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1. Water is a vital element for the human body. What is one of its functions?
A) Serves as an emulsifier for vitamins and glucose
B) Aids in digestion and absorption
C) Makes cell walls without shape and structure
D) Provides energy
2. The production of pale yellow urine is assumed to be a reliable indicator of adequate fluid intake. However, in some populations the sensation of thirst comes after significant fluid loss. In which population is this a factor?
B) Middle-aged adults
C) The elderly
D) The obese
3. Several conditions increase the loss of fluid from the body. What is one of them?
B) Strenuous exercise
C) Congestive heart failure
D) Controlled diabetes
4. You are admitting a healthy 35-year-old woman to the outpatient surgery department for the removal of a plantar wart. She consumes approximately 2,000 cal/day. What is her recommended intake of water?
A) 1,000 mL of fluid per day
B) 1,500 mL of fluid per day
C) 2,000 to 3,000 mL of fluid per day
D) 3,000 to 4,000 mL of fluid per day
5. Bottled water is high on the list of purchases made by American consumers. What might children who drink bottled water need?
A) Chlorine supplement
B) Magnesium supplement
C) Iron supplement
D) Fluoride supplement
6. Your nutrition class is learning about minerals. What is a characteristic of minerals that you would want your class to know?
A) Minerals are easily destroyed by light, air, heat, and acids.
B) Minerals are digested primarily in the small intestine.
C) Minerals originate from the earths crust.
D) Minerals are broken down and rearranged during metabolism.
7. Mineral toxicities can occur for various reasons. What is one of those reasons?
A) Unbalanced choice of foods
B) Excessive use of mineral supplements
C) Normal body metabolism
D) Home-processed foods
8. Maintaining homeostasis is a function of the body. Which statement is true regarding homeostasis and minerals?
A) For some minerals, the body maintains homeostasis by altering the mineral absorbed.
B) For some minerals, the body maintains homeostasis by altering the mineral excreted.
C) For some minerals, the body maintains homeostasis by releasing minerals from storage for redistribution.
D) For some minerals, the body maintains homeostasis by using one mineral in place of another.
9. Sodium is the major extracellular cation in the body. What is one of its functions?
A) Cardiac stability
B) Muscular stability
C) Immune system functioning
D) Nerve impulse transmission
10. While teaching your nutrition class, you discuss the largest source of sodium in the typical American diet. What is it?
A) Salt added during cooking
B) Salt added at the table
C) Foods naturally high in salt
D) Processed foods
11. You are doing patient education with a group of newly diagnosed hypertensive patients. While discussing sodium and its actions in the body, you teach your class that a healthy body maintains sodium balance by adjusting the amount of sodium:
B) Excreted in the urine
C) Excreted in the feces
D) Deposited on bones
12. Many people throughout the world are practicing vegetarians. Their diet is rich in fruits and vegetables so it is also likely to be rich in:
13. You are teaching a high-school health class and your subject for today is calcium. What would you teach your students to eat to promote the absorption of calcium?
14. You teach your high-school health class the benefit of drinking milk because you know that a chronically low intake of calcium does what?
A) Causes low blood calcium levels
B) Compromises bone integrity
C) Causes tetany
D) Impairs protein synthesis
15. Your health class asks what mineral is most abundant in the body. What would the correct response be?
16. Normally about 60% of natural phosphorus from food sources is absorbed, but absorption of phosphorus from food preservatives (e.g., phosphoric acid) is almost 100%. Phosphorus deficiency is not a problem in the United States because of what?
A) Phosphorus is added to foods because there are few good natural sources.
B) Phosphorus is pervasive in the food supply.
C) Phosphorus is found only in animal products.
D) Phosphorus is found only in plant products.
17. You are teaching a nutrition class at the local high school. Your subject for today is calcium. What is a good source of dietary calcium to teach your class?
A) Fortified orange juice
B) Organ meats
C) Egg yolks
18. What is an essential component of thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)?
19. Antioxidants disarm free radicals produced during normal oxygen metabolism. Which mineral is a component of an enzyme that acts as an antioxidant?
20. What is the upper limit (UL) set for adults for sodium adequate intake (AI)?
A) 1,700 mg
B) 2,300 mg
C) 2,500 mg
D) 3,000 mg
21. Water is vital to the human body and needs to be consumed daily. As vital as water is, most people get most of their fluid intake by ingesting other beverages. What value might the other beverages have?
A) They are more beneficial to the body than water.
B) They are complete sources of fluids for the body.
C) They provide no beneficial caloric intake to the body.
D) They may provide phytochemicals to the body.
22. When preparing food, you must be cognizant that vitamins and minerals differ in that minerals are what?
A) Not destroyed by heat and light
B) Are destroyed by heat and light
C) Released from foods only by cooking
D) Need to be supplemented in the diet because they are destroyed by cooking
23. Trace minerals in the body, though small in quantity, play large roles in its functioning. Trace minerals have been hard to study because of what factor?
A) Food composition data are not necessary for all trace minerals.
B) Bioavailability varies within the context of the total diet.
C) The comparability of trace mineral content of foods is high.
D) Reliable and valid indicators of trace element status are readily available.
24. Copper is used by the body in hemoglobin synthesis, collagen formation, wound healing, and maintenance of nerve fibers. What mineral has the potential to cause a deficiency of copper in the body?
25. You are admitting a client onto your unit with a diagnosis of manganese toxicity. What symptoms would you expect to see in this client?
C) Unaltered gait
26. Children sometimes get mottled tooth enamel because they ingest more fluoride than is recommended while their teeth are forming. What causes this?
A) Fluoridated toothpaste
B) Fluoride supplements
C) Drinking water
D) Fluoride in foods
27. What mineral is the major anion in the extracellular fluid?
28. Magnesium deficiency is a potential nutritional problem in the United States. What is the cause of this potential problem?
A) Low intake of milk and dairy products
B) Not eating enough citrus fruits in our diet
C) Not drinking enough enriched orange juice
D) The use of refined grains over whole grains
29. You are caring for a client with a severe protein deficiency. What other deficiency would you expect to find in this client?
30. What trace element is an essential component of vitamin B12?
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