. Which of the following compounds is a disaccharide?
b K 35 12. All of the following terms are used to describe sucrose except:
b K 35 13. The most familiar source of sucrose is:
d A 35 14. The principle carbohydrate in cakes and cookies is:
a K 35 15. One molecule of sucrose contains _____ molecule(s) of glucose.
d K 35 16. Which of the following is the principal carbohydrate in milk?
b K 35 17. Chemically, lactose is a:
a K 35 18. An example of a polysaccharide is:
b K 35 19. Which of the following carbohydrates is a polysaccharide?
a K 36 20. The stored form of glucose in the body is called:
d K 34, 35 21. Polysaccharides are composed of:
b K 36 22. Excess glucose in the blood is converted into glycogen and stored primarily in the:
b K 36 23. The richest sources of starch are:
b K 36 24. Whole grains, vegetables, legumes, and fruits are rich sources of:
c K 36-37 25. Cellulose, pectin, hemicellulose, and gums are:
d K 37 26. _____ is a fiber found in all vegetables, fruits, and legumes.
b K 36, 37 27. Which of the following fibers is a nonpolysaccharide?
c K 37 28. All of the following fibers are used by the food industry as additives or stabilizers except:
a K 37 29. _____ escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine.
b K 37 30. Fibers are categorized by:
c K 38 31. The sugars in fruits, vegetables, grains, and milk are:
b K 38 32. The steady upward trend in sugar consumption among Americans can be attributed to:
c K 38 33. The leading source of added sugar in the American diet is:
b K 39 34. According to the World Health Organizations recommendations, no more than _____% of daily kcalories should come from added sugars.
c K 40 35. Which of the following statements best describes the role of sugar in the development of obesity?
c K 39 36. Which of the following statements about excessive sugar consumption is true?
b A 43 37. Which of the following ingredients represents a sugar alcohol?
d A 42 38. How many kcalories are provided by 100 grams of carbohydrate?
a K 42 39. Sweeteners that yield energy are called:
A carton of ice cream contains the following list of ingredients: milkfat and nonfat milk, sorbitol, pecans, cellulose, butter, caramel color, citric acid, aspartame, carrageenan.
b A 42-44 40. Refer to Ice Cream. How many alternative sweeteners are contained in this product?
a A 44 41. Refer to Ice Cream. How many artificial sweeteners are contained in the product?
a K 45 42. The artificial sweetener sucralose is made from:
a K 45 43. The artificial sweetener that is similar in structure to fructose is:
b A 37, 46 44. Which of the following foods would you recommend to someone interested in lowering his or her blood cholesterol level?
b K 46 45. Soluble fiber can help reduce blood cholesterol levels by:
d K 46-47 46. Which of the following statements is not true regarding the health benefits of fiber?
a K 46 47. The _____ describes the effect a food has on blood glucose levels.
b K 48 48. Soluble fibers are found in:
a K 46, 48 49. Which of the following is the most effective at alleviating constipation?
c K 48 50. Carbohydrate should contribute approximately _____% of the total daily energy intake.
a A 48 51. A 2000-kcalorie diet that provides 175 grams of carbohydrate provides:
c K 48 52. The Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fiber is approximately _____ grams per day.
b K 49-50 53. Grains, legumes, and root vegetables contain predominantly:
b A 49-50 54. Foods richest in carbohydrates are:
c A 50-51 55. Which of the following groups contains the least carbohydrate?
a A 49-51 56. Jeff consumed the following foods for a meal: small baked potato, cup of carrots, 1 cup skim milk, and 1 small banana. Approximately how many grams of carbohydrate did Jeff consume?
c K 39-40 57. A valid concern about excessive sugar consumption is:
a K 39-40 58. High-fructose corn syrup is composed of:
a K 40 59. Which of the following is the equivalent of 1 teaspoon of white sugar?
c K 44 60. Aspartame is made from:
b K 49 61. The World Health Organization set an upper limit for fiber intake at _____ grams per day.
Nutrition in Practice The Glycemic Index in Nutrition Practice
a K 55 62. The glycemic index ranks carbohydrate foods based on their effect on:
a K 55 63. The glycemic index of a food can be measured by comparing the increase in ones blood glucose levels after consuming a carbohydrate to that caused by a reference food such as:
d A 56 64. Which of the following breakfast foods has the lowest glycemic index?
d K 55-56 65. Factors that influence the GI value of a food include all of the following except the
c K 55, 57 66. People with _____ may benefit from limiting their intake of high-GI foods.
a K 57 67. Which of the following statements most accurately reflects current recommendations about the glycemic index?
|h||43||1. ADI||a. a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to high blood glucose; promotes cellular glucose uptake.
b. a hormone that is secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to low blood glucose concentration; elicits release of glucose from storage.
c. a measure of the extent to which a food raises the blood glucose concentration and elicits an insulin response, as compared with pure glucose.
d. the more common type of diabetes in which the fat cells resist insulin.
e. indigestible food components that readily dissolve in water and often impart gummy or gel-like characteristics to foods.
f. having a gel-like consistency.
g. the tough, fibrous structures of fruits, vegetables, and grains; indigestible food components that do not dissolve in water.
h. the amount of an artificial sweetener that individuals can safely consume each day over the course of a lifetime without adverse effect.
|c||46, 47||3. glycemic response|
|g||37||4. insoluble fibers|
|e||37||6. soluble fibers|
|d||47||7. type 2 diabetes|
34 1. Of all the possible alternatives, why is carbohydrate the preferred energy source?
40-41 2. How would you respond to the statement that honey is more nutritious than white sugar?
43-45 3. Compare and contrast the 6 FDA-approved artificial sweeteners.
47 4. Describe how fiber-rich foods help with weight control.
47-48 5. Discuss the harmful effects of excessive fiber intake.
51 6. Given the nutrient information on food labels, how could you determine the number of grams of starch in a food product?
38 7. Differentiate between added sugars and naturally occurring sugars.
39-40 8. Does high-fructose corn syrup contribute to obesity more than other types of sugar? Explain your answer.
Chapter 12 Nutrition Through the Life Span:
Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence
Answer, K/A, page(s) K = knowledge question; A = application question
T K 318 1. Breast milk or infant formula normally provides enough water to replace fluid losses in healthy infants.
T K 320 2. There are factors in breast milk that protect the infant against infection.
T K 326 3. A childs appetite begins to diminish around the first birthday.
F K 331 4. A childs brain is not affected by iron deficiency until a blood deficit of this mineral develops.
T K 330 5. Children who eat nutritious breakfasts function better in school than their peers who do not.
F K 333 6. Allergic reactions to multiple foods are common, while reactions to single foods are the exception.
T K 334 7. Childrens food aversions may be the result of natures efforts to protect them from allergic or other adverse reactions.
T K 336 8. Children who spend more than one to two hours daily watching television or other media can become obese even while consuming fewer kcalories than more active children.
T K 339 9. Children forced to try new foods are less likely to try those foods again than are children who are left to decide for themselves.
F K 339 10. The more often a food is presented to a young child, the less likely the child will like that food.
T K 342 11. The problem of obesity is most evident in African American females and in Hispanic children.
T K 342 12. Teenage boys experience a more intense growth spurt and develop more lean body mass than girls do.
Nutrition in Practice Childhood Obesity and the Early Development of Chronic Diseases
T K 351 13. Restricting dietary sodium causes an immediate drop in most childrens and adolescents blood pressure.
T K 352 14. Recommendations limiting fat and cholesterol are not intended for infants or children under two years of age.
T K 353 15. Adult heart disease is a major pediatric problem.
b K 317 1. An infant weighing 7 pounds at birth would normally weigh about _____ pounds at five months of age.
a K 317 2. During what period are kcalorie needs per unit of body weight the highest?
b A 317 3. An infant who weighs 8 pounds will require about _____ kcalories per day.
a K 319 4. Most standard infant formulas are fortified with:
b K 319 5. With the possible exception of _____, the vitamin content of the breast milk of a well-nourished mother is ample.
d K 320 6. The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends a supplement of _____ for all infants who are exclusively breastfed in the first six months of life.
b K 319-320 7. Characteristics of breast milk include all of the following except:
d K 320 8. Infants are given a single dose of vitamin _____ at birth.
d K 320-321 9. Advantages to breastfeeding include all of the following except:
c K 321 10. The only acceptable alternative to breast milk is:
d K 321 11. Which of the following should be used to feed an infant under one year of age who is being weaned from breast milk?
b K 322 12. Which of the following is considered a risk of formula feeding an infant?
d K 322 13. Children one to two years of age should drink _____ milk.
c K 323 14. A good age to introduce solid foods to infants is:
d K 323 15. All of the following are considerations in deciding when to add solid foods to the diet of an infant except:
b K 323 16. The two nutrients needed early by infants and provided by the introduction of solid foods are:
d K 324 17. Excessive consumption of fruit juice in infants and young children can lead to all of the following except:
d K 324 18. Which of the following cereals causes allergy least often?
b K 324-325 19. All of the following foods should be omitted from a babys diet except:
b K 325 20. _____ develops when excessive milk intake displaces iron-rich foods in the diet of a young child.
a A 325 21. An important aspect of infant feeding is the prevention of future health problems. An appropriate measure is:
c A 326 22. Nancy consumes fewer kcalories at 14 months than she did at 11 months. This change in appetite probably indicates that she is:
c K 327 23. Research studies conducted on preschool childrens food intakes have shown that:
a K 327 24. Which of the following statements accurately describes the energy needs of a child?
c K 327 25. Vegan diets must be planned carefully for children, because otherwise they may not provide enough:
a K 327 26. A one-year-old child needs about _____ kcalories a day.
a A 325, 328 27. A child who drinks a lot of milk and wont consume much else is likely to show signs of:
c K 328 28. To prevent iron deficiency, a child needs _____ mg of iron per day.
d A 328 29. Among the following, the foods that help most to meet childrens iron requirements are:
c A 328 30. Which of the following foods would provide a child with a rich source of iron?
b K 328, 329 31. According to MyPyramid for Preschoolers and Kids, how many cups of milk or milk products are needed daily for a 2-5 year old child?
a K 330 32. Which of the following is likely to occur if candy, cola, and other concentrated sweets are permitted in large quantities during the growing years?
c K 330 33. Which of the following statements is not true?
c A 330, 339 34. The easiest and most practical way to control the amount of candy and carbonated drinks a child consumes is to:
a K 330 35. How many ounces from the meat and beans group are needed daily to meet nutrient needs for a child who needs 1000 kcal/day?
d K 330 36. One of the most significant effects of long-term hunger on children is:
b K 331 37. Nutrient deficiencies during childhood:
d K 330-331 38. Children who skip breakfast exhibit all of the following characteristics except:
c K 331 39. The best known and most widespread effects of iron-deficiency anemia are its impacts on:
d K 331 40. A child with any of several nutrient deficiencies may be described in all of these ways except:
b A 332 41. To prevent a childs exposure to lead, you would do all of the following except:
a K 332 42. When a food protein enters the body and causes an immunologic response, this causes:
a K 333 43. Which of the following foods is most likely to cause anaphylactic shock?
b K 333 44. All of these foods are likely to cause allergic reactions except:
d K 334 45. Which of the following statements is true regarding hyperactivity?
b K 335 46. Based on data from the BMI-for-age growth charts, children and adolescents are categorized as overweight when their weight is above the _____ percentile.
d A 335 47. Logan is 14 years old and has a BMI in the 85th percentile. His mothers BMI is 23 and his fathers BMI is 32. Logans chance of becoming an obese adult is:
b K 335 48. Which of the following statements regarding childrens food intake and health status is true?
c K 336 49. As a strategy to help prevent childhood obesity, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that children be limited to _____ of television and video time per day.
d K 336 50. Which of the following statements about children and television viewing is not true?
b K 336 51. A leading cause of pediatric hypertension is:
b K 337 52. The Expert Committee of the American Medical Association recommends healthy habits for children and adolescents to prevent obesity. Which of the following is not one of those recommendations?
d K 336-337 53. Which of the following is not a recommended approach for the treatment of childhood obesity?
a K 338 54. Which obese teenager would be considered a candidate for bariatric surgery?
c K 339 55. Children are more likely to eat vegetables when they are:
a K 339 56. Power struggles over food arise when:
b A 338 57. Because the interactions between parents and children can set the stage for lifelong attitudes and habits, wise parents:
a A 339 58. Positive eating habits for a young child can be promoted by:
a K 339 59. Children should not be allowed to eat while running because:
c K 340 60. The majority of children who eat school breakfast are:
b K 341 61. All of the following factors undermine the efforts of the National School Lunch Program to serve nutritious foods at school except:
a A 342 62. The adolescent growth spurt:
a A 342-343 63. Nutrients
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