Nutrition and Diet Therapy 11th Edition Ruth Roth Test bank

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Nutrition and Diet Therapy 11th Edition Ruth Roth Test bank

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CHAPTER 10: FOODBORNE ILLNESSES AND ALLERGIES

MULTIPLE CHOICE

1. Another name for a disease-causing agent is ____.
a.
pathogen
c.
antigen
b.
antibody
d.
invader

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: A TOP: Introduction

2. Which bacteria is found in ready-to-eat foods such as hot dogs and luncheon meat?
a.
Cryptosporidium
c.
Clostridium perfringens
b.
Escherichia coli
d.
Listeria monocytogenes

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

3. Which organism can be transmitted via contaminated water, unpasteurized milk, or raw ground beef products?
a.
Cyclospora cayetanensis
c.
Clostridium perfringens
b.
Escherichia coli (E. coli)
d.
Listeria monocytogenes

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

4. What is the most effective way to control E. coli?
a.
store foods below 40F
c.
keep foods above 140F
b.
cook ground beef to 160F
d.
keep foods below 0F

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

5. Which bacteria can be found in milk?
a.
Salmonella
c.
Shigella
b.
Listeria monocytogenes
d.
Staphylococcus aureus

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

6. What is the most common microorganism found in seafood?
a.
Salmonella
c.
Shigella
b.
Listeria monocytogenes
d.
Staphylococcus aureus

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

7. Which microorganism produces toxins?
a.
Staphylococcus aureus
c.
Salmonella
b.
Shigella
d.
Escherichia coli

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

8. Which temperature range inhibits the growth of bacteria?
a.
above 140F or below 40F
c.
above 165F
b.
between 40 and 140F
d.
below 165F

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Prevention of Foodborne Illnesses

9. What substance in molds has the ability to cause cancer?
a.
spores
c.
aflatoxins
b.
toxins
d.
mycotoxins

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Other Substances That Cause Food Poisoning

10. How should beef be cooked to be rid of all parasites?
a.
cook to 160F
c.
cook to 170F
b.
freeze below 40F
d.
keep internal temperature to 140F

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Cooking temperatures chart

11. What disease is caused by protozoa?
a.
cancer
c.
rickets
b.
diabetes
d.
dysentery

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Other Substances That Cause Food Poisoning

12. Cross-contamination occurs ____.
a.
when two microorganisms are ingested together
b.
when two or more pathogens are produced from a microorganism
c.
when noninfected food is prepared with equipment that has been used to prepare infected foods
d.
All of the above are examples of cross-contamination.

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: C
TOP: Prevention of Foodborne Illnesses

13. What is the generalized term for a substance that causes hypersensitivity?
a.
pollen
c.
urticaria
b.
allergen
d.
pathogen

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: A TOP: Food Allergies

14. Which type of food poisoning can affect the mucous membrane in the digestive tract?
a.
neurotoxin
c.
bacteria
b.
pathogen
d.
enterotoxin

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Introduction

15. Which bacteria are destroyed by boiling for 10 minutes?
a.
Clostridium perfringens
c.
Clostridium botulinum
b.
Campylobacter jejuni
d.
Listeria monocytogenes

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: B
TOP: Prevention of Foodborne Illnesses

16. Which bacteria can cause hemorrhagic colitis?
a.
Clostridium perfringens
c.
Clostridium botulinum
b.
Campylobacter jejuni
d.
Escherichia coli

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

17. Which bacteria can be found in the intestinal tract of humans and can be avoided by good hygiene of food handlers?
a.
Salmonella
c.
Shigella
b.
Campylobacter jejuni
d.
Listeria monocytogenes

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

18. Which microorganism can be found on human skin and in infected cuts and pimples?
a.
Staphylococcus aureus
c.
Clostridium botulinum
b.
Campylobacter jejuni
d.
Salmonella

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

19. A(n) ____ is an altered reaction of the tissues of some individuals to substances that are usually harmless to other individuals.
a.
allergen
c.
toxin
b.
allergy
d.
insecticide

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Food Allergies

20. Food-related illnesses caused by Clostridium perfringens can be prevented by ____.
a.
thoroughly washing fruits and vegetables
b.
pasteurization of milk
c.
ensuring that meat and poultry are thoroughly cooked
d.
keeping hot foods at or above 140F

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: B
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

21. Which of the following could cause typhoid fever?
a.
Salmonella
c.
Shigella
b.
Listeria monocytogenes
d.
Staphylococcus aureus

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

22. Food poisoning caused by spores is the rarest and the most deadly of all food poisonings. Which of the following explains this?
a.
Spores have a thick protective shell that allows them to survive in unfavorable conditions.
b.
Spores are resistant to all antibiotics.
c.
The symptoms occur within 30 minutes of ingestion of the food with spores.
d.
Spores are double cells. This allows one cell to escape when the spore is attacked.

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: B
TOP: Other Substances That Cause Food Poisoning

23. Which of the following bacteria is believed to be one of the most prevalent causes of diarrhea?
a.
Campylobacter jejuni
c.
Listeria monocytogenes
b.
Clostridium botulinum
d.
all of the above

ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

24. Which bacteria is called the cafeteria or buffet germ?
a.
Cyclospora cayetanensis
c.
Campylobacter jejuni
b.
Clostridium perfringens
d.
none of the above

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

25. Which population groups are most susceptible to listeria monocytogenes?
a.
Pregnant women
c.
immunosuppressed patients
b.
Elderly
d.
all of the above

ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

26. Symptoms of salmonellosis typically begin from ______ ______ hours after eating.
a.
12
c.
648
b.
1272
d.
1236

ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: A
TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness

27. Food poisoning can result from ingesting ______________.
a.
cleaning agents
c.
both a and b
b.
insecticides
d.
none of the above

ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: C
TOP: Other Substances That Cause Food Poisoning

SHORT ANSWER

1. State the goal of the elimination diet and describe the process.

ANS:
Goal: To define the offending foods of the clients allergies. Goal: To enable the client to lead a healthy, normal life, within the limitations of food allergies. For one to two weeks, the client does not eat any of the positively reacted foods. Once the allergic symptoms have subsided, the other foods are added back to the diet at a rate of one every four to seven days. The foods most likely to be allergens are added last, until an allergic reaction occurs. This enables the allergen to be specifically pinpointed.

PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Food Allergies

2. Compare and contrast Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens. Include source, signs and symptoms, prevention, and prognosis.

ANS:
C. botulinum: found in/on soil, water, plants, and intestinal tracts of animals and fish; the spores of these bacteria can divide and produce toxin in the absence of oxygen. They can be produced in sealed containers such as cans, jars, and vacuum-packaged foods; signs and symptoms 1836 hours later include double vision, speech difficulties, inability to swallow, and respiratory paralysis; take care with home canning; 10 minutes of boiling destroys toxin; Can be fatal in 510% of cases.
C. perfringens: found in/on food standing on buffets or steam tables for long periods, soil dust, sewage, and intestinal tracts of animals; signs and symptoms begin within 624 hours and include nausea, diarrhea, and inflammation of stomach and intestine; keep hot foods hot (>140), cold foods cold (< 40); bacteria destroyed by cooking; lasts 24 hours with complete recovery unless complicated by other medical conditions. PTS: 1 DIF: C TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness 3. Describe the reason for the resistance of pathogens with spores. ANS: Spores are single cells that have the ability to develop into a new organism. The wall of the spore is thick, protective, heat-resistant, and difficult to penetrate. They must be boiled six hours to destroy the spore, which also destroys the food source. PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness 4. Most foodborne illnesses occur because of the ignorance or carelessness of people who handle the food. List some preventive measures and guidelines towards the same. ANS: Clean food preparation surfaces and equipment. Dishes to hold uncooked meat, poultry, fish, or eggs must be washed before cooked foods are placed on them. Wash hands after blowing nose or using toilet. Wear gloves if small cuts present on the hands. Cover foods and store to prevent dust, insects, and animals from contaminating. Do not use water from unknown sources. Refrigerate foods promptly. Thaw frozen foods in the refrigerator. Test food workers to confirm they are not carriers. Select foods carefully: packages and jars should be sealed properly; cans should not bulge; no mold present; discard food with unusual look or odor. Use only pasteurized milk and dairy products. PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Introduction 5. One substance that causes food poisoning is mold. Describe the allergic reactions to molds, the symptoms, and preventive measures. ANS: The growth of molds results in spores that cause respiratory problems or allergic reactions. Some molds have symptoms that include abdominal pain, vomiting and diarrhea, liver and skin damage, or cancer. Mold should never be eaten or purchased. The green, fuzzy part that is seen with the naked eye contains spores and should never be smelled. PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Other Substances That Cause Food Poisoning 6. List the population groups most likely to become very ill or die from food poisoning. ANS: Young children, pregnant women, the elderly, and those with compromised immune systems are more likely to become very ill or die from food poisoning. PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Introduction MODIFIED TRUE/FALSE 1. An altered reaction to a specific food that does not involve the immune system is called a(n) allergy. _________________________ ANS: F, food intolerance PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Food Allergies 2. Freezing temperatures stop the growth of and prevent the survival of bacteria. _________________________ ANS: F, but may allow PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Prevention of Foodborne Illnesses 3. All allergic reactions to food are always immediate. _________________________ ANS: F, may be immediate, or after several hours have elapsed PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Food Allergies 4. Because there are now more foods that are processed, enriched, or biologically altered, the incidence of food allergies in children has increased to 1015%. _________________________ ANS: F, 68% PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Food Allergies 5. All microorganisms in the environment are harmful. _______________________ ANS: F, Some PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Introduction 6. Contaminated food always looks, smells, or tastes different from non-contaminated. ___________________ ANS: F, rarely PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Introduction 7. It is thought that as many as one in two Americans may experience food-poisoning each year. ________________________ ANS: F, one in six PTS: 1 DIF: B TOP: Introduction 8. The toxin produced by Clostridim botulinum can be produced in sealed containers. __________________ ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: A TOP: Bacteria That Cause Foodborne Illness CASE Ms. Moulette has a 7-year-old son who is in remission with lymphoid leukemia. She brings him to the clinic today with vomiting and diarrhea. It is determined that he has food poisoning. Although Jake does recover readily, his mother is very apprehensive about a reoccurrence. She requests a list of different types of organisms and the symptoms she needs to be alert for, as well as a list of preventive guidelines. 1. Prepare a worksheet for her, stressing that knowledge of pathogenic names will be irrelevant if she adheres to the guidelines for prevention of foodborne illnesses. ANS: The student should make a handout of foodborne illness guidelines and symptoms of which to be aware. The table will be similar to Table 10-1 in the text. PTS: 1 DIF: C TOP: Care Planning Brian, age 12, has food poisoning. His mother describes the buffet-style restaurant they had eaten in the previous night. Brian became ill about two hours after eating. He has severe diarrhea, vomiting that has stopped at present, and a low-grade temperature of 100.2F orally. His cheeks are flushed, skin is hot and dry, skin turgor is fair, and lips are dry and cracked. 2. Devise a nursing care plan for Brian. Include assessment data to observe, nursing diagnosis, goals, and nursing interventions. ANS: Assessment data to observe: general appearance and behavior, poor skin turgor, decreased urinary output, sunken fontanel (in infant), decreased weight, increased pulse and respiration, decreased blood pressure, prolonged capillary refill. Nursing diagnosis: altered nutritionless than body requirements related to diarrhea losses and inadequate intake; fluid volume deficit related to excessive GI losses in stool or emesis. Goals: child will maintain adequate hydration as evidenced by absence of above symptoms; child will maintain appropriate nutrition for age as evidenced by eating and retaining foods; child will not spread the infection to others; the family will receive appropriate support and education, especially home care and prevention. Nursing interventions: administer rehydration liquids, beginning with small amounts and gradually increasing to a regular diet; administer IV fluids as ordered; strict intake and output; weigh daily; assess vital signs, skin turgor, mucous membranes, mental status; discourage intake of carbonated beverages, fruit juices, and gelatin (these are high in carbohydrates, low in electrolytes, and have a high osmosis level); instruct family in providing appropriate therapy, monitoring intake and output, and assessing for signs of dehydration. PTS: 1 DIF: C TOP: Care Planning

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